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the harbor, as soon as its most formidable defensive work had been silenced, remained in a state of comparative inaction, and utterly failed to realize the expectations which had been based upon its supposed efficiency. It became from this moment simply an auxiliary to the land forces, and this not from any lack of personal courage on the part of its officers, but from causes which can be more intelligently investigated, when time has developed some facts which are now hidden, and when those who have fully succeeded elsewhere, ander circumstances apparently as adverse, shall have set forth in full their views as to this failure.
The bombardment closed at sunset, on the twenty-third, and the sarne night a small redan was thrown out from the left of the fourth parallel, which had been opened two nights before by the flying sap. This redan was intended to flank the parallel, and to serve as a basis for future advances. At this point the artillery fire of Wagner became very troublesome, while the rebel riflemen had formed a lodgment in a deep ridge of sand in our immediate front, and with the aid of those in the fort itself, maintained an accorate and fatal fire of musketry. The parapet on the left of the parallel, owing to the scarcity of material, was very slight, and several yards of it were demolished, a section falling before each shell which penetrated it.
Frequent attempts were made, at this and at other times, to employ the full sap in our advance, with varying success. Its distinctive feature consists in the use of the sap-roller, a cylindrical basket stuffed with fagots, which the sappers constantly push before thein, securing their flanks by a parapet thrown up as they advance, or by the use of baskets of brushwood, called gabions, resembling barrels in size and shape, which are placed in position and filled, as the saproller advances.
Several modifications of this method of sapping are used, when circumstances permit or require them, but as the saproller, though impervious to musket-shots, yields at once to an artillery fire, it is an essential element of success, that the enemy's artillery shall be disabled or silenced by an overpowering fire from the aggressor. In our operations the enemy's gans were frequently turned upon the sap, and ite progress during the day time was uncertain and slow, and when vigorously opposed it involved an expenditure of life which circumstances did not warrant. For this reason by far the greater part of our advance was by the flying sap at night.
It now became apparent to all, that no further progress could be made until the enemy's sharpshooters were driven from the ridge in our front. After an unsuccessful attempt by another regiment, the task was well executed by the Twenty-Fourth Massachusetts volunteers on the evening of August 26th. The gronnd thus gained was speedily converted into the fifth parallel of the siege, and our troops luxuriated in a fair depth of sand in which to execute their works. The fire of the enemy became, if possible, more severe, but the depth of sand was sufficient to afford good cover, and our casaalties did not materially increase. At this point we discovered the nature of the obstacles upon which the enemy relied to obstruct our progress : the ground in our front, and a portion of that which we had captured, was thickly planted with torpedoes, most of which were of wood, and so arranged as to explode by the pressure of the foot. A colored corporal was killed by one of them, and his body, denuded of clothing by the explosion, was deposited, face downward, upon another a few yards off, in a position which was exposed to the view of the enemy's sharpshooters, and here it remained two days before it could be removed.
Our troubles did not end here. Many of the men who had fallen on the eighteenth were buried at this point, and our sappers were continually uncovering their remains. It would not add to the interest of this description to enter upon the details of this development, and it will hardly be necessary to state that our men were careful to avoid, as far as possible, a contact so unpleasant.
As our attempts to advance by sapping were met by the enemy with great ferocity, it was at length decided to turn all our heavy guns upon Fort Wagner, and try the effect of a bombardment, to be followed by a vigorous assault. All of our siege mortars, for which good positions could be prepared in time, were moved up to to the fifth parallel, and a large magazine was constructed in order that their service might be continuous and steady, so far as a supply of ammunition was concerned. The communications from this point to the rear, were strengthened and fitted for the passage and reception of a large body of troops, in order that our assanlting party might be protected until it had reached a point very near the fort. Meanwhile it was discovered that the wooden torpedoes could be handled with safety, if a small auger hole was bored through them, and their bursting charge well moistened with water.
On the morning of September 5th the bombardment began, the land batteries being assisted by the New Ironsides which delivered her fire with an accuracy which left nothing to be desired. Our mortars in the fifth parallel threw every shell where it seemed most needed, and during the night, when their fire was most required, as many as four shells might be seen at once en route for the fort. Our fire reached its period of greatest intensity on the morning of the 6th, when, as witnessed from our advanced trenches, no words can do justice to its power; the report of the gan in the rear, the whiz of the projectile close over head, and the sound of its explosion, could sometimes all be heard within a single second; and when several guns were fired simultaneously or nearly so, the uproar was tremendons. The head of our advance was adorned with a flag, which enabled the gunners on the Ironsides to avoid it in this fire, and from this locality the huge round shells could be seen swiftly approaching, until they struck the hard beach and glancing npward, grazed the parapet and bomb-proof, and bursting, scattered their splinters over the interior. From the outset this fire completely subdued that of the place, and our sappers completed their work with entire safety, and on the night of the 6th entered the ditch and removed the obstructions which had been relied upon to check our assault, and made plain the path of the troops who were to storm the work in the morning. Nothing but the evacuation of the place, which was successfully accomplished at midnight, prevented the capture of the entire garrison.
The batteries on the north end of the island at once fell into our hands, and the work of the army was practically complete.
Thus ended a siege, which if it was unfruitful in great results, so far as our occupation of the enemy's territory was concerned, will ever be memorable as an exhibition of the courage, endurance, and skill of the American soldier of every grade, while the feat of destroying a great fortress, in spite of the intervention of two miles of an enenıy's territory, challenged the adıniration of the civilized world, and gave to it the most convincing proof, that our own resources, if fully drawn upon, were all-sufficient to meet the greatest emergency which might overtake us.
The Parrott gun which stood foremost among the enginery of this siege, has since fallen into disgrace, on account of the fatal results which attended its use at the bombardment of Fort Fisher, but it should be borne in mind that the bursting of a gun must necessarily be attended with disastrous consequences on the crowded deck of a vessel, while in a land battery, fewer men are exposed to its fragments. Twenty-four of these guns burst on Morris Island, but their explosion was attended with fatal results in only one or two cases. Setting aside the danger which attends the bursting of this gan, an important objection still remains, in its liability to fail at a critical moment, and leave an important point anprotected, while to replace a heavy gun which has been disabled at an inaccessible point, involves a large amount of labor, and some risk, for the mounting of a piece is usually regarded with great interest by an enemy, and prompt meastres are accordingly taken to oppose such a step. Notwithstanding these defects, in the absence of a better weapon this gun will achieve wonders, wherever it is judiciously used.
No new principles are involved in its construction, and the patent which has hitherto been supposed to protect its manufacture, bas lately been declared invalid by the United States Courts. The results which followed its 18e during our war, were those which usually attend the application of good workmanship and the best of materials to the construction of
a weapon whose fundamental principles have been previously established by experiment.
After the capture of Wagner the efficiency of the blockade was increased materially, although it would have been still more effective had the navy taken possession of the entire harbor.
We found the forts which had been captured well con. structed works, and no time was lost in adding to their parapets and obstacles such portions as were required to fit them for a protracted defence, should the enemy attempt to recapture them. .. Most of the guns in Wagner were found to be uninjured, and the defensive properties of the work were not impaired to any extent, so far as its artillery fire was concerned. The evacuation was compelled by the character of our siege works, which would have protected an assaulting party until it was able to cope with the garrison on nearly equal terins, when, necessarily, the stronger party must succeed.
Mining was not attempted, because the soil was shallow and subject to .overflow. The rebels however feared soinething of the sort, notwithstanding the existence of these obstacles.
The valuable defensive properties of sand forts were fully demonstrated by this siege, as were the inherent weaknesses of masonry structures, and it is to be hoped that the lesson thus learned will not be lost upon those who are entrusted with the defence of our seaports.
Art. V.- Catalogues of Colleges, Universities, and Seminaries, Male and
We have now before us one hundred and twenty-seven catalogues, sent us from all parts of the country. These, we believe, represent all religious denominations in the United States, except Mormonisin; there is not one of them that has any pretensions to respectability which we have not examined to a greater or less extent, and we are glad to say that, with very few exceptions, all exhibit considerable improvement in literary taste. As we mean to give our in