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Anti-Corn Law League
Anti-Corn Law League,
formed in 1838-9, with headquarters at Manchester, *o effect tne repeal of the corn laws in Britain, was led by Cobden, Bright, Villiers, Joseph Hume, and Roebuck. Its objects having been achieved in the royal assent given to the repeal (1846-9) of the corn laws, the league was dissolved by its promoters. See Corn Laws.
Antlcostl, a cigar-shaped island in the Gulf of St.Xawrence, Canada, which it divides into two channels, is about 140 m. long, with an average breadth of 27J m. The fisheries are good, but not much frequented, and there are few settlers. In 1886 it was purchased as a game preserve by M. Menier of Paris. During the last few years he has brought in settlers and done much to develop the agricultural and mining resources. Owing to the channel currents, navigation near the coasts is dangerous and shipwrecks are numerous. The government maintains here four lighthouses which also serve as relief stations.
Anticyclone, an area of high barometric pressure surrounded by nearly circular isobars. The barometer is highest in the centre, and gradually falls as it proceeds outwards. The air in the centre is calm, cold in winter and warm in summer; while the winds blow spirally outwards round the centre, in the direction of the hands of a watch in the northern, and in the opposite way in the southern hemisphere. Radiation is a marked feature of anticyclonic weather, the sky being usually blue, the air dry, and cold in the shade but hot in the sun, and hazy, with heavy dew or hoar frost at night.
Antlcyra, or Anticirrha, the name of two towns of ancient Greece—one in Phocis, on a bay of the Gulf of Corinth; the other in Thessaly, on the Spercheus R., near the sea. Both were famous for the production of hellebore, the specific remedy in antiquity for madness.
Antldlphtherltlc Serum. See Serum.
Antidote, any substance which prevents or counteracts the effects of poison. Some antidotes form with the poison insoluble or harmless compounds—e.g. chalk forms with oxalic acid an insoluble, and therefore innocuous, oxalate of lime. Vegetable poisons cannot thus be counteracted. If an alkaloid has been taken, we must rely on the stomach pump or tube, on emetics, and on the administration of the physiological antagonist of the poison—e.g. chloi:.! hydrate in strychnine poisoning. Atropine is an antidote to morphine, physostigmine to atropine. See Poisons.
Antletam Creek, a stream
rising in Allegheny Mts., Pennsylvania, and flowing s. into the Potomac R. near Sharpsburg, Md.
On Sept. 16 and 17, 1862, one of the most hotly contested battles of the Civil War was fought immediately west of Antietam Creek, about Sharpsburg, between the Federal Army of the Potomac, numbering about 87,000, under Gen. G. B. McClellan, and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, numbering about 55,000, under Gen. Robert E. Lee. The Union loss in killed, wounded, and missing was about 12,400; that of the Confederates about 11,100, the combined losses of the two armies on Sept. 17, during which most of the fighting occurred, making it, according to Longstreet, 'the bloodiest single day of fighting of the war.' Lee awaited a renewal of the fighting on the 18th, but McClellan remained inactive, and on the 19th Lee withdrew across the Potomac into Virginia, thus abandoning his Maryland campaign. For this reason the battle has been called a strategical victory for the Federals: tactically, however, neither side can be said to have been victorious, though military critics agree that Lee's generalship far excelled that of McClellan. In the North the battle was regarded at the time as being both strategically and tactically a Federal victory, and it led President Lincoln, who had been awaiting a Federal victory for the purpose, to issue his preliminary emancipation proclamation of Sept. 22, 1862.
Antlfebrln, the trade name for acetanilide or phenyl-acetamide, QHsNHCqCHs, prepared by boiling aniline with glacial acetic acid. It is a colorless crystalline solid, slightly soluble in water, and with a pungent taste. Used in medicine as an antipyretic and analgesic, in place of quinine, though it should not be taken except under medical advice.
Anti-Federalists, in American political history, a name first applied to those who in the various States opposed the ratification of the Federal Constitution of 1787. which, the}' thought, provided for a too highly centralized form of government; and afterwards applied to those, who, in the early years of the national government, insisted on a strict rather than a liberal construction of the Constitution and, in particular, vigorously opposed the centralizing measures of Alexander Hamilton, the leader of the Federalists. The two groups were not identical—for instance, Jefferson approved the ratification of the Constitution, but was preeminently a strict constructionist — but in general they were made up of the same class of men, and never really organized into a
party. They furnished most of the leaders and formed the basis of the later Democratic-Republican Party, which came into existence about 1792. Loosely the members of this latter party are also often spoken of as AntiFederalists.
Antl-foullng Compositions, substances for application to the undcr-water parts of ships to prevent the adherence of seaweeds, barnacles, etc. They act on the principle of providing a coating that will either give way when the plant or animal attains any considerable si/.e^ or that contains an ingredient inimical to life. With wooden ships, sheathing of copper, or some alloy of copper, is quite effective, acting chiefly, but not wholly, on the second principle; but with the introduction of iron ships, the destructive galvanic action between the two metals rendered such a protection impossible without the interposition of a costly wooden sheathing. Slow-moving iron sailing-ships can be treated with a greasy composition of the first class; but as this would be washed off steamships, a coating of the poisonous variety only can be applied. Many such paints, of various degrees of efficiency, have been patented, the most effective being those which contain insoluble mercury compounds, such as the cyanide or oxide, which are slowly given off from the vehicle enclosing them.
Antlgo, city, co. scat of Langlade co., Wisconsin, on the Chi. and Northwestern R. R., 205 m. N.W. of Milwaukee. It is the centre of a rich agricultural region, and its industries include breweries, foundries, machine shops, railroad shops, manufactures of wood and iron, etc. Pop. (1900), 6,145; (1910) 7,196.
Antigone, daughter ot CEdipus by his mother Jocasta. Antigone is represented as a maiden of noble and unselfish character. Her devotion to her father led her to accompany him when exiled from Thebes, and her affection for her brother Polynices gave her courage to defy the prohibition of Creon, then ruler of Thebes, which forbade the honoring of Polyniccs's corpse with the rites of burial. For the latter offence she was buried alive. It is particularly in Sophocles's play, called by her name, that her character is developed; but she appears also in his CEdipus Coloneits in the Sci'cn against Thfbt-s of ^schylus, and in the Phanissa of Euripides, who wrote an Antigone himself, of which only a few fragments remain. The Latin poet Statius treated the subject in his Thebaid, and the Italian dramatist AlEeri also composed an Antigone. See Sophocles.
Antlgonlsh, seaport of Nova Scotia, cap. of Antigonish co., on the Intercolonial R. It contains St. Ninian Cathedral, a Catholic seminary, and the college of Saint Francis Xavier. Pop. (1901) 1,526.
Antleonus. (1.) One of the generals (381-301 B.C.) of Alexander the Great of Macedonia. After the lattcr's death he became ruler of Greater Phrygia, Lycia, and Pamphylia. Aspiring to the sovereignty of Asia, he defeated and killed Eumenes (316 B.C.), and for several years waged war with Scleucus. Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus. After defeating Ptolemy's fleet (306), he took the title of king. Finally, he was defeated by Lysimachus at Ipsus, in Phrygia (301), and fell in the battle (2.) Surnamed GoNATAS, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and grandson of (1); assumed the title of King of Macedonia in 283 B.C. Pvrrhus of Epirus drove him out of his kingdom in 273, but he regained it the next year. He died in 239. (3.) Surnamed Doson ('about to give"), as he was lavish in promises, but slow to perform- son of Demetrius of Cyrcne, ana grandson of Demetrius Poliorcetes. On the death of Demetrius n. of Macedonia he married his widow, and became king. He defeated Cleomenes of Sparta at Sellasia. and took Sparta (221). He died in 220.
Antigua. (1.) British isl. (108 sq. m.), one of the Leewarcl group, W. Indies; presidency and seat of government; Barbuda and Redonda are dependencies. Cnp. St. John; pop. (1901) 9,262. The island exports sugar, pine-apples, etc. Pop. (1901) 34,971. (2.) Town, Guatemala, Central America, between the volcanoes Fuego and Aqua. Pop. 14,000.
AntlleKomena (Gr. 'things spoken against"), a term applied by Eusebius to 2 Peter, James. Tude, Hebrews, 2 and 3 John, ana Revelation, which were not at first admitted into the canon- called by the Roman Catholics Deulero~ canonical.
Antl-Llbanus. Sec Lebanon.
Antilles. See West Indiks.
Antllochus, one of the heroes of the Trojan War. son of Nestor and friend of Achilles, renowned for beauty and bravery; fell in battle while trying to save the life of his father, but was revenged by Achilles. The ashes of the three friends, Antilochus, Achilles, and Patroclus, were placed in the same grave near the Hellespont.
Antlmachiis, The ColophoNlAN, a Greek poet who flourished during the latter period of th^ Peloponnesian war. His works, of which the chief were Thebais, an epic, and Lyde an elegy, exist now only in frag
ments. Quintilian placed him first after Homer. The fragments have been collected by Scnellenberg (1786) and Stoll (1845); the Thcbaii is found in Diintzer's Die Fragmt'nte der F.pischcn Pocsie der Gritchen (1840-2), and Bergk's Poctce Lyrici Greed (1843).
Anti-Masonic Party, a shortlived political organization in the U. S., Dased, in its origin, on opposition to the Free Masons, but soon becoming essentially an antiJackson party. The occasion for its being organi/cd was the sudden and mysterious disappearance (1826) of William Morgan, of Batavia, N. Y., a Mason, who had threatened to divulge the secrets of his order. The Masons were at once charged with foul play, though the charge was never conclusively proved; the affair attracted the attention of the whole country: and in Western New York the community soon worked itself into a high pitch of excitement. A belief became current that legislatures, juries and judges, and the news
Sapers throughout the United tales were under the influence of the Masonic Order, and that Masonry was a menace to the country and was incompatible with good citizenship and the teachings of Christianity. Within a year a distinct Anti-Masonic Party was organized (1827) in New York, and the movement quickly spread to other States, though New York and Pennsylvania were always its great strongholds. The Anti-Masons were from the beginning, and for a variety of reasons, anti-Jacksonians: for instance Jackson openly supported Masonry, while John Quincy Adams, his opponent, opposed it—and shrewd politicians, opposed on other grounds to the Jacksonian or Democratic Party in New York and elsewhere, were quick to see their opportunity and take full advantage of it by combining, under the banner of Anti-Masonry, many of the elements of opposition to the Democratic regime. The party quickly became powerful, under the leadership in New York, of such men as Thurlow Weed, W. H. Seward, Francis Granger, Myron Holley, William H. Maynard and Albert Tracy, and in Pennsylvania of Thaddeus Stevens and Joseph Ritner (who was elected governor in 1835); it elected many state officers and state legislators and a number of Congressmen, and even entered national politics, though its candidates lor the presidency and the vice-presidency in 1S32 (William Wirt, himself a Mason, and Amos Ellmaker respectively) received onlv seven electoral votes—those of Vermont. The national nom
inating convention of the party at Baltimore in 1831 is often mistakenly said to have been the first in the history of the U. S.— the Federalists had held in secret what was essentially a national nominating convention in New York in 1812—but the Anti-Masonic convention was at all events the first substantially of the modern kind. The latest and only thorough student of Anti-Masonry (McCarthy) expresses the opinion 'that the Anti-Masonic Party owed much of its strength to the conditions of the times, and was not wholly a product of the abduction of Morgan'; 'that pure Anti-Masonry had a slight and ephemeral existence politically; that Anti-Masonry as it appeared in the election "of 1832 was a complex of political and social discontent guided by skilled leaders'; and that 'the Party in the political history of America has its chief importance in that it furnished the first solid basis for the Whig movement of the future.1 See McCarthy's monograph 'The Anti-Masonic Party" in the Annual Report of the American Historical Society jor 1902 (1903); Hammond, history of Political Parlies in the State oj New York (2 v. 1842)- and The Autobiography of Thurlmv H'.-ed (18S3).
Anti-Monopoly Party, a shortlived political organization in the U. S. which held only one national convention (May 18841 and almost immediately fused with the Greenback Labor Party or National Party. The platform adopted declared 'that it is the duty of the government to immediately exercise its constitutional prerogative to regulate commerce among the states', and that bureaus of labor statistics, state and national, should be organized; and demanded that 'arbitration take the place of brute force in the settlement of disputes between employer and employed'; that 'the national eight hour law be honestly enforced": that 'the importation of foreign labor under contract be made illegal'; that an interstate commerce bill be passed; that U. S. senators be elected by direct vote; that a graduated income tax be passed; and that a reform be instituted in the granting of public lands. Though the candidates of the Anti-Monopoly Party and the Greenback Labor Party (Benj. F. Butler of Mass, for president and Gen. A. W. West of Miss, for vice president) received no electoral votes and a popular vote of only 175,370, several of the demands mentioned above were subsequently met by legislation. The platform of the Anti-Monopoly Party may be found in Stanwood's History oj the Presidency (1898).
Antimony, Sb, at. wgt. 120.2, rarely occurs native, but chiefly as stibnite, antimony sulphide, Sb2S3. It is, however, not profitable to smelt ore which contains less than half its weight of the metal. The operation is carried out in a furnace which contains plumbago crucibles in which the ground ore, mixed with one-tenth of its weight of salt, is placed in the crucibles, and scrap iron added. In this way sulphide of iron and metallic antimony are obtained. The contents of the crucibles are poured into moulds and allowed to cool, the antimony readily separating from the iron sulphide. This metal contains 90 to 95 per cent, of antimony, and is twice remelted to obtain the purer 'star antimony.' The purity of the metal is judged by a characteristic fern leaf or star pattern on its surface. The production of antimony in the United States in 1903 was 570 tons valued at $103,341. Germany, France, Italy and Japan also produce the metal. Antimony is a bluishwhite, brittle crystalline metal, and possibly also exists in an allotropic form which is amorphous and explosive. Sp. gr. 6.7. It is not acted on by air at the ordinary temperature, but when heated it burns brilliantly, forming the oxide. It melts at 450° C. It is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, is oxidized by strong nitric acid, but is not acted on by dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acids. Antimony expands on solidifying, and imparts this property to its alloys, such as type-metal; hence its value in making fine ana sharp castings. Other important alloys are Britannia metal and antifriction metal.
The principal compounds of antimony are the sulphides, chloride, and tartar emetic. The black sulphide, SbjSa, as found native or prepared by fusion, is a shining crystalline solid, used in the preparation of matches and percussion caps, and in pyrotechny. The orange sulphide, which is prepared by precipitation of a salt of antimony by hydrogen sulphide, is of the same composition; while kermes mineral also contains oxide and alkali. The golden sulphide is the pentasulphide; while antimony cinnabar, used as a paint, is an oxysulphide. Antimony trichloride, or * butter of antimony,' is a caustic deliquescent solid, used for 'browning' gun-barrels; and tartar emetic is a tartrate of potassium and antimony prepared by heating cream of tartar with antimonious oxide. Tartar emetic is, like other antimony compounds, used in medicine, and is a cardiac depressant, a powerful emetic, and deadly irritant poison. Tartar emetic is also used as a mordant in dyeing.
A n 1 1 n o m I a n I s m , the constantly recurring tendency among Christian mystics to realize so fully the higher possibilities of spiritual experience, that they lose hold of the sane and necessary conventions of social morality.
Antinomy, a Kantian term to denote an apparent conflict of reason with itself; e.g. it may be argued with apparently equal truth both that the universe is infinitely extended in space and that it has spatial limits.
Antlnorl, Marchksf. Orazio (1811-82), Italian traveller and scientist, who explored the region of the Upper Nile in 1860-1; the north of Aoyssinia in 1868; and in 1876 Shoa, where he died.
Antlnous, page and favorite of the Emperor Hadrian, who was reatly attracted by his wonderul but melancholy beauty, and made him his constant companion. When Antinous was drowned in the Nile (120 A.D.), the emperor perpetuated his memory by numerous statues and bas reliefs and caused him to be deified.
Antioch. (1.) Town of Syria, on the Orontcs R., first the Syrian and afterwards the Roman capital; a great city of Bible times, ranking in importance next after Rome and Alexandria. Built by Seleucus Nicator about 300 B.c., and named by him after his father, it became notorious for its wealth and luxury, and for the turbulence of its inhabitants. There the name 'Christian' was first used (Acts 11:26). It was the centre whence missionaries were sent to the Gentiles. (See Acts 13:1; 15:22-25; Gal. 2:11, 12.) Chosrocs, king of Persia, destroyed it in 538; but it was rebuilt by Justinian, and called by him_Theupolis. After a gradual decline it was almost destroyed by an earthquake in 1872, but has since recovered, and has now a population of 28,000 (Mohammedans, Greeks, and Armenians). There are warm springs in the vicinity, and the town has a trade in silk and other local products. (2.) Town in Galatia, visited by Paul and Barnabas and called 'Antioch in pisidia,' Acts 13:14. See Schurcr, Hist, of the Jtivish People; Ramsay, Historical Geography oj Asia Minor (1890), The Church in the Roman Empire (1893), and Cities and Bishoprics oi Phrygia (1895-7); Forster, Anliochia (1897).
Antioch College, an educational, non-sectarian institution, founded in 1852, at Yellow Springs, Ohio. It has a library of 7,000 volumes, and a considerable maintenance fund.
Antfochus, the name borne by most of the kings of Syria bc'longing to the family of Seleucus, who founded the dynasty; hence
called that of the Seleucida;. Two of the name demand particular attention. (1.) Antiochus m., The Great (reigned 223-187 B.c.), in the early part of his reign, carried on unsuccessful war, first with Egypt, then with Parthia and Bactria. In 198 he conquered Palestine and Ccele-Syria, and afterwards became involved in war with the Romans. Hannibal, after his defeat at Zama, took refuge at his court, and urged him to invade Italy; but he did not take the advice. In 192 he crossed into Greece, and the next year was defeated by the Romans at Thermopylje, and forced to return into Asia. In 190 he was again defeated near Magnesia, in Asia Minor, and obtained peace in 188 on condition of ceding all his possessions east of Mt. Taurus and paying a heavy indemnity. In trying to extract money for this purpose from a rich temple in Elymais, he was murdered by the people of the place in 187. (2.) AntioChus iv., Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the Great, succeeded his brother, Seleucus Philppator, in 175 B.c., and reigned till 164. From 171-168 B.C. he waged war with success against Egypt. He is notorious for his oppression of the Jews and their religion. In 170, and again in 168, he took Jerusalem, and endeavored to suppress the Jewish religion, probably introducing instead the worship of himself. But the Jews revolted, under Mattathias and his sons the Maccabees, and defeated Lysias, the general of Antiochus. (See Maccabees.) He soon afterward died in madness, which both Jews and Greeks attributed to his sacrilege, and he was nicknamed Epimanes, 'maniac,' instead of Epiphanes. For both the above, see the Books of the Maccabees in the Apocrypha, and Sevan's House of Seleucus (1902).
Antloqula, a dep. of Colombia, occupied by branches of the Central Cordillera and of the Cordillera of Citara. The soil is poor. Gold is abundant in the Porce valley; and platinum, iron, galena, cinnabar, coal, and rock salt are found at other places. The N. part is almost exclusively a mining region. Medellinj the capital, is the centre of a mining and commercial district. Besides minerals, leather, coffee, india-rubber, and Panama hats are exported. Area, 22,316 sq. m. Pop. 500,000. The tn. of Antioquia, on the Cauca, is the seat of a bishop, and has a fine cathedral. Alt. 1,880 It. Pop. about 10,000.
Antlparallel. If, in a triangle Abc, a line is drawn cutting Ab in F, and Ac in E, so that the angle Af.f is equal to the angle Abc, Ff. is said to be antiparaUel to Bc with respect to the angle A. Antl;:aros
Antiparos. See I'aros.
Antlpater (d. 319 B.c.), a most distinguished general in the time of Alexander the Great and Philip of Macedon; appointed by the latter, on his invasion of Asia, regent of Macedonia. In 331 B.c. he defeated the Spartans under Agis, and a coalition of the Greek states at Crannon (322). He used his victory with moderation, though his demand for the surrender of Demosthenes caused the latter's death, as he took poison to avoid capture.
Antipathy. See Disgust.
Antlpatrls (Acts 23:31), a city on the edge of the Sharon plain, on the main road from Jerusalem to Csesarea; named after Antipater, father 9f Herod the Great. Now the ruined mound at Ras el-Ain.
AnHphanes (408-334 B.C.), the most famous of the Middle Attic comedians; his plays number over 260. Extant fragments have been collected by Kock in Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta (1884), and by Meincke (1839-57).
Antlphllus Of Egypt, a painter of the 4th century B.C., pupil of Ctesidemus, is ranked by ancient critics next to Apelles and Protogenes. He painted portraits of Philip and Alexander of Macedon, and Ptolemy, son of Lagos.
Antiphlogistic*, remedies against inflammation, including drugs, low diet, local applications, and blood-letting.
Antlphloglstlne, a trade name for 'cataplasma kaolin' (U. S. P.), contains boric acid, methylsalicylate, thymol, wintergreen (or peppermint), and glycerine, and is used externally in indammations, pneumonia, and rheumatism.
Antlphon (480-411 B.C.), Attic orator and teacher of rhetoric, who wrote speeches for others to deliver in the law courts. He played an important part in the overthrow of the democracy, but after the fall of the Four Hundred (411 B.c.) was condemned to death.
Antlphony, a piece of sacred music sung in alternate parts replying to each other. Antiphonal singing has been practised from earliest times in the Hebrew Church, and many of the Psalms were intended to be sung in this planner. In the Christian Church it has been in use since the 1 st century. See Anthem and Motet.
Antipodes. (1.) The name given to those inhabitants of the earth who are diametrically opposite to each other—i.e. feet to feet. (3.) Islands, a group of uninhabited rocky islets, belonging to New Zealand, in the S. Pacific.
Antlpopr. See Papacy.
Antipyretics are agents which lower temperature in fevers. They accomplish this end either by increasing the constant normal loss
of heat, or by lessening its production, or, indirectly, by removing the cause of abnormal production. Cold baths are most rapid and powerful antipyretics; out in using them it is essential to remember that the temperature is likely to continue dropping after the bath is stopped, that a subnormal temperature must be avoided, and that, therefore, the bath must cease before the normal temperature is reached. The hot bath is also antipyretic, so is the wet pack; and such drugs as antimony, ipecacuanha, and jaborandi are antipyretic by inducing perspiration. Alcohol is antipyretic by dilatation of the superficial blood-vessels, thus cooling the blood at the body surface; also by lessening heat production, presumably through diminishing oxidation within the body. Quinine, antipyrin, phenacctin, and other similar preparations are widely but should be cautiously used, for antipyretic drugs depress the heart. An aperient draught will very often lower temperature indirectly, by removing a toxin or other irritant which has caused the fever.
Antipyrin, or Phenazone, CnHijNjO, a synthetical drug, is a white, crystalline, inodorous solid with a "bitter taste. It is chiefly used in medicine as an antipyretic and analgesic, but is how falling into disfavor because of its poisonous qualities and occasional cumulative action. It is not an antiperiodic as once thought. It gives relief in neuralgia, headache, toothache, etc. In sea sickness it has been administered with success. It should be taken only on the advice of a medical man.
Antiquarian Society. An organization founded in 1812 with headquarters at Worcester, Mass. It has published Proceedings since 1849.
Antiquaries, Society Of, London, was constituted in 1717, and received its charter in 1750. It has published Proceedings since 1849. The letters F.s.A. indicate fellowship of this society.
Antique, prov. (839 sq. m.) W. coast of Fanay, Philippines; weaving and cattle-rearing' cap. San Jos6 de Bucnavista. Pop. 9,356.
Antiquities. See ArchaeOlogy.
Antl-renllsm, a movement amongst the leaseholders of certain counties in New York State during the years 1839-47 to resist the feudal dues appertaining to the Dutch manorial and patroonship rights still remaining, though virtually abolished in 1775. In 1839 the heirs of one of the largest landowners in Albany co. endeavored to evict those tenants who had not paid the feudal rents. The tenants resisted, the move
ment spread, anti-rent associations were formed, and disturbances occurred. Repressive measures were adopted, and the resistance was put down. In 1846 feudal tenures of all kinds were abolished, and agricultural leases were limited to an extreme period of twelve years. See Cheyney's Anti-Rent Agitation in New York (1887).
Antirrhinum. See SnapDragon.
Antls, a historical people of Peru; gave their name to the Andes Mts. a_nd to the Antisuyu or eastern division of the Inca empire. They are now represented by the Chunrhas, who still roam the forests about the head-waters of the Ucayali. The Antis were formerly fierce warriors and reputed cannibals. Daniel G. Brinton, The American Race.
Antlsana, snow-covered volcanic cone of the Andes (19,335 ft.), in Ecuador, 35 m. S.E. of Quito; now dormant, though partially active during Alexander von Humboldt's visit in 1802. The village of Antisana stands on its slopes at a height of 13,000 feet.
Antiscorbutics, drugs counteracting scurvy.
Anti-Semite Movement. See Jews.
Antiseptics and Antiseptic Surgery. The theory of antiseptic treatment is based upon the conviction that sepsis, or putrefaction, and other infectious disorders, are started by minute organisms, bacteria, and their products, which are not a part of the body, but which are introduced from without: and antiseptics are those substances or measures which prevent sepsis, either by preventing the approach of the bacteria, or by destroying them or their power to do harm if they do approach. In surgery the term antiseptic is used to cover the prevention of all bacteria, not those of putrefaction only; and the same means are often used, first to disinfect and afterwards to keep aseptic. Heat is antiseptic, and burns and scalds are aseptic for the time being. Cold is antiseptic, and thus meat, fruit, and other perishable foods are kept sweet on ice. Sunlight is death to many bacteria, which flourish in moisture, warmth, and darkness. Absolute dryncss of atmosphere is antiseptic; and so, in some places, meat may be preserved by exposure to the sun, and is often preserved by smoking.
Carbolic acid, corrosive sublimate, and various other preparations of mercury, many coal-tar derivatives, silver salts, boracic acid, and many aromatics, are used most generally in surgery. The less powerful the antiseptic Anti-Slavery Movement
the better, provided it does its work; for obviously the weaker the drug the less chance of either irritation to the tissues, which often results from carbolic acid, or of poisoning by absorption, which may follow the use of corrosive sublimate in large quantities. But as an antiseptic need not be so strong as a disinfectant, the disinfection is first carried out, and a weaker solution used afterwards for antiseptic purposes. Credo, of Dresden, puts itrol (citrate of silver) in the first place, claiming for it that it is absolutely efficient, inodorous, and unirritating to body cells, while Levassort claims as much for calcium permanganate. But it is not easy to imagine a drug that kills all bacterial cells, but can be relied upon to go no further. During operation some antiseptic solution is poured or sponged over the part at frequent intervals, and antiseptic dressings are applied at the end. The surgeon and his assistants sterilize their hands as far as possible with hot soap and water and various antiseptic solutions, and then don sterilized rubber gloves; all instruments arc sterilized, mostly by boiling and afterwards keeping in trays of antiseptic solution; and all towels, sponges, etc., are sterilized by steam or dry heat. The introduction of antiseptic methods in surgery, in 1880, is due to Sir Joseph (now Lord) Lister.
Some antiseptics are used medicinally, for their effect on the alimentary, respiratory, or genitourinary tract. Creosote, carbolic acid, sulphurous acid, menthol and other aromatics, are examples. Condiments, such as mustard, horse-radish, and garlic, act antiseptically on the intestinal tract. Alcohol, too, acts as an antiseptic to anything which is placed in it; but there is no ground for the not uncommon theory that, added in small quantity to impure water, it makes that safe for drinking. See Gerster's The Rules oj Aseptic and Antiseptic Surgery (1888).
Anti-Slavery Movement. See Slavery.
Antispasmodlcs, drugs which relieve or prevent involuntary muscular spasm, and the pain which often accompanies it, and exert a sedative influence on the nervous system. Anaesthetics (e.g. chloroform), sedatives (e.g. bromides), narcotics (e.g. opium and its alkaloids, and stramonium and the nitrites), are all antispasmodics. Warmth and friction also tend to relieve muscular spasm; and tonics, such as arsenic and quinine, are indirectly useful where spasm depends partly upon the general health, as in asthma, laryngismus, stridulus, and infantile convulsions.
Antlspast, a tetrasyllable foot —thus, \j — w.
Antlsthenes '<. 445-370 B.c.), Athenian philosopher, pupil first of Georgias, then of Socrates. He was the founder of the Cynic school of philosophy, and taught that virtue alone is the true end of life, pleasure—probably sensual pleasure—being merely an evil. The Stoics developed his ideas into their system. See Zeller's Socrates and Socratic Schools (1877).
Antlstrophc. In poetry, a portion of a poem following a strophe and corresponding to it, applied especially to the metrically similar stanzas alternating with strophes in the Greek choral ode; in rhetoric the repetition of the same word at the conclusion of successive clauses—as, 'Wit is dangerous, eloquence is dangerous, everything is dangerous that has efficiency and vigor for its characteristics."
Anti-Taurus. See Taurus.
Antithesis, a bringing together and setting in opposition to each other of distinct ideas—e.g. 'He dazzles more, but pleases less.'
Antitoxin. See Serum.
Antl-trades! winds in the upper air blowing in a direction contrary to that of the trade winds of lower levels. Above the N.e. trade winds the higher aerial currents, or anti-trades, are from the s.w. In the southern hemisphere they blow from N.w. The direction of the anti-trade winds has been shown by noting the dispersion of matter ejected from volcanoes.
\ntilriliilarianlsm. See I'niTARIANISM.
Antitype. Sec Type (in Theology).
Antlii in, Italy. See Anzio.
Antlers, the branching bony outgrowths borne upon the foreheads of male deer and annually renewed. They rest upon two upright projections, 'pedicels,' from the frontal bones of the skull, their place of junction indicated by a rough ring, the 'burr.' In the spring the skin over the pedicels, which are of varying length in different species, becomes swollen with olood and serum bringing lime-salts in solution—the bony material of the antler that is to be; and an outgrowth begins beneath a hairy vascular skin, called the 'velvet,' which gradually extends into the form of the antler. Within this soft and sensitive framework there goes on an incessant deposition of bone, until finally—toward the end of summer—the whole interior is filled solid, action ceases, the skin of 'velvet' dries and peels off, and the deer finds himself armed with strong, sharp-pointed,
and more or less branched weapons. In none except the reindeer are antlers produced by does. Four or five months after their accession, the rutting season having now passed, an absorption of bone takes place beneath the burr, the antlers become weak and loose at that point, and are -knocked off, or fall off, to be renewed the following spring. This loss and renewal take place each vear as long as the deer lives. Furthermore, young deer begin by having only a single unbranched spike as their first antler, and add a new branch, or 'point,' annually until the full pattern of antler proper to their species is acquired; so that a wapiti, for instance, is eight years ola before it attains to a perfect 'head.' The remote ancestors of the deer had no antlers; and they increased in size and complexity as the race advanced in their descent toward the present. Antlers being of very tough, hard material and convenient form, have been utilized by both savage and civilized men for many purposes.
AHIlia Pneumatlca, 'the AirPump' a southern constellation, placed by Lacaille. in 1752, between Argo and Hydra. One of its stars, S Antlia?, is variable in a period of 7 hours 47 minutes.
Ant-Lion, an insect of the order Neuroptera and family Myrmeleonidx, represented in all the
A nt-lion and PH.
a, Larva, the ant-lion; &, adult Insect t c, ant-pit.
warmer parts of the world, some 50 species belonging to the United States. In many species the larva digs with its head in loose sand a conical pit, at the bottom of which it lies burkd except its eyes and great mandibles. Any small insect, as an ant, running about is likely to slip into the pitfall and be seized and sucked dead and dry. The ant-lion when fullv fed spins a cocoon in the pit, anJ changes in due time to an adult fly resembling an alder-fly. Antofairasta. (1.) Port, Chile, in prov. of same name. The nar« row-gauge railway to Oruro in Bc»