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canal having been excavated by Xerxes, it is pro- the modern canal of Moueys turns off from the Nile, bable that the central part was afterwards filled up, represent the ancient Athribis. They consist of exin order to allow a more ready passage into and out tensive mounds and basements, besides which are of the peninsula. In many places the canal is still the remains of a temple, 200 feet long, and 175 deep, swampy at the bottom, and filled with rushes broad, dedicated to the goddess Thriphis (Coptic and other aquatic plants: the rain and small springs Athrébi). The monks of the White Monastery. draining down into it from the adjacent heights about half a mile to the north of these ruins, are afford, at the Monte Santo end, a good watering- traditionally acquainted with the name of Attrib, place for shipping; the water (except in very dry although their usual designation of these ruins is weather) runs out in a good stream. The distance Medeenet Ashaysh. An inscription on one of the across is 2500 yards, which agrees very well with fallen architraves of the temple bears the date of the the breadth of twelve stadia assigned by Herodotus. | ninth year of Tiberius, and contains also the name The width of the canal appears to have been about of his wife Julia, the daughter of Augustus. On 18 or 20 feet ; the level of the earth nowhere the opposite face of the same block are found ovals, exceeds 15 feet above the sca; the soil is a light including the names of Tiberius Claudius and clay. It is on the whole a very remarkable isthmus, Caesar Germanicus: and in another part of the for the land on each side (but more especially to the temple is an oval of Ptolemy XII., the eldest son of westward) rises abruptly to an elevation of 800 to | Ptolemy Auletes (B.c. 51-48). About half a 1000 feet.” (Penny Cyclopaedia, vol. iii. p. 23.) mile from Athribis are the quarries from which the
About 11 mile north of the canal was Acanthus stone used in building the temple was brought; and TACANTHUS), and on the isthmus, immediately below the quarries are some small grotto tombs, the south of the canal, was Sane, probably the same as lintels of whose doors are partially preserved. Upon the later Uranopolis. [SANE.] In the peninsula one of these lintels is a Greek inscription, importing itself there were five çities, Dium, OLOPHYxus, that it was the “ sepulchre of Hermeius, son of ACROTHOUM, Thyssus, CLEONAE, which are de- | Archibius." He had not, however, been interred scribed under their respeotive names. To these five | after the Egyptian fashion, since his tomb contained cities, which are mentioned by Herodotus (l. c.), the deposit of calcined bones. Vestiges also are Thucydides (l. c.) and Strabo (vii. p. 331), Scylax found in two broad paved causeways of the two (8. v. Makedovía) adds Charadriae, and Pliny (l. c.) main streets of Athribis, which crossed each other Palaeorium and Apollonia, the inhabitants of the at right angles, and probably divided the town into latter being named Macrobii. The extremity of the four main quarters. The causeways and the ruins peninsula, above which Mt. Athos r ises abruptly, generally indicate that the town was greatly enwas called Nymphaeum (Núupalov), now Cape larged and beautified under the Macedonian dynasty. St. George (Strab. vii. p. 330; Ptol. iii. 13. § 11.) (Champollion, l'Egypte, vol. č. p. 48; Wilkinson, The peninsula was originally inhabited by Tyrrheno- Egypt and Thebes, p. 393.)
(W. B. D.] Pelasgians, who continued to form a large part of LATHRYS. [TANTRUS.] the population in the Greek cities of the peninsula ATHYRAS (* AOupas), a river of Thrace between even in the time of the Peloponnesian war (Thuc. Selymbria and Byzantium. (Ptol. iii. 11. $ 6; Plin. I. c.). (Respecting the peninsula in general see iv. 11. s. 18. § 47, Sillig; Pliny calls it also Py. Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 114; Bowen, daras.) Mount Athos, Thessaly, and Epirus, London, 1852, LATILIA’NA. [AUTRIGONES.] p. 51, seq. ; Lieuts. Smith and Wolfe, Sibthorp, ATI'NA ('Ativa: Eth. Atinas, ātis). 1. An anII. cc.)
cient and important city of the Volscians, which retains A'THRIBIS, A'THLIBIS (Herod. ii. 166; Ptol. its ancient name and position, on a lofty hill near the iv. 5. $$ 41, 51; Plin. v. 9. s. 11; Steph. Byz. s. v. sources of the little river Melpis (Melfa), and about "AX615, 'ADáppalıs: Eth. 'AOpibirns.or'Ambitos), 12 miles SE. of Sora. Virgil speaks of it as a great the chief town of the Athribite nome, in Lower and powerful city (Atina potens, Aen. vii. 630) Egypt. It stood upon the eastern bank of the long before the foundation of Rome, and Martial also Tanitic branch of the Nile, and near the angle terms it “ prisca Atina” (x. 92. 2.): the former where that branch diverges from the main stream. poet seems to consider it a Latin city, but from its Ammianus Marcellinus reckons Athribis among the position it would appear certain that it was a Volmost considerable cities of the Delta, in the 4th scian one. It had, however, been wrested from that century of our era (xxii. 16. & 6). It seems to have people by the Samnites when it first appears in hisbeen of sufficient importance to give the name | tory. In B. c. 313 it was (according to some anna. Athribiticus Fluvius to the upper portion of the lists) taken by the Roman consul C. Junius Bubuleus Tanitic arm of the Nile. It was one of the military | (Liv. ix. 28); but in B. c. 293 we again find it in nomes assigned to the Calasirian militia under the the hands of the Samnites, and its territory was Pharaohs. Under the Christian Emperors, Athribis ravaged by the consuls, but no attack made on the belonged to the province of Augustamnica Secunda. town. (Id. x. 39.) We have no account of its
The Athribite nome and its capital derived their final reduction by the Romans, but it appears to name from the goddess Thriphis, whorn inscriptions have been treated with severity, and reduced to the both at Athribis and Panopolis denominate " the condition of a praefectura, in which it still can-most great goddess." Thriphis is associated in wor tinued even after its citizens had been admitted to ship with Amun Khem, one of the first quaternion the Roman franchise. But notwithstanding its inof deities in Egyptian mythology; but no repre ferior position, it was in the days of Cicero a flousentation of her has been at present identitied. rishing and populous town, so that he draws a Wilkinson (Manners and Customs, &c., vol. iv. favourable contrast between its population and that p. 265) supposes Athribis to have been one of the of Tusculum, and says that it was not surpassed by lion-headed goddesses, whose special names have any praefectura in Italy. (Cic. pro Planc. 8.) It not been ascertained.
was the birthplace of his friend and client Cn. Plan· The ruins of Atrieb or Trieb, at the point where cius, and was included in the Terentine tribe.
(Ibid. 16.) At a subsequent period it became a , extending along the N. of the Great Desert (Sahara), municipal town, with the ordinary privileges and ten days' journey W. of the ATARANTES, and in the magistrates; but though it received a military colony | vicinity of M. ATLAS, whence they derived their under Nero, it did not obtain colonial rank. We name. They were reported to abstain from using learn, from numerous inscriptions, that it continued any living thing for food, and to see no visions in to be a considerable place under the Roman empire. their sleep. (Herod, iv. 184; Mela, i. 8. & 5; Plin. (Lib. Colon. p. 230; Plin. ïïi. 5. 8. 9; Ptol. ii. 1. v. 8; respecting the common confusion in the names $ 62; Murat. Inscr. pp. 352, 1102, 1262; Orell. see ATARANTES.) Herodotus adds, that they were Inscr. 140, 1678, 2285, &c.)
the furthest (i. e. to the W.) of the people known Silius Italicus alludes to its cold and elevated to him as inhabiting the ridge of salt hills; but that situation (monte nivoso descendens Atina, viï. 398), the ridge itself extended as far as the pillars of and the modern city of Atina is noted as one of the Hercules, or even beyond them (iv. 185). The atcoldest places in the whole kingdom of Naples, which tempts of Rennell, Heeren, and others to assign the results not only from its own position on a lofty emi. exact position of the people, from the data supplied nence. but from its being surrounded by high and by Herodotus. cannot be considered satisfactory. bleak mountains, especially towards the south. Its (Rennell, Geogr. of Herod, vol. ï. pp. 301, 311; ancient walls, built in a massive style of polygonal | Heeren, Ideen, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 243.) [P. S.] blocks, but well hewn and neatly fitted, comprised ATLANTICUM MARE. The opinions of the the whole summit of the hill, only a portion of which ancients respecting the great body of water, which is occupied by the modern city; their extent and they knew to extend beyond the straits at the enmagnitude confirm the accounts of its importance in trance of the Mediterranean, must be viewed histovery early times. Of Roman date there are the re- rically; and such a view will best exhibit the meanmains of an aqueduct on a grand scale, substructions ing of the several names which they applied to it. of a temple, and fragments of other buildings, be- The word Ocean ('Ikeavós) had, with the early sides numerous sepulchral monuments and inscrip- Greeks, a sense entirely different from that in which tions. (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 361; Craven, Abruzzi, we use it. In the poets, Homer and Hesiod, the pervol. i. pp. 61–65.)
sonified being, Ocean, is the son of Heaven and 2. A town of Lucania, situated in the upper valley Earth (Uranus and Gaia), a Titanic deity of the of the Tanager, now the Valle di Diano. It is highest dignity, who presumes even to absent him. mentioned only by Pliny, who enumerates the Ate- self from the Olympic councils of Jove; and he is nates among the inland towns of Lucania, and by the father of the whole race of water-nymphs and the Liber Coloniarum, where it is called the “ prae- river-gods. (Hes. Theog. 133, 337, foll. 368; Hom. fectura Atenas." But the correct orthography of Il. xx. 7.) Physically, Ocean is a stream or rirer the name is established by inscriptions, in which we (expressly so called) encircling the earth with its find it written ATINATES; and the site is clearly ever-flowing current ; the primeval water, which ascertained by the ruins still visible just below the is the source of all the other waters of the world, village of Atena, about 5 miles N. of La Sala. nay, according to some views, of all created things These consist of extensive remains of the walls and divine and human, for Homer applies it to the towers, and of an amphitheatre; numerous inscrip- phrases ew yéveots and some YÉVEOIS TAVTEOOL tions have also been discovered on the spot, which TÉTUKTAI. (II. xiv. 201, 246; comp. Virg. Georg. attest the municipal rank of the ancient city. It iv. 382, where Ocean is called patrem rerum, with appears that its territory must have extended as far reference, says Servius, to the opinions of those who, as La Polla, about 5 miles further N., where the as Thales, supposed all things to be generated out Tanager buries itself under ground, a phenomenon of water.) The sun and stars rose out of its waters which is noticed by Pliny as occurring “in campo and returned to them in setting. (II. v. 5, 6, xviii. Atinati." (Plin. ii. 103. s. 106, ji. 11. s. 15; Lib. 487.) On its shores were the abodes of the dead, Colon. p. 209; Romanelli, vol. i. p. 424; Bullett, dell accessible to the heroic voyager under divine direcs Inst. 1847, p. 157.)
[E. H. B.] tion. (Od. x., si., xii.) Among the epithets with ATINTANIA ('ATivtavia : Eth. 'ATivtár, which the word is coupled, there is one, dy oppos -âvos), a mountainous district in Illyria, north of Powing backwards), which has been thonght to Molossis and east of Parauaea, through which the indicate an acquaintance with the tides of the At. Aous flows, in the upper part of its course. It is lantic; but the meaning of the word is not certain described by Livy (xlv, 30) as poor in soil and enough to warrant the inference. (Hom. Il. xviii. rude in climate. The Atintanes are first mentioned 399, xx. 65; Hesiod, Theog. 776.) in B. c. 429, among the barbarians who assisted the Whether these views were purely imaginary or Ambraciots in their invasion of Peloponnesis, upon entirely mythical in their origin, or whether they which occasion the Atintanes and Molossi were com were partly based on a vague knowledge of the manded by the same leader. (Thuc. ii. 80.) On waters outside of the Mediterranean, is a fruitful the conclnsion of the first war between Philip and subject of debate. Nor can we fix, except within the Romans, Atintania was assigned to Macedonia, wide limits, the period at which they began to be B. c. 204; and after the conquest of Perseus in correcier! by positive information. Both scripture B. c. 168, it was included in one of the four districts | and secular history point to enterprizes of the Phoeinto which the Romans divided Macedonia. (Liv. nicians beyond the Straits at a very early period; xxvii. 30, xlv. 30.) It is not mentioned by Ptolemy, and, moreover, to a suspicion, which was attempted as it formed part of Chaonia. (Comp. Strab. vii, more than once to be put to the proof, that the Mep. 326; Pol. i. 5; Scylax, 8. v. 'IMAÚprou; Lycophr. diterranean on the W. and the Arabian Gulf on the 1043 ; Steph. B. 8. v. ; Leake, Northern Greece, S. opened into one and the same great body of water. vol. iv. p. 118.)
It was long, however, before this identity was at all ATLANTES ('Atlaytes), a people in the interior | generally accepted. The story that Africa had of Libya, inhabiting one of the chain of oases formed actually been circumnavigated, is related by Heroby salt hills, which are described by Herodotus as dotus with the greatest distrust [LIBYA]; and the question was left, in ancient geography, with the (by most geographers, though not by all) to surgreat authority of Ptolemy on the negative side round the inhabited world ; and this encircling sea In fact, the progress of maritime discovery, proceed was called not only Ocean, but also by the specific ing independently in the two directions, led to the names applied to the Atlantic Ocean. Thus, in the knowledge of the two great expanses of water, on work de Mundo, falsely ascribed to Aristotle (c. 3), the S. of Asia, and on the W. of Africa and Europe, it is said that the whole world is an island surwhile their connection around Africa was purely a rounded by the Atlantic Sea (uno Tas 'AthaYTikis matter of conjecture. Hence arose the distinction Kalovuévns Sandoons nepuppeouévn: and, again, marked by the names of the Southern and the bayos 8È, TO Mèv tw rñis oikovuérns, 'ATMartiWestern Seas, the former being constantly used by KOV kaleitai, Kal d 'Okeavos, Tepippéwv juās), and Herodotus for the Indian Ocean (ARABICUS SINUS), the same idea is again and again repeated in other while, somewhat curiously, the latter, its natural passages of the work, where the name used is simply correlative, is only applied to the Atlantic by late | Okeavds. writers.
Similarly Cicero (Somn. Scip. 6) describes the Herodotus had obtained sufficient knowledge to re- | inhabited earth as a small island, surrounded by ject with ridicule the idea of the river Ocean flowing that sea which men call Atlantic, and Great, and round the earth (ii. 21, 23, iv. 8, 36); and it deserves Ocean (illo mari, quod Atlanticum, quod Magnum, notice, that with the notion he rejects the name also, quem Oceanum, appellatis in terris). When he and calls those great bodies of water, which we call adds, that though bearing so great a name, it is but oceans, seas. In this he is followed by the great small, he refers to the idea that there were many majority of the ancient writers; and the secondary such islands on the surface of the globe, each suruse of the word Ocean, which we have retained, as rounded by its own small portion of the great body its common sense, was only introduced at a late of waters. period, when there was probably a confused notion | Strabo refers to the same notion as held by Eraof its exact primary sense. It is found in the Roman tosthenes (i. pp. 56, 64, sub fin.; on the reading and writers and in the Greek geographers of the Roman meaning of this difficult passage see Seidel, Fr. period, sometimes for the whole body of water sur-| Eratosth. pp. 71, foll., and Groskurd's German rounding the earth and sometimes with epithets translation of Strabo), who supposed the circuit of which mark the application of the word to the At- the earth to be complete within itself, " so that, but lantic Ocean, which is also called simply Oceanus ; | for the bindrance arising froin the great size of the while, on the other hand, the epithet Atlanticus is Atlantic Sea, we might sail from Iberia (Spain) to found applied to the Ocean in its wider sense, that India along the same parallel;" to which Strabo is, to the whole body of water surrounding the three makes an objection, remarkable for its unconscious continents.
anticipation of the great discovery of Columbus, that Herodotus speaks of the great sea on the W. of there may be two inhabited worlds (or islands) in Europe and Asia, as the sea beyond the Pillars (of the temperate zone. (Comp. i. p. 5, where he disHercules) which is called the Sea of Atlas (ń w cusses the Homeric notion, i. p. 32, and ii. p. 112.) OTTAWY Járagoa ý 'Atlavtis,-fem. adj. of "AT- Elsewhere he says that the earth is surrounded with nas,-- Kaneouévn: Her. i. 202.) The former name water, and receives into itself several gulfs " from was naturally applied to it in contradistinction to the outer sea” (από της έξω θαλάττης κατά τον the Mediterranean, or the sea within the Pillars wkeavdy, where the exact sense of kard is not clear: ( erts 'Hpakie wy omnir Járasoa, Aristot. may it refer to the idea, noticed above, of some disMeteor. ii. 1; Dion. Hal. i. 3; Plut. Pomp. 25); | tinction between the Ocean and even the outer seas and the latter on account of the position assigned to of the world?). Of the gulfs here referred to, the the mythical personage Atlas, and to the mountain principal, he adds, are four: namely, the Caspian on of the same name, at the W. éxtremity of the earth the N., the Persian and Arabian on the S., and the [ATLAS). (Comp. Eurip. Hippol. 3 ; Aristot. Mediterranean (ń evtos kal Kal' nuās devouévn Prob. xxvi. 54.) Both names are constantly used | Sálatta) on the W. Of his application of the by subsequent writers. The former name is common name Atlantic to the whole of the surrounding in the simpler form of the Outer Sea (ý čtw Sárar Ocean, or at least to its southern, as well as western, oa, À ÉKTds Sáratta, Mare Externum, Mare Ex-l portion, we have examples in i. p. 32 (kal une ouoterius) ; outer, with reference sometimes to the pous ý nasa 'Athartin Sálarra, kai perlota i Mediterranean, and sometimes to all the inner waters | Katà Meanupiav), and in xv, p. 689, where he of the earth. Another name constantly used is that of says that the S. and SE. shores of India run out the Great Sea (ó ueydan Sálagoa, Mare Magnum), | into the Atlantic sca; and, in ii. p. 130, he makes in contradistinction to all the lesser seas, and to the India extend to "the Eastern Sea and the Southern Mediterranean in particular. It was also called the Sea, which is part of the Atlantic" (após Te thjx Western Sea or Ocean ('Eonépos 'Okeavds, BUTIKÒS égav Sálattav kal Thu votiav täis 'Athartiris). and Suomikos uneavos, Hesperium Mare). The use | Similarly Eratosthenes had spoken of Arabia Felix of these names, and the ideas associated with them, | as extending S. as far as the Atlantic Sea (ué xpx require a more particular description.
TOû 'ATAAVTIKOÙ meldyous, Strab. xvi. p. 767, The old Homeric notion of the river Ocean re- / where there is no occasion for Letronne's conjectural tained its place in the poets long after its physical emendation, 'A10LONIKOV, a name also which only meaning had been abandoned; and some indications occurs in the later geographers). are found of an attempt to reconcile it with later Of the use of the simple word Oceanus, as the discoveries, by placing the Ocean outside of all the name of the Atlantic Ocean, by writers about Strabo's seas of the world, even of the outer seas. (Eurip. time, examples are found in Cicero (Leg. Manil. 12), Orest. 1377.) Afterwards, the language of the Sallust (Jug. 18), Livy (xxiji. 5), Horace (Carm. old poets was adapted to the progress of geographical iv. 14. 47, 48), and Virgil (Georg. iv. 382); and knowledge, by transferring the poetical name of the the word is coupled with mare by Caesar (B. G. all-encircling river to the sea which was supposed iii. 7, mare Oceanum), Catullus (Carm 114, 6), and Ovid (Met. vii. 267, Oceani mare). It should | SW. coast of Spain and the NW. coast of Africa, bare been stated earlier that Polybius calls it the which he calls Atlanticus sinus, and regards it as a Outer and Great Sea (iii. 37. $$ 10, 11, thu EW sort of outer gulf of the Mediterranean (gurges hic ral heykamy aporayopevouévny); and in another nostri maris; comp. 390, foli., where Oceanus, paisage he says that it was called by some 'Okeavós, pontus maximus, gurges oras ambiens, parens by others, to 'ATAArtikÒy néhayos (xvi. 29. $ 6). nostri maris, is distinguished from Hesperius aestus
Of the geographers subsequent to Strabo, Mela atque Atlanticum salum); and, respecting the names, states that the inhabited earth is entirely surrounded he adds (402, 403): by the Ocean, from which it receives four seas, one
“ Hunc usus olim dixit Oceanum vetus, from the N., two from the S., and the fourth from
Alterque dixit mos Atlanticum mare." the W.(i.)), meaning the same foar gulfs which are specified by Strabo (see above). After describ' Suidas defines the term 'Atharrikà nedáyn as ing the shores of the Mediterranean, he proceeds to including both the Western and Eastern Oceans brak of the sea without the Straits, under the name ('EOT épios Dreavós kal 'Eớos), and all unnavigable od stanus, as ingens infinitumque pelagus, and he seas; and the Atlantic Sea he explains as the Ocean particularly describes the phenomena of the tides; and ('Atlantis Sálatta 'Okeavos). then adds, that the sea which lies to the right of It is enongh to refer to such variations of the theee sailing out of the Straits and washes the shore name as Atlunteus Oceanus (Claud. Nupt. Hon, et
Baetica, is called aequor Atlanticum (iii. 1). Mar. 280, Prob. et Olyb. Cons. 35), and Atlanteus Elewhere he speaks of the sea on the W. of Europe Gurges (Stat. Achill. i. 223); and to passages in 20d Africa by the general name of Oceanus (ii. 6), which particular reference is made to the connection and by the special names of Atlanticum Mare (i. 3, between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean at the 4, iii. 10), and Atlanticus Oceanus (i. 5). Pliny Straits, which are sometimes called the mouth of speaks of it as mare Atlanticum, ab aliis magnum the Atlantic Sea, or of the Ocean (TƠ Tas Salátins (iii. 5. s. 10).
tñs 'Atlantirñs otóna, Scymn. Ch. 138; Oceani Ptolemy distinguishes the Atlantic from the other Ostium, Cic. Leg. Manil. 12; Strab. iii. p. 139). cuter seas or (as he generally calls them) oceans, Respecting the progress of discovery in the Atby the name of the Western Ocean (Š SUTIKOS lantic, allusion has been made above to the early txearòs, ii. 5. $3), and makes it the W. boundary enterprizes of the Phoenicians; but the first deof Europe and Libya, except in the S. part of the tailed account is that of the voyage of Hanno, who latter continent, where he supposes the unknown was sent out from Carthage, about B. C. 500, with land to stretch out to the W. (vii. 5. & 2, viii. 4. | a considerable fleet, to explore the W. coast of Africa, $ 2, 13. $ 2).
and to found colonies upon it. Of his narrative of Agatheiperus (ü. 14) says that the Great Sea his voyage, we still possess a Greek translation. o dereito dlacca) surrounding the whole in- | The identification of his positions is attended with habited world is called by the common name of some difficulty; but it can be made out that he Ocean, and has different names according to the advanced as far S. as the mouths of the Senegal different regions and after speaking of the Northern, I and Gambia. [LIBYA: Drict. of Biog. art. Hanno. 1 Soutber, and Eastern Sans" he adds that the sea Pliny's staternent, that Hanno reached Arabia, is a on the west, from which our sea ( kal' wuas Sá. | fair example of the exaggerations prevalent on these Aance, the Mediterranean) is filled, is called the matters, and of the caution with which the stories of Western Ocean ('Errepios 'Okeavos), and, kat' | the circumnavigation of Africa should be examined. coxdy, the Atlantic Son c'AchawTu téxayos). (ii. 67.) About the same time the Carthaginians
another passage (ii. 4) he says that Lusitania sent out another expedition, under Himilco, to lies adjacent to the Western Ocean (apds To Svo- explore the Atlantic N. of the Straits. (Plin. l. c.) Jek qo 'Dreare), and that Tarraconensis extends from | Himileo's narrative has not come down to us; but the Ocean and the Outer Sea to the Mediterranean; we learn some of its contents from the Ora Mabut welber we should understand this as making ritima of Avienus. (108, fol)., 375, foll.) He disa precise distinction between the Outer Sea, as on covered the British islands, which he placed at the The W. of Spain, and the Ocean, as further N., is distance of four montlis' voyage from the Straits;
and he appears to have given a formidable deAccording to Dionysius Periegetes, the earth is scription of the dangers of the navigation of the surrounded on every side by the “stream of un
ocean, from sudden calms, from the thick sluggish
ocean, from sudden wearied Ocean" (of course à mere phrase borrowed
nature of the water, from the sea-weed and even from the early poets) which being one has many | marine shrubs which entangled the ship, the shoals names applied to it; of which, the part on the west
over which it could scarcely float, and the seais called "Atlas COMÉDIOS, which the commentators
monsters which surrounded the voyager as he slowly explain as two adjectives in opposition (vi. 27-42; made his way through all these difficulties. Such quempi. Eustath. Comm. and Bernhardy, Annot. ad exaggerated statements would meet with ready be; also comp. Priscian, Perieg. 37, foll., and 72, credence on account of the prevalent belief that the where he uses the phrase Atlantis ab unda; Avien. / outer ocean was unnavigable, owirg, as the early
eter. Orb. 19, 77, foll., gurgitis Hesperii, aequoris poets and philosophers supposed, to its being covered Meperii tractus, 398, Atlantei vis aequoris, 409, with perpetual clouds and darkness (Hesiod an. Hesperii aequoris undam). At y. 335 he speaks Schol. Apoll. Rhod. iv. 258, 283; Pind. Nem. vi. a the Iberian people as gyeitwv 'Nkeavgio apos és | 79; Eurip. Herod. 744); and it is thought, with Tepov. Agathemerus, Dionysius, and the imitators much probability, that these exaggerations were of the latter, Priscian and Avienus, describe the four purposely diffused by the Carthaginians, to deter the
cat gults of the Outer Sea in nearly the same mariners of other nations from dividing with themmanner as Strabo and Mela.
selves the navigation of the ocean. At all events, Arienas (Or. Marit, pp. 80, foll.) distinguishes these stories are often repeated by the Greek writers drobna the all-surrounding Ocean the sea between the (Herod. i. 102 ; Aristot. Meteor. ii. 1, 13, Mir.
not quite cicar.
Ausc. 136; Plat. Tim. p. 24, 25, comp. ATLANTIS; I of their own forefathers, the priest informs Solon Theophrast. Hist. Plant. iv. 6. $ 4; Scylax, p. 53; that the Egyptian records preserved the memory of Suid. s. v. ăn Awra mendy, 'ATMartina ready; the fact, that 9000 years earlier the Athenians had comp. Ideler, ad Aristot. Meteor. p. 504, and Hum repelled an invading force, which had threatened boldt, Krit. Untersuch, vol. ü. p. 67, foll., who ex the subjugation of all Europe and Asia too. This plains the stories of the shallows and sea-weed as invasion came from the Atlantic Sea, which was at referring to the extraordinary phaenomena which that tiine navigable. In front of the strait called the parts of the ocean near the coast would present the Pillars of Hercules (and evidently, according to at low water to voyagers previously unacquainted Plato's idea, not far from it), lay an island (which with its tides).
he presently calls Atlantis), greater than Libya and The most marked epochs in the subsequent his-Asia taken together, from which island voyagers tory of discovery in the Atlantic are those of the could pass to other islands, and from them to the voyage of Pytheas of Massilia (about B. c. 334) opposite continent, which surrounds that sea, truly round the NW. shores of Europe, described in his so called (i.e. the Atlantic). For the waters within lost works, trepà roll ukeavoù and trepiodos tñs yrs, the strait (i.e. the Mediterranean), may be regarded which are frequently cited by Strabo, Pliny, and as but a harbour, having a narrow entrance; but others (Dict. of Biog. 8. v.); the voyage of Polybius, that is really a sea, and the land which surrounds it with the fleet of Scipio, along the W. coast of Africa may with perfect accuracy be called a continent [LIBYA]; and the intercourse of the Romans with (Tim. p. 24, 1-25, a.). the British isles [BRITANNIA). But, as the At- The above passage is quoted fully to show the lantic was not, like the Indian Ocean, a great high- | notion which it exhibits, when rightly understood, way of commerce, and there was no motive for the that beyond and on the opposite side of the Atlantic navigation of its stormy seas beyond the coasts of there was a vast continent, between which and the Spain and Gaul, little additional knowledge was . shores of Europe and Libya were a number of gained respecting it. The latest views of the ancient islands, the greatest of which, and the nearest to geographers are represented in the statements of our world, was that called Atlantis. Dionysius and Agathemerus, referred to above.
In this island of Atlantis, he adds, there arose a So little was known of the prevailing currents great and powerful dynasty of kings, who became and winds, and other physical features of the masters of the whole island, and of many of the Atlantic, that their discussion does not belong to other islands and of parts of the continent. And ancient geography, except with reference to one moreover, on this side the Atlantic, within the point, which is treated under Libya, namely the Straits, they ruled over Libya up to Egypt, and influence of the currents along the W. coast of Europe up to Tyrrhenia. They next assembled Africa on the attempts to circumnavigate that their whole force for the conquest of the rest of continent.
the countries on the Mediterranean; but the AtheThe special names most in use for portions of the nians, though deserted by their allies, repelled the Atlantic Ocean were the following: OCEANUS GA- invaders, and restored the liberty of all the peoples DITANUS, the great gulf (if the expression may be within the Pillars of Hercules. But afterwards allowed) outside the Straits, between the SW. coast of came great earthquakes and flools, by which the Spain and the NW. coast of Africa, to which, as has victors in the contest were swallowed up beneath been seen above, some geographers gave the name of the carth, and the island of Atlantis was engulphed the Atlantic Sea or Gulf, in a restricted sense: in the sea, which has ever since been unnavigable by OCEANUS CANTABER (Kavrápios ūkeavós: Bay reason of the shoals of mud created by the sunzen of Biscay), between the N. coast of Spain and the island. (Tim. p. 25, 8-d.) W. coast of Gaul: MARE GALLICUM or OCEANUS | The story is expanded in the Critics (p. 108, GALLICUS, off the NW. coast of Gaul, at the mouth foll.), where, however, the latter part of it is unfor. of the English Channel : and MARE BRITANNICUM tunately lost. Here Plato goes back to the original or OCEANUS BRITANNICUS, the E. part of the partition of the earth among the gods, and (what is Channel, and the Straits of Dover, between the of some importance as to the interpretation of the mouths of the Sequana (Seine) and the Rhenus legend), he particularly marks the fact that, of the (Rhine). All to the N. of this belonged to the two parties in this great primeval conflict, the AthcNorthern Occan. [OCEANUS SEPTENTRIONALIS.) nians were the people of Athena and Hephaestus,
Of the islands in the Atlantic, exclusive of those but the Atlantines the people of Poseidon. The immediately adjacent to the mainlands of Europe royal race was the offspring of Poseidon and of and Africa, the only ones known to the ancients Cleito, a mortal woman, the danghter of Evenor, one were those called by them FORTUNATAE INSULAE, of the original earthborn inhabitants of the island, namely, the Canaries, with, perhaps, the Madeira of whose residence in the centre of the island Plato group. The legend of the great island of ATLANTIS, I gives a particular description. (Crit. p. 113, -e.) and its connection with the question of any ancient Cleito bore to Poseidon five pairs of twins, who beknowledge of the great Western Continent, demands came the heads of ten royal houses, each ruling a a separate article.
[P.S.] tenth portion of the island, according to a partition ATLANTIS (ń 'Atlantis vsoos : Eth. 'AT- made by Poseidon himself, but all subject to the davrivoi, Procl. ad Plat. Tim.; Schol. in Plat. Rep. supreme dynasty of Atlas, the eldest of the ten, on p. 327), the Island of Atlas, is first mentioned by whom Poseidon conferred the place in the centre of Plato, in the Timaeus (p. 24), and the Critics the island, which had been before the residence of (pp. 108, 113). He introluces the story as a part Evenor, and which he fortified and erected into the of a conversation respecting the ancient history of capital. We have then a minute description of the the world, bield by Solon with an old priest of Saïs strength and magnificence of this capital ; of the in Egypt. As an example of the ignorance of the beauty and fertility of the island, with its lofty Greeks concerning the events of remote ages, and in mountains, its abundant rivers, its exuberant vegeparticular of the Athenians respecting the exploits tation, its temperate climate, its irrigation by natural