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tions to both Latin and Greek. Perhaps the earliest book (it is yet one of the simplest, clearest, and best, besides being, beyond all its rivals, a really interesting volume) to adopt this modern method was the “Greek Ollendorff,” so-called, of Dr. Kendrick. If you do not object to accumulating a few additional books, by all means, whatever other manual you use, supply yourselves besides with this volume. You will be led by it almost imperceptibly, and without any very costly effort on your part, into some really effective knowledge of Greek. Kendrick's “Greek Ollendorff” is complete within itself. You need no other book whatever accompanying it to make it available for your use. Some first books in Greek stand in such relation to certain grammars as to be, without these, nearly or quite useless. Such is not the case with Kendrick's “ Greek Ollendorff."

Several leading seats of classical education have to a considerable extent become the parents or patrons of their own peculiar set of Greek and Latin text-books. There is thus a series of such text-books more specifically adapted to suit the necessities of students aiming, for example, at Harvard University; while students, again, aiming at Yale College, will supply themselves with a somewhat different apparatus of preparatory manuals. The central book in each series is perhaps the Grammar, Latin or Greek. The notes and references of the other books of the set will send learners naturally to the grammar belonging to that set. Goodwin's Greek grammar represents Harvard; Hadley's Greek grammar represents Yale. Thrifty editors or compilers sometimes adopt the plan of referring the student to both of these excellent grammars. There are text-books that make their references to Crosby's or to Sophocles's Greek grammar, either one a good manual.

Another influence, hardly second in strength to great colleges, in determining practically what text-books shall be used, is found in great publishing houses. Publishers like Harper & Brothers, or Appleton & Co., have resources for securing the introduction and adoption of their text-books, which virtually control the choice of many schools. This devolves upon such publishers a serious responsibility. It is but just to say that the responsibility is one generally met by them in a conscientious and enlightened spirit, for which the cause of classical learning has reason to be thankful. The house of Ginn, Heath & Co., has made an almost exclusive specialty of text-books for schools and colleges. They publish many admirable text-books. The imprint of any such house may usually be regarded by our readers as a guarantee of excellence, at least in point of sound scholarship, for any book that bears it.

Dr. William Smith has a book prepared in parts, the parts being published separately in neat sorm, bearing the title of “Initia Græca." Dr. Smith is an English scholar, author, editor, and compiler. In these various capacities he has produced a prodigious number of books, chiefly devoted to education. These in general are held in high estimation for scholarship. The “Initia Græca” is combined grammar and reader. The Ollendorff idea, that is, the idea of exercises interspersed throughout to illustrate the grammatical principles laid down, presides over this volume. It is well printed, but the type is somewhat smaller than to long-used eyes will be found grateful. There is, perhaps, something of an English character impressed upon the book. This would naturally be the case, as it was originally prepared for English students.

Prof. Harkness's text-books, of which the number is considerable, enjoy a good reputation, which, in our opinion, they deserve. He has a “First Greek Book," so entitled, which in a general way resembles Kendrick's “Greek Ollendorff.” Prof. Harkness's book differs, however, from that, in adding some interesting pages of reading matter selected from various sources, together with a vocabulary. This last feature,

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the vocabulary, the “Greek Ollendorff” unfortunately lacks, having, however, partial lists of words with definitions, distributed through its pages. Harkness's “ First Greek Book,” like the “Greek Ollendorff,” is complete in itself. Still, Prof. Harkness gives, as Dr. Kendrick does not, references to several Greek grammars.

“Greek for Beginners" is the title of an English book which Mr. Coy, instructor in Phillips Academy, (Andover,) has edited and improved, adapting it for use in connection with Hadley's Greek grammar. It is an excellent manual.

Whiton's “ First Lessons in Greek” is a good book. This also is to be used in connection with Hadley's Greek grammar. It belongs to the Yale system of text-books.

A most invitingly clear and well-spaced page, in good-sized type, makes a favorable impression upon you as you open White's “ First Lessons in Greek.” This belongs to the Harvard cycle of text-books. It presupposes the grammar, and is, therefore, not quite so useful to readers such as we are here chiefly addressing. The preface, however, contains some hints about Greek that will prove enlightening to the merely English student. The references are, of course, to Goodwin's Greek grammar.

Parallel references to a new forthcoming edition of Hadley's grammar are promised.

Leighton's “Greek Lessons ” pursues the same general course as do now all the other beginning books in Greek. A peculiar feature of this little book is the inclusion of some specimen Harvard examination papers. These will serve to show in part to readers what kind of acquirements are expected at Harvard from the student in Greek. Here, also, under the form of English to be rendered into Greek, are several considerable passages literally translated from Xenophon's "Anabasis."

Of Greek grammars, that of Hadley, that of Goodwin, that of Crosby, and that of Sophocles are, perhaps, the best. The reader who examines, as it is wise to do, the prefaces of

these manuals will not fail to observe the debt that all alike acknowledge to German sources of Greek learning. Curtius (pronounced Koort'se-oos) is the most recent of the great German authorities in Greek grammar. Kühner (pronounced nearly Keener,) is now a little antiquated, as, somewhat more so, is also Buttman, (Boot'man) each a great name in his day.

Of the literary contents of first books in Greek we say nothing here, but refer our friends to the following chapter, which will give all the needed information, since the first books, as far as they have literary contents, merely anticipate the Greek Readers.

We simply add that this little sketch of First Books in Greek is designed to be suggestive, but by no exhaustive. Other manuals than those named may be found perhaps equally valuable; and we should of course feel in duty bound considerably to extend our list of publishing houses, if our prirpose were to include all those whose issues of Greek text-books for beginners are worthy of confidence. We have exemplified merely, not enumerated.

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