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1.iberum Veto

he received a popular vote of 62,300, 15,812 of which were cast in N. Y., 10,860 in Mass., and 8,050 in Ohio. The contest of that year, between the Democratic tandidate, Polk, and the Whig candidate, Henry Clay, was exceedingly close, and it is reasonably certain that if the Liberty Party had not nominated candidates, a large proportion, at least, of the political Abolitionists would have voted for Clay, who would thus have received the electoral votes of New York and the election to the presidency. The Liberty Party thus, indirectly, elected Polk, who was unquestionably more subservient to the slave interests than Clay would have been. In subsequent campaigns the Liberty Party, ran no independent candidates, but the political Abolitionists, or, most of them, supported first the Free Soil and later the Republican nominees. See Smith, The Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the Northwest (1897); Birney, Life and Times of James G. Birney (1890), and Hume, The Abolitionists (1905). Liberum Veto. This was the wer which any nuntius had of ringing the proceedings of the É. ń. to a close by uttering the word Niepozwalam (‘I forbid'). The first occasion on which this was done was in 1651, when Sicinski, a deputy from Upita in Lithuania, pronounced the fatal syllables. he germ of this custom can be traced back as far as the time of Alexander, king of Poland (1501-6). Unanimity of vote was a great feature of Slavonic assemblies. It was characteristic of the Russian sobori and the meeting of the veche at Novgorod. Libitina, an ancient Italian deity, goddess of the earth and its delights, especially gardens. She also presided over funeral rites and burial. Libnanán, th:, Ambos Camarines prov., iluzón, Philippines, 11 m. N.w.. of Nueva Cáceres, on the Libmanán R. . It has important hemp and rice industries. Pop. (1903) 17,416. Libocedrus, a genus of evergreen coniferous, trees, bearing oval, obtuse, woody cones. L. decurrens, is found on the Pacific coast of the United States, and is an ornamental evergreen, with glossy, scale-like leaves. . It is called the “white cedar,’ in California, and its yellowish wood is more durable than that of redwood. It grows to a height of about 140 ft., having no branches for more than half #. distance. Libourne, th: and riv. port, cap of Gironde dep., France, on the r... bk. of the Dordogne, 17 m. N.E. of Bordeaux. It was one of the ancient free towns founded by


the English in 1269. The principal manufactures are liquors, sugar, and woollen goods. There are vineyards in the vicinity. Pop. (1901) 19,175. Libra, an ancient constellation, and the seventh sign of the zodiac characterized by the , s bos =. The Greeks called it Chelae, the ‘Claws’ (of the Scorpion); the Romans, Jugum, the ‘ 6ke.” or Libra, thé latter title finally prevailing through its adoption in the Julian calendar. The sign is entered by the sun about September 23; the constellation, not until October 29. Its leading star, called Kiffa Australis, the southern “Tray' of the Scale, is of Sirian §§ and widely double, a2 being of 2.7, at of 5.4 magnitude. kša Borealis, or 8 Librae, is a greenish helium star of 2.7 magnitude. Due south of it lies the globular cluster Messier 5 known to contain 85 short period variables. The variability from 5.0 to 6.2 magnitude of 6 Librae is due to eclipses by a dark companion revolving in 2 days 8 hours. Libraries. ... Library (Lat. librarium) is a collection of books athered for study and reference; the place where they are kept. The earliest known §r. is # of the school for Babylonian savants at Sippara of the Sun, on the banks of the Euphrates, founded forty-one centuries ago by the companions of Xisuthros when they returned and unearthed the tablets of baked clay, buried b his orders, on which were recorded, in cuneiform letters, all antediluvian knowledge and the account of the deluge. Similar chambers of records were found at Nineveh, in the lace of Assurbani-pal, king of Assyria, where, on shelves of slate, classified and catalogued, were kept like tablets recording the archives and literature of the empire. Law, history, literature, business and religion were leading subjects of study at Sippara, and women received precisely the same instruction as men. The signature of Amatbaou to a contract drawn o by her as a womanscribe places her as the earliest of learned women on record in history. . These early libraries were doubtless the king's own and possibly open for the use of subjects. Each temple had its collection of books; in Egypt, of rituals and works' on agriculture and medi. cine. According to Diodorus Siculus, Osymandyas (Ramses I. 1400 B.C.), king of Egypt, formed a rich collection of books to which he ave the name “Medecine for the ul;” its contents included annals, sacred poetry, poetry addressed to the king, travels, works on agriculture, irrigation and astronomy, correspondence, and fiction, especially folk-tales. Two officials of his time are called


librarians. At the temple of Jerusalem were the books of the Law and the sacred writings, and Hezekiah assembled in his library much of the literature of the Northern Kingdom. To Greece belongs the credit of having the first library open to the }. founded at Athens by eisistratus in , the sixth century

B.C., largely, increased by the Athenians themselves; subsequently, according to Aulus Gel

lius, it was carried to Persia by Xerxes and later was restored to the Athenians by Seleucus, Nicator Euripides, Plato and . Aristotle were book collectors, the latter, Strabo says, “being the first who made a collection of books and taught the kings of Egypt how to arrange a library.” ato called Aristotle's house “the house of the reader’. and Euripides had a slave, a skilled scribe, who copied the most noteworthy works for the library of his master. Another and one of the largest collections of the time was that of Clearchus, tyrant of Heraclea. The famous library at Alexandria, for centuries the literary centre of the world, was founded by Ptolemy Soter, with the assistance of Demetrius of Phaleros, the rhetorician, who came to his court 290 B.C. and seconded his efforts to procure books to the number of 200,000 vols. Ptolemy Philadelphus, it is said, added to these the library of Aristotle, and he is known to have procured valuable works from all arts of Asia and of Greece. The arger portion of these great collections, was destroyed , when Caesar burned his fleet in the harbor of Alexandria, which loss Cleopatra possibly made good when she gave to Alexandria the rival library of the kings of Pergamum, captured and presented to her by ark Antony. This library, founded o, the Attali at Pergamum, probably kept in the Bruchium after its removal to Alexandria, seems, to have been destroyed by the Christians in the 4th century; the rest of the great collection was finally destroyed b the Turks, the iconoclasts of all monuments of art or of learning. A library gathered at Antioch was destroyed or dispersed after the Roman occupation of Syria. There is abundant information regarding libraries among the Romans, made up at first exclusively, and for centuries largely, of works written in Greek. Cicero was a great collector of MSS. and declares that a country house could not be complete without a library. Seneca wailed at the fashion that ranked a library with a bathroom as a necessary ornament of a house. Some of the grammarians had large, private collections. Caesar j." a. public library for Rome and

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FAMOUS AMERICAN LIBRARIES. 1_Bates Hall, reading room in the Boston Public Library. §o; 1895, by N. L. Stebbins, Boston, Mass.) 2. Columbia o: 3. Reading Room of the Congressional Library, Washington, D.C. (Copyright, 1904, by Detroit Photographic Co.



charged Varro to make collections of both Greek and Latin works; C. Asinius Pollio carried out the Fo and established the first pubic library on the Aventine Hill. Augustus founded the Palatine Library and placed another in the Portico of Octavia. The Ulpian Library, the finest in Rome, was founded by Trajan in the Fórum, and was afterward removed to the Baths of Diocletian. In the oth century there were 29 public libraries in the city. Outside of Rome also there were public libraries, among them one at Tibur and another at Como presented by Pliny, and there *o to have been a special official charged with their superintend.

ence. Tacitus, the emperor (275 A.D.), ordered that every public library throughout , the Empire shoul ssess not less than ten

sets of the writings of his ancestor, Tacitus, the historian. A library room was uncovered


used. Cicero writes to Atticus: ‘Your men have made my library §: with their carpentry-work and their titles.”

When Constantine (306 A.D.) removed the seat of empire to Constantinople he laid the foundations of an imperial library which under his successors acquired a collection of 120,000 vols. Theodosius Polo for this library, a staff of seven copyists under the direction of the librarian. It included among its treasures a famous Homeric Ms. written in gold, on serpents' skins joined o: in a roll 120 ft. long.

ibraries were established in

connection with the larger early Christian churches, notably that at Caesarea founded by St. Pamphilus, where 30,000 vols. were collected, and that at Hippo, for the preservation of which St. Aoi made a dying request, and to which he bequeathed his own collection.


times. These copies were sold and exchanged and thus were slowly accumulated collections afterward famous. To the monks of the Order of St. Benedict in articular are we moderns inebted for their devotion to ancient literature and the preservation of its monuments in such form as a thousand years later served as ‘copy’ for the presses of Gutenburg, Aldus, Froben and Stephanus. The monastery of Monte Cassino, near Naples, was founded by St. Benedict in 529, and two years later that of Vivaria or Viviers, in Calabria, by Cassiodorus. Cassiodorus was the first to establish a scriptorium which served as an incentive and example to Benedict, who, for a time had been his associate. Naturally the later monasteries of the Benedictines took that of Monte Cassino for their model. On Monte Cassino was bestowed the rich collection made by its

The New York Public Library.

(Photographed from the Architects', Carrere and Hastings, Model.)

at Herculaneum in which were found nearly 1,700 manuscripts and fragments of Mss., .400 of which have been partially unrolled and deciphered. In these early library rooms rows of shelves from 3% to 6 feet in height, often inlaid with different kinds of woods, were built against the walls, and divided by uprights into pigeon-holes (nidi), with cornices at the top. Into these receptacles the o o o apyrus or parchment were place o or o bundles when they formed part of a work. There was also a table or low book-case, in the centre of the room. On the ends of the rolls were fastened tickets (titulus, or index). . The roll was kept closed by strings, or straps, and if specially valuable had a jacket or wrapper of bark or parchment. Above the shelves in panels of the walls were portrait medallions of authors, with their names, and busts were freely

Vol. VII.-20

As the Christian Church became the official church of the Roman empire its influence was more and more inimical to the preservation of the literary masterpieces of previous ages, and with the fall of the Western empire (476) and the wholesale destruction by the Goths under, Alaric, the an. cient libraries of classic manuscripts disappeared, leaying only the scattered records of their existence.

During the centuries of the dark ages books found almost their only homes within the walls of monasteries, where the lamp of learning was kept steadily burning. he so monks of the West took up the work of the ancient slave copyists of Alexandria, Greece and Rome, and, working regular hours each day in their scriptoria, multiplied copies, not only of missals and theological treatises, but of the poems and histories of classic

abbot, Didia, during his travels in Egypt, Persia, Chaldea, and India; it still has 800 vols. of MSS. of the 11th and 12th centuries. Catalogues have been rinted of the library at Bobbio, amous for its palimpsests, a part now in the Ambrosian library at Milan and others in the Vatican, and of the library of Pomposa, near Ravenna, the finest of its time (1100) in Italy. La Chiusa and Novalese had fine collections. In France there were renowned collections at Clugny, , whose abbot, Peter the Venerable, esteemed books more precious than gold, but whose treasures were carried by the Huguenots, to Geneva; in the abbey school at Fleury, the . Mss. of which are now in the library of Orleans; in the library of the monks of St. Require at Centule; at Corbie, noted for the activity of its scribes; and at Clairvaux. In Germany Libraries


the library at Fulda had four hundred scribes at one time, and received donations from Charlemagne and its abbot Rabanus Maurus; that at Reichenau, noted for its collection of Mss., was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War; in the Swiss abbey of St. Gall, in the 10th century, there were five hundred monks, and later the nuns of St. Catherine were noted as transcribers. The monasteries of Wearmouth and of Yarrow in England were englowed with great libraries, collected by their founder Biscop. in his six journeys to Rome. Alcuin, at one time librarian of the cathedral library at York, was there trained for his later great work on the continent; the


didly executed and bound in velvet and decorated with gold and silver clasps, and the emblems of the king. It is said to have numbered 50,000 vols. After the death of Cqrvinus, at the capture of Buda by the Turks, in 1527 these treasures were scattered ali over the world. Thirty-five vols. were returned to Hungary, by the Sultan, in 1877, for which the Diet returned a vote of thanks. The invention of printing in the 15th century did more for #. and the perpetuation of the literary, treasures of antiquity than could ever have been , possible otherwise. At the end of the 14th century Charles V. had organized the Bibliothèque Nat. of France on the foundation of the books


relative size or importance: The Imperial Library at Vienna, founded by Friedrich III. in 1440; , the Royal, Library, at Munich, established by Alberty, duke of Bavaria, about the middle of the 16th century, and the Royal Library of Dresden, near its close; the Royal Library of Berlin, founded in 1661; the Royal Library at Copenhagen, dating from the middle of the 17th century, and the Library of the University of Copenhagen; the library of the University of É. and the larger, Royal Library at Stockholm; the University, Library at Christiana, founded in 1811; the Royal Library of The Hague in Holland; the Imperial Library of St. Peters

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Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. (Copyright, 1902, by Detroit Photographic Co.)

and MSS. collected and bequeathed to him by his predecessor, Jean le Bon; from this foundation has sprung the world's second greatest collection of books. he National Library of Great Britain, commonly known as the British Museum Library, was first opened to the public less than 24 centuries ago, with about 60,000 vols., 15,000 Mss. and 16,000 charters and rolls in its collections. It has been fostered by the nation with such care that it now ranks as the largest library in the world, increasing annually “at the rate of about 100,000

ieces, made up roughly of 50,000

oks and pamphlets, and 50,000 parts, in addition to about a Woo. of a million newspapers.” We name here a few of the other great libraries of Europe, without reference to the order of their

burg, founded in 1714, by Peter the Great and to which in 1795 the great Zaluski library was added, now containing nearly a million and a half of volumes, and 28,000 Mss.; the Biblioteca Nacional, at Madrid, and the Library of the Escurial. To Italy we naturally turn for the oldest libraries and the rarest and most valuable collections, and these we find in the Vatican Library at Rome, dating from the middle of the 7th century, and having had the special favor of a long line of book-loving Popes. It was robbed by the French in 1798, of 500 of its treasures, the greater part of, which was restored in 1815, while many of the, Palatine MSS. subsequently , went to the University of Heidelberg. The Casanateuse Library takes the next place in value, and its in

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