« السابقةمتابعة »
his wife for a longer time than the period of gestation could possibly extend. #. some of the United States a child born out of wedlock may be legitimated by the subsequent, marriage of its parents, in which case no distinction is made in law between it and children subsequently born to the parents. . . An illegitimate child cannot inherit from its reputed father, but in some states, by statute, ... may, take from the mother if she leaves no legitimate children. Illegitimacy does not affect the civil status of a person otherwise than under the laws of descent and distribution. In England the law is more harsh, .# a child born out of wedlock, whose parents subsequently marry, cannot succeed to real estate. See BASTARD. Legitimists, THE. After the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy in 1830, and the accession of the Orleanist Louis Philippe, a party arose which favored the return of the Bourbons. The revolution of 1848, however, placed Napoleon III. at the head of affairs; but on his fall (1871) the hopes of the Legitimists were raised. The Comte de Chambord, grandson of Charles x., was their head, and they counted upon the support of Marshal McMahon and the reaction against communism; but the comte had not the gifts of a leader, and ruined his chances by obstinacy and want of tact. See Bourbons. Legnago, fort. tr., prov. Verona, Lombardy, Italy, on the Adige, 29 m. E. of Mantua; was one of the four fortresses of the Quadrilateral. Its fortifications were dismantled by Napoleon in 1801, but it was refortified by the Austrians in 1815. Pop. of comm. (1901) 14,529. Legouvé, ERNEST (1807–1903), French dramatist and author, attracted attention by his Histoire Morale des Femmes (1849) and Femme en France au XIX. Siècle (1864), followed by La Science de la Famille (1867) and Messieurs les Enfants (1868). Among his dramatic pieces are Adrienne Lecouvreur (written with Scribe, 1849); Bataille de Dames (also written with Scribe, 1851); Médée (1856); Les deux Reines de France (1865); and La Considération (1880). More works on domestic questions were followed by Soirante Ans de Souvenirs (1886-7). Legros, ALPHONSE (1837), French painter, etcher, and sculptor, born at Dijon. He was naturalized in England, and for seventeen years was Slade professor of art at University College, London, succeeding Poynter in the office. . His paintings are characterized by austerity of style, synthetic treatment, and masterly
draughtsmanship. The Manchester and Tate Galleries have good examples of his art. Legume, the name given to the fruit of plants belonging to the Leguminosae. It consists of a solitary two-valved carpel, bearing its seeds along the ventral suture. It dehisces by dorsal and ventral sutures, or by either. Legum in, or VEGETABLE CASEIN, is an albumin which occurs in the seeds of leguminous plants. It can be coagulated by acids, redissolves in alkalis, and so closely resembles the casein of milk that a kind of cheese is prepared in Japan from an extract containing it obtained from the soy bean. Leguminosae, a natural order of plants containing an enormous number of species, including some of our most beautiful flowering plants, and also some plants of great economic value. The flowers have a five-cleft calyx, and usually five petals, of which the upper one, or standard, is the largest, the two lower ones forming a keel, and the two side ones wings. From their general resemblance to butterflies the flowers are said to be papilionaceous. There are ten stamens, either united so as to form a tube, or arranged in two bundles of nine and one. The pea, bean, vetch, locust, broom, trefoil, and sainfoin are well-known species Legya, or LAIHKA, state in the E. of the Southern Shan states, Burma, consists for the most part of a plateau. It is watered by the Nam Long R., and produces rice, cotton, and sugarcane. Area, 1,433 sq. m. Pop. about 9,000. The capital, Laihka, 129 m. S.E. of Mandalay, manufactures iron and lacquer ware. Leh, th:, Kashmir, India, cap. of Ladakh, is a walled city, 2 m.
from the r. bk. of the Indus,
about 210 m. N. of Simla. The town stands in an open valley, about 11,500 ft. above sea-level. Leh is the starting-point of the caravan routes into the Pamirs and Tibet, and commands the entrances to the several passes to its N. and E. It is the headquarters of a British political officer. Chief export, shawl wool. Pop. about 12,000. Lehe, comm. in the Prussian prov. of Hanover, 2 m. N. of Bremerhaven, with market-gardening, brick-making, saw-milling, and flour-milling. Pop. (1900) 24,301. Lehi, city, Utah co., Utah, on N. shore of Utah L., 30 m. s. of Salt Lake City, on the Rio Grande Western and San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake R. Rs. It has beet sugar industries. Pop. (1900) 2,719. Lehigh River, Pa., rises 2 m.
E. of Wilkesbarre, in Wayne co., flows s.E. to Allentown, thence N.E., joining the Delaware R. at Easton. Its length is 120 m., and it traverses a highly productive iron and coal country. Lehigh University.
sectarian institution at Bethlehem, Pa., established in 1866 by Judge Asa Packer of Mauch Chunk to provide for young men of the Lehigh Valley a complete education for the professions represented in the development of the resources of the surrounding region. In furtherance of this design the university offers courses in civil, mechanical, marine, metallurgical mining, electrical and chemical engineering, electro - metallurgy chemistry, geology, physics, and collateral studies, and ranks high among the technical schools. Provision is also made for literary and classical studies. The university occupies a campus of 115 acres, given by the founder in addition to the sum of $500,000 and bequests of $1,500,000, and $500,000 for the university library. The productive funds in 1905 were $1,000,000, with an income of $133,000. The students then numbered 679, the faculty 59 and the library contained 86,000 vol
unles. Lehighton, bor., Carbon co., Pa., on the Lehigh R. and Canal,
and on the N. J. Cent. and the Lehigh Val. R. Rs., 20 m. N.w.. of Allentown. Its principal industries are pork, packing and the manufacture of stoves, silk, lace, hot water and steam boilers, etc. Limestone, metallic paint, slate, and clay are found in the surrounding district. The borough ssesses the Arvan Public Lirary. It was settled by Moravian missionaries in 1746. Pop. (1900) 4,629. Lehmann, LILLI (1848), German singer, was born at Würzburg, and received her vocal instruction from her mother, who was a celebrated harp player and prima donna. Fräulein Lehmann made her début at Berlin in 1870, and her fine soprano voice brought her an appointment as imperial chamber singer in 1876. Her reputation was enhanced by her singing in the Nibelungen trilogy at Bayreuth, and she sang Wag: nerian parts in London, and became principal soprano in Wagnerian opera at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York. Lehmann, RUDolph (1819– 1905), German painter, born near
Hamburg. After a sojourn in Rome, he settled in London (1866), and speedily became
popular as a portrait painter. Among his best-known pictures, apart from portraits, are Sixtus V. blessing the Pontine Marshes, in the museum at Lille, and Early Leib
Dawn on the Pontine Marshes. He has published An Artist's Reminiscences (1894); Men and Women of the Century (1896). Leib, Mich AEL (1759–1822), American legislator, was born in Philadelphia and practised medicine in that city. After serving in the State legislature he was a Congressman (1799–1807), and a U. S. Senator from Pennsylvania (1809–15), being made postmaster of Philadelphia on the expiration of his term. . With William Duane (q.v.), he fought the bill for the creation of the Louisiana Territory. Leibniz (Leibnitz), GO T TFRIED WILHELM, FREIHERR VON (1646–1716), German philosoher, was born in Leipzig of BoÉia. descent, being the son of a professor of philosophy in the University. He was educated at the Universities of Leipzig and Jena, and received a doctorate in law from the University of Altdorf, where he declined the offer of a professorship. After leaving Nuremberg, he entered the service of the elector and archbishop of Mainz (then the most powerful man in the empire). In 1672 Leibniz went to Paris, where, in the course of a four years' residence, he had much friendly intercourse with Arnauld, Huygens, Malebranche, and other leading mathematicians and philosophers of the time, and made a profound study of mathematics, which ultimately bore fruit in his discovery of the Differential Calculus in 1676 (published 1684). Newton was in possession of a similar method as early as 1665 (published in 1693); and as Leibniz, early in 1673, visited London, where he had many scientific discussions with Oldenburg (secretary of the Royal Society), Robert Boyle, and others, it was for a long time maintained by English scientists that Leibniz plagiarized the great discovery of Newton. There is, however, nothing to confirm this, and it is much more probable that each discovered the method independently. The form which Leibniz gave to the calculus, and the names and the signs which he used, have come to be universally employed in preference to those of Newton. In 1676 Leibniz became librarian to the Duke of Brunswick at Hanover, a post which he held for the remainder of his life. During the Hanover period of his life, Leibniz did most of the work which earned for him the name of ‘the greatest polymathist since Aristotle.' He developed his system of metaphysics, which, however, he did not formally
publish, but indicated in occasional papers for scientific journals and in correspondence with other thinkers. He wrote the one book which was published in his lifetime, the Théodicée, a work of great learning, intended to maintain against the arguments of Bayle (of Dictionary fame) the harmony of faith and reason, and to "vindicate the ways of God to man.' He wrote the Nouveaux Essais sur L'Entendement Humain, a long dialogue in which he discussed Locke's Essay, chapter by chapter. He died unhonored by his contemporaries, and it was only in later times that his greatness came to be fully appreciated. Perhaps the dominant feature of Leibniz's thinking was the effort to incorporate in his philosophy the best elements of earlier thought. He maintained that on the whole the philosophers of the past had been right in what they affirmed, wrong in what they denied. More particularly he endeavored, in his doctrine of substance (his Monadology), to reconcile or combine the principles of the Cartesian philosophy with the Aristotelian tradition of the scholastics. Plato, however, was his favorite philosopher among the ancients, and under Plato's inspiration he endeavored to establish the metaphysical priority of final to mechanical causes in the interpretation of the universe. This is the secret of his doctrine, that the universe is ultimately a system of monads or spiritual automata, each being (in dependence only upon God) the cause of all the phenomena which make up its life, each reflecting ("mirroring"), with more or less clearness, the
whole universe, and all thus agreeing in a ‘pre-established harmony,' which explains the
unity of the world, in spite of the diversity which might seem inevitably to result from the perfect spontaneity of each of the monads, its elements. Against Locke he maintained that ideas are at once innate and, in a sense, a posteriori; and in some of his speculations he anticipated to a certain extent the ideas of Kant. In his Théodicée Leibniz endeavored to explain the evil of the world by the theory that it arises from the inevitable imperfections of creatures in a system which is not absolutely perfect, but which is ‘the best of all possible worlds." The influence of Leibniz upon later thought has been great, and is especially marked in the philosophies of Herbart, Lotze, and Renouvier. Leibniz was also the
first to draw attention to the psychological importance of unconscious or subconscious mental processes; and some of his suggestions on biological and physiological questions have n singularly fruitful. Nearly all the chief sciences or branches of learning owe something to his wide curiosity and his pregnant reflection. B I B L I O GRAPHY.-Editions: Philosophical works: Die Philosophischen Schriften von G. W. Leibniz (7 vols., ed. by Gerhardt); GEuvres Philosophiques (ed. by Janet); Philosophical Works (with notes by Duncan, 1908); La Monadologie (1909, ed. by Lachelier). Mathematical: Leibnizens Mathematische Schriften (7 vols., ed. by Gerhardt). Historical and political: Die Werke von Leibniz (10 vols., ed. by Klopp). Biography and criticism: Lives by Guhrauer, Merz, and Latta; Russell's Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz (1900); Noire's Sketch of the Development of Philosophic Thought (1900); Halbwachs' Leibniz (1907); Koch's Materie undorganismus bei Leibniz (1908); Thé nes' Die Philosophischen Lehrén in Leibnizens Théodicée (1908); Daville's Leibniz Historien (1909); Ruck's Die Leibniz'sche Staatsidee (1909). Leicester (Saxon Legerceastre), borough, Leicestershire, England, on the Soar River, 27 miles south of Nottingham. It is on the site of the Roman Ratae, near the Fosse Way. Several churches are ancient, those of St. Nicholas, with a Norman tower restored in 1905, and St. Mary de Castro (1107) being the oldest. Trinity Hospital (1330), rebuilt in 1901, and Wyggeston's (1513) are richly endowed benevolent institutions. Of the old castle of Leicester, dismantled during the Civil War, nothing remains but the Great Hall, now used for the county assizes. Among Roman relics are the Jewry Wall and fragments of Roman pavements. The city has a new town hall, museum, art gallery, public library, and a technical and art school. In the neighborhood are the ruins of Leicester Abbey, where Cardinal Wolsey died (1530). Leicester is the centre of the hosiery industry of England, and has important manufactures of boots and shoes, elastic web, and agricultural implements. Pop. (1911) 227,242. The city was one of the Danish “Five Burghs," and later formed part of the kingdom of Wessex. It received the body of Richard iii. after the battle of Bosworth Field. In the Civil War it sided Leicester
with Parliament, and was captured (1642) by Prince Rupert. Consult Doering's Studien zur Verfassungsgeschichte von Leicester (1908). Leicester, town, Massachusetts, on the Boston and Albany Railroad, adjoining Worcester on the west. It has manufactures of cards and wool len goods. It is the seat of Leicester Academy, and has a public library of about 14,000 volumes. The town was incorporated in 1713. Pop. (1910) 3,237. Leicester, ROBERT DUDLEY, EARL of (?1532–88), favorite of Queen Elizabeth, was fifth son of the Duke of Northumberland. Introduced to court life at an early age, he was the companion of Edward vi. and Princess Elizabeth, and in 1550 married the ill-fated Amy Robsart (q.v.). On Edward's decease he promoted the claims of his sister-inlaw, Lady Jane Grey, as queen, was brought to trial, but ultimately pardoned. With Elizabeth's accession his influence increased. Of gracious presence, a skilled courtier, and held in high favor by the Queen, he was regarded as her lover. He was created an earl in 1564. Consult Bekker's Elizabeth and Leicester; Leycester's Commonwealth (ed. by Burgoyne, 1904); Richardson's Lover of Queen Elizabeth (1907). Leicestershire, inland county of England, in the Midlands. The surface is varied, valleys and plains alternating with low hills. The principal rivers are the Soar, Wreak, Trent, Avon, and Welland. Cattle and sheep are reared, and the county has long been noted for wool and cheese (Stilton). Oats, wheat, turnips, and mangold are the principal crops. Coal and iron are extensively worked. Manufactures include hosiery (Leicester, Loughborough, Hinckley), boots and shoes, silk plush, elastic web, bricks, and pottery. Mel to n Mowbray, Market Harborough, and Loughborough are famous hunting centres. During the Civil War Leicestershire was the scene of many conflicts. Area, 524, 197 acres; pop. (1911) 476,603. Consult Victoria History of the Counties of England (vol. i., 1907). Leichardt, suburb, 3 miles north of Sydney, New South Wales. Pop. (1909) 23,440. Leich hardt, FRIEDRICH WILHELM LUdwig (1813–?48), Australian explorer, was born in Trebatsch, near Berlin. He went to Australia (1841), commenced inland exploration work in the unknown regions of the continent, and directed an overland route
expedition from Darling Downs to Port Essington. In 1847 he started from Queensland with the intention of crossing Australia from east to west, and was never again heard of. Leiden. See LEYDEN. Leidy, Jos E. P. H. (1823–91), American naturalist, was born in Philadelphia. He was duated at the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania (1844), and became professor of anatomy (1853) and of biology (1882) in that university. He also held a professorship of natural history at Swarthmore from 1871 to 1884, when he resigned to become director of the newly formed Biological School of the Univer
sity of Pennsylvania. He helped
to organize and was t president of the Association of American Anatomists (1888), and was president of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences from 1882 until his death. He received the Cuvier medal of the Paris Academy of Science and the Lyell Medal of the Geological Society of London. A statue of him was unveiled in Philadelphia in 1907. Leidy also made discoveries in palaeontology which were of great value as testimony to the newly formulated doctrine of organic evolution. His books include Cretaceous Reptiles of the United States (1865); Treatise on Human Anatomy (1860); Fresh Water Rhizopods of North America (1879); Researches in Helminthology and Parasitology (1904). Leif Ericson. See ERICSON, LEIF. Leigh, borough, Lancashire, England, 7 miles southeast of Wigan. It has glass works, foundries, and breweries, and manufactures cotton and silk goods and agricultural implements. It is connected by tramway with Liverpool. Pop. (1911) 44,109. Leighton, FREDERIC, BARON LEIGHToN OF STRETTON (1830– 96), English historical painter and sculptor, was born in Scarborough. When fifteen he entered the Royal Academy at Berlin, thereafter proceeding to Brussels, Frankfort, Paris, Florence, and Rome. He was twentyfive when he exhibited his first picture in the Academy (1855), Cimabue's Madonna Carried in Procession through Flore n ce. which created a profound sensation in the art world of London, and which was purchased by Queen Victoria. From that year until his election to the presidency of the Royal Academy (1878), and through his long tenure of that office, his success was unbroken. He was rai
to the peerage (1876), and received many other honors. He died in London, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. Throughout Leighton's art life there was a steadily growing love of classic subjects—i.e., for those subjects which lent themselves to undramatic and decorative treatment, such as his Daphnephoria, Phryne, and The Garden of the Hesperides. No contemporary draughtsman has excelled him in the drawing and painting of complicated drapery, and in all his work there is to be discerned an absorbing love of beauty. The dignified head of a school, his influence on English art is marked. In addition to his oil paintings, he did fine work in sculpture and in black and white. He executed the important frescoes of The Arts of War and Peace in the South Kensington Museum, and of The Wise and Foolish Virgins in St. Michael's Church, Lyndhurst. He is also well represented in the Birmingham and Tate Galleries, and at Leighton House, Kensington, now belonging to the British nation. Among his representative works are Clytemnestra; Helios and Rhodes; Phryne at Eleusis; Rizpah; Cymon and Iphigeneia; Last Watch of Hero; Elijah in the Wilderness. Consult Ruskin's Academy Notes, 1855 and 1875; Lang's ‘Lord Leighton' (in Art Annual, 1884); Ruskin's Art of England; Rhys' Sir Frederic Leighton; Bay liss' Great Painters of the Victorian Era (1902); Corkran's Frederic Leighton (1904); Staley's Lord Leighton of Stretton (1906); Barrington's Life, Letters, and Works of Frederic Leigh ton (1907). Leighton, John (1822), English artist, was born and studied in London. In outline work and design he has shown considerable originality, having interested himself for many years in the technical phases of art and craftsmanship. He is the author, as ‘Luke Limner,’ of Suggestions in Design and Paris under the Commune. He was an original proprietor of the Graphic, and one of the founders of the Ex-Libris Society. Leighton, Robert (1611–84), Scottish prelate, was born, it is supposed, in London. He was educated at Edinburgh and at Douay, France. Returning to Scotland, he was licensed to preach, and ordained to Newbattle (1641), being then an enthusiastic Presbyterian. From Newbattle he went to Edinburgh as principal of the university (1652). On the establishment Leiningen
of Episcopacy in Scotland he accepted the see of Dunblane (1661), from which he was transferred to Glasgow as occupant of the archiepiscopal throne (1669– 74). He published nothing during his lifetime; but several volumes of sermons and lectures, as also his Commentary on St. Peter, were edited by Dr. Fall after his death. There are also later and fuller editions of his works. Consult Butler's Life and Letters of Robert Leighton (1904). Leiningen, a princely house of Germany, dating back to the eleventh century. After the Peace of Luneville (1801) its lands became absorbed in the territories of Baden, Bavaria, and Hesse, and the independence of its princes was lost. Leinster, eastern province of Ireland, extending from Dundalk Bay to Waterford Harbor. Other inlets are Dublin Bay, Wexford Harbor, and Ballyteige Bay. It comprises twelve counties— Louth, Meath, Dublin, Wicklow, and Wexford, on the coast; Kilkenny, Carlow, Kildare, Queen's, King's, Westmeath, and Longford, in land. The principal mountains are the icklow (Lugnaquilla, 3,039 feet) and Slieve Bloom Mountains. The rivers are the Boyne, Liffey, Barrow, and Nore. There are few lakes. Its coal field is the most productive in Ireland. The southern part formed the ancient Irish kingdom of Leinster. Area, 7,619 square miles. Pop. (1911) 1,160,328. Leipa. See BöHMISCH-LEIPA. Leipzig, or LEIPSIC, circle, kingdom of Saxony, borders north and northwest on the Prussian province of Saxony, southwest on the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg. The country is a fertile plain, with only a few mountain ridges in the south and the east. Agriculture and the rearing of cattle flourish; there are also coal mines and granite and porphyry quarries. Area, 1,378 square miles; pop. (1910) 1,232,458. Leipzig, city, capital of the above, 101 miles southwest of Berlin, on the Elster, Pleisse, and Parde Rivers. It is the seat of the Reichsgericht, or Imperial Supreme Court. Notable buildings are the churches of St. Nicholas (1017) and St. Thomas (1222); the University Pauline Church, dedicated by Luther; the Conservatory (1843); the new concert house; the university buildings; the Renaissance town hall; and the new town hall, with the old tower of the Pleissenburg as its nucleus. Auerbach's Keller (cellar) (1530), immortalized Vol. VII.-Oct. '11
in Goethe's Faust, still serves as a restaurant. The city has a Royal Academy of Art, a school of industrial art (1764), a commercial college (1898), a state school for the building trade, the Grassi museum, museums of music and of the book trade, and a municipal library of about 140,000 volumes. The site of the ancient fortifications is a promenade about the old, now the business, portion of the city. Leipzig is the centre of the music and the book trade of Germany, and has an active trade in metals, textiles, paper, furs, pianos, toys, and tobacco. There are important spring and autumn fairs. In 1910 a University Exhibition was held in connection with the celebration of the 500th anniversary of Leipzig University (q.v.). Pop. (1910) 587,635. Leipzig was founded in the eleventh century. It is famous as the scene of two important battles, Breitenfeld (1631), in which Tilly was defeated by Gustavus Adolphus, and Leipzig (1813), which shattered Napoleon's power. The latter is commemorated by a monument outside the city. Consult Kroker's Beiträge zur Geschichte der Stadt Leipzig (1908). Leipzig University, founded in 1409 with the faculty of theology dominant, now has faculties of theology, law, medicine, and philosophy, and veterinary and agricultural schools. The new library contains about 550,000 volumes and 6,000 manuscripts. The university is widely noted for its historical seminaries and is surpassed only by the University of Berlin in the number of foreigners in attendance. It became a state institution in 1830, and in 1909–10 celebrated its 500th anniversary. In 1910– 11 there were 244 professors and teachers and 4,592 students. Consult Binding's Festschrift zur Feier des Fünf hundertjährigen Bestehens der Universität Leipzig (5 vols., 1910). Leish man, John G. A. (1857), American diplomat, was born in Pittsburg, Pa. He became a broker in steel in 1881, then vicepresident of Carnegie Bros. & Co.; and later, president of the Carnegie Steel Co. He was U. S. envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Switzerland from 1897 to 1901, when he was transferred to Turkey. In 1906 his office was raised to the rank of ambassador. In 1909 he was appointed ambassador to Italy, and in August, 1911, he became American ambassador to Germany, succeeding D. J. Hill.
Leisler, JAcob (?–1691), a provisional lieutenant-governor of New York, was born in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. He came to New Amsterdam (1660) as a soldier in the service of the DutchWest India Company; held various offices, and was prominent in the political disturbances in New Amsterdam following the accession of William and Mary, when the democratic element, the Dutch, the Huguenots, and many of the English, opposed the aristocratic adherents of James II. Alarmed at the popular uprising, Lieutenant-Govern: or Nicholson sailed for England and Mayor Bayard and his officials withdrew to Albany. Leisler, by popular demand and by free interpretation of despatches received from William and Mary, assumed the position of lieutenant-governor and commander-inchief, and for a brief period directed the affairs of the colony. In March, 1691, there arrived from England the new governor, Sloughter, to whom, after a struggle, Leisler surrendered. Sloughter arrested Leisler, his son-inlaw, and eight others, confiscated their estates, and, after some delay, condemned Leisler and his son-in-law Milbourne. They were hanged May 16, 1691. Consult Hoffman's Administration of Jacob Leisler (in vol. xiii. of Sparks’ “Library of American Biography,’ 1844); Brodhead's History of the State of New York (1853–71); and vol. ii. of the Documentary History of the State of New York (1849–51); Empire State in Three Centuries (1901); Messages from the Governors of New York State, 1683–1906 (vol. i., 1909). Leith, important seaport, municipality, and parliamentary borough, 2 miles north of Edinburgh, on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth. It is joined to Edinburgh by continuous street lines, the oldest being Leith Walk. Plans for the extension of the harbor works, already having a quayage of over four miles, will make a harbor of 16 acres, 14 feet deep at low tide, at an estimated cost of $1,125,000. There are ship yards, machine shops, flour mills, sugar refineries, breweries, distilleries, and sailcloth and rope factories. The principal imports are grain, flour, sugar, chemicals, esparto, and timber. The exports include coal, iron, petroleum, whiskey, and paper. There is regular steamboat communication with Aberdeen, Hamburg, Antwerp, Rotterdam, Bergen, Copenhagen, and New York. The total tonnage of the port in
1909 was 2,659,259. Pop.(1911) 80,489. Its history is varied: it was twice seized and burned by the Earl of Hertford (1544 and 1547); besieged by the Protestants (1559–60); one of Cromwell's generals held the town in 1650; and the Jacobites seized Leith Fort, and burned the Custom House (1715). The former name was Inverleith. Leitha River, in Austria-Hungary, is formed by the union of the Schwarzau and Pittenau. It flows northeast for 110 miles to join the Danube (q.v.) at Ungarisch-Altenburg, and forms art of the boundary between wer Austria and Hungary. Leitmeritz, town and episcopal see of Bohemia, Austria, at the head of steam navigation on the Elbe River, 34 miles northwest of Prague. It has brewing, malting, brickmaking, iron founding, and printing establishments. There are a mediaeval cathedral and a late Gothic town hall; but the most remarkable building is the Hussite Kelchhaus, with the tower in the shape of a cup. Pop. 15,000. Leit-motif ("guiding theme'), in music, the term applied in some forms of composition to distinctive passages or phrases associated with certain prominent ideas, situations, or characters in the work. Wagner in his musical dramas has carried the idea of the motif to its highest development. Leitrim, maritime county, province Connaught, Ireland, opening on Donegal Bay, and almost cut in two by Lough Allen. The northern part is generally mountainous, with fertile valleys. The southern part is more open and well suited for cultivation. The Shannon enters the county north of Lough Allen, and partly forms the southwestern boundary. Lakes are numerous. Agriculture is the chief industry; fodder crops, oats, and potatoes are cultivated. Coal is worked, and iron and lead occur. The Longford and Sligo Railway and its branch serve the county town, Carrick-on-Shannon. Area, 580 square miles. Pop. (1911) 93,490. Leiva, town, Boyaca, Colombia, South America, about 14 miles northwest of Tunja, with copper, silver, and sulphur mines. Centre for cultivation of vines and olives. Altitude, 6,500 feet. Pop. about 4,500. Leixões, seaport, the lower port of Oporto, Portugal, 3 miles north of mouth of river Douro. Its harbor has an area of 220 acres, with a depth of 50 feet, and admits vessels of over 5,000 tons.
In 1910, 601 ships (tonnage 1,799,653) entered the port, and 599 ships (tonnage 1,794,312) cleared the port. Railroad facilities are being improved. The town is connected with Oporto by tramway. Lek, deltaic arm of the Rhine in the Netherlands, linking the Neder (Lower) Rhine with the Nieuwe (New) Maas. See RHINE. Leland, CHARLEs GODFREY (1824–1903), American author, was born in Philadelphia. He was educated at Princeton and in Germany, and was admitted to the bar (1851). He founded and edited the Continental Magazine (1861). From 1869 he lived mostly in England. He published two important books on the English Gypsies (1875, 1882), but is best known as the author of the diverting Hans Breitmann's Ballads, dialect poems in Pennsylvanian Dutch-English. Consult his Memoirs; Pennell's Life (1906). Leland, John (?1506–52), English antiquary, was born in London. He was appointed chaplain and “king's antiquary' by Henry viii. (1533), with power to search all cathedrals, abbeys, and colleges for records. He devoted six years to the task, arranging a collection of priceless value to antiquarians. He was made canon of King's College and prebend of Salisbury. His papers are in the Bodleian and British Museums. Leland's Itinerary was first published at Oxford in 9 vo s. (1710), and his Collectanea in 6 vols. (1715); new edition by L. T. Smith (2 vols., 1907–8). Consult Huddesford's Life. Leland Stanford Junior University, a coeducational institution at Palo Alto, Cal., founded in 1885 by Leland Stanford and Jane Lathrop Stanford, and named in memory of the ir son. The landed endowment of the university consists of two tracts aggregating 71,000 acres, with various smaller tracts, and the Stanford residence in San Francisco. The buildings, notable for their architecture and reproducing the style of the old California missions, are effectively grouped about an inner and an outer quadrangle. They were badly damaged by the earthquake of 1906, but are being gradually restored. By the terms of the original gift the founders retained full powers in the government of the university, and this led to a period of rsonal friction which resulted in the resignation of a number of the faculty. Mrs. Stanford in 1903 turned over all the powers
to the board of trustees, consisting of fifteen members elected for terms of ten years. Higher degrees are conferred in course, but no honorary degrees are given. The university is organized into several major departments: Greek; Latin; German; Romantic Languages; English; Psychology; Philosophy; Education; History; Economics; Law; Drawing; Mathematics; Physics; Chemistry; Botany; Physiology; Zoology; Entomology; Hygiene; Geology and Mining; three Engineering departments—Civil, Mechanical, and Electrical; Medicine. In 1908 the Cooper Medical College of San Francisco was added to the university, and became the department of medicine. Each student is required to select a department to which he must devote an adequate amount of time. The remainder of his course is elective, but under advice of his principal professor. The requirements for entrance are a certain degree of ability, and serious intention to acquire learning, together with adequate preparatory training, especially in English composition. The tuition is free only to residents of California. The attendance in 1910 was 1,617, of which 605 were women, the faculty numbered 154, and the library contained 140,000 volumes. The endowment represents about $30,000,000 with an income of $860,000, of which about half must be devoted annually for some time to come to restore the buildings destroyed and damaged during the earthquake. Leleges, ancient people who inhabited the isles of the AEgean Sea and the seaboard of Asia Minor from the river Maeander to the borders of Lycia. Lelewel, JoACHIM (1786–1861), Polish historian of German descent, was born and educated at Warsaw. He was professor of history at Vilna, from 1814 to 1824, when he dismissed for taking part in secret insurrectionary movements. A prominent leader in the Polish revolution (1829), he was banished. Lelewel died in Paris. His monumental works on Polish history have been collected and published (1853–76). Lely, SIR PETER (1618–80), properly Pieter van der Faes, Dutch-English portrait painter, was born in Soest, Westphalia. He became a pupil of De Grebber at Haarlem, and after the death of Van Dyck went to England (1641). He painted portraits of Charles I., with the Prince of Orange and the Princess Mary,