« السابقةمتابعة »
Thus, two things may stand in a certain relation to each other, in next, independently of Divine revelation. So the past conduct or respect of their quantity, magnitude, shape, colour, strength, height, performances of a nation, a government, a minister, a general, a lawyer tc.; in which cases the subject of comparison is common to both, and an architect, a painter, a poet, a racehorse, &c., afford materials for belongs to them to a greater or less amount. Thus, when we say that judging what will be their future conduct or performances under one thing is larger, taller, thicker, smaller, darker, more beautiful, more similar circumstances. It is to this most important use of analogy lasting, more desirable, more formidable, more probable, &c., than that Quintilian refers, when he says that its purpose is to discover another, we mean that each of the pairs in question having in common what is unknown by what is known, to prove what is uncertain by the quality referred to, the former has it in a greater degree than the what is certain. latter. These, which might be called ratios of degree, differ altogether 2. Resemblance being the similarity of some sensible quality, as from the other class, which includes all those relations arising from the form, colour, taste, smell, or sound, it has evidently no connection with manner in which one term of the ratio has affected the other, or is analogy; and if things analogous happen to resemble one another, necessarily connected with it, and not from any attribute which they their resemblance is a mere accident, independent of their analogy. possess in common. Thus, we may speak of the relation of God and Thus, two brothers may resemble each other, but they might equally man, of the relations of men as members of the same political society resemble each other without being brothers, and would be equally or of different political societies, of the relation of a bird to its egg, of brothers if they did not resemble each other. The confusion of analogy a tree to its fruit, &c., in which instances some act done by one to the and resemblance is however of very frequent occurrence, and numerous other party, or by both reciprocally, or some influence which one term examples of it might be cited. When Homer says that - Apollo and has exercised over the other, is signified, and not any quality or attri- Minerva sat, like birds, on the branches of a tree near the Scæan gate bute common to both. In some cases of the latter kind there are of Troy, he meant, as birds sit on the branches, so did the god and words which express each term of the ratio in respect of the relation; goddess : but Pope, and other translators, represent them as underand, therefore, they mutually imply each other. Such are, for going a change of form, and assuming the appearance of birds. example, parent and child, debtor and creditor, agent and principal, The above example may serve to illustrate an error of frequent lessor and lessee, &c. As in these cases it is impossible to conceive the occurrence in the use of the argument from analogy. As, in the one without conceiving the other term, the latter might be called ratios instance just cited, the similitude is extended beyond its proper of implication, as distinguished from those ratios in which a comparison limits, and it is supposed that because the two objects are like each is made of qualities existing independently in the things compared. other in one respect, they are like in all; so the analogy between two For example, there cannot be a husband without a wife, or subjects things is sometimes pressed beyond its just application, and is carried without a sovereign, nor is there any quality which a husband has, as out of the bounds of the relation in virtue of which the comparison husband, independent of the wife, or the sovereign as sovereign, inde- was made. Thus the injunction to be “as wise as serpents and harmpendent of the subject; but although there cannot be a short man or less as doves," does not recommend to our imitation either the a tall man without a man of middle size, yet the height of the short envenomed ferocity of the one animal, or the helpless timidity of the or tall man is an absolute quantity, and independent of the comparison. other. Two false analogies may be mentioned which at one time had In the cases of a common property, or ratios of degree, there are words a powerful influence on political discussions, nor are even now quite which denote the relation of one term to the other, as lowness, height, exploded, namely, that the existence of the human race, and the depth, and consequently imply both terms of the ratio ; but there is no existence of nations, are analogous to the life of a single man. For word which expresses the term of the ratio itself, as in the case of ratios of some purposes these two relations might doubtless be compared; but implication. (LockeOn the Understanding,' ii. 25.) There are some when it is argued that a nation will pass through a series of changes words used to denote the state of one of the terms of a ratio of corresponding to the childhood, manhood, and old age of a single implication when the relation has been destroyed; thus, widow human being, or that the early state of mankind was like the innocence means an unmarried woman who was once a wife; orphan, a child and simplicity of an infant, the comparison is unwarrantably wrested whose father is dead, &c. Sometimes the terms denoting a relation out of the range of its proper application. The notion of the corruption are applied by anticipation before the ratio begins to exist; thus, a of a nation by luxury appears to have had a like origin; for single person is popularly called an heir in the ancestor’s lifetime although individuals may be, and often are, depraved by a sudden change from nemo est heres virentis.
poverty to riches; but the process by which a nation enriches itself, When two ratios are compared, that is, when it is affirmed that the is a mark of habits very different from vicious indulgence and effemirelation of two things is like the relation of two other things, the two nate indolence. ratios together form an analogy, and each pair of the corresponding terms All analogical comparisons are made by means of abstraction. A of the two ratios is analogous. Thus, the bark stands in a similar relation certain attribute belonging to each of two objects is considered sepato a tree as the skin to an animal; and consequently the one bears an rately from all the other attributes which those objects may possess, analogy to the other : so the feathers of a bird are analogous to the and à comparison is instituted between them in respect of that common hair of a quadruped, the admiral of a fleet is analogous to the general attribute. Thus, the analogy between the skin of an animal and the of an army. Of this nature are all fables and parables, in which the bark of a tree arises from our leaving out of our consideration all those circumstances of the person to whom the lesson is addressed are circumstances in which they differ, such as their colour, consistency, illustrated by a parallel case, that is, by supposing a relation similar to animation, sensibility, &c., and paying attention only to the use of that in which he is placed. Thus the case of a man who affects to each, as the outward covering, in one case, of the body and limbs of the despise what is out of his reach is vividly pourtrayed by the fable of organised being, and in the other as the outward covering of the woody the "Fox and the Grapes ;' and so in other cases, the parables of Holy matter of the tree. It is by a like process of abstraction that an Writ are instances of a similar mode of instruction, only the examples extended and vague meaning is given to many general terms, particularly are not, as in fables, chosen among irrational animals. The same is those belonging to the moral sciences; and in this manner they are the principle of grammatical and etymological analogy; thus, if to applied to objects to which they are only analogous, and which they do gire is conjugated 1 give, thou givest, he gives, to live would be conjugated not properly designate. Thus a law, in its original and strict sense, is I live, thou livest, he lives; the inflexions of the verbs standing in a like a general command of one rational being to another : but as one of the relation to each. So the verb prattle is derived from to prate
, as effects of such a command is to produce a uniformity of conduct in the hobble is from to hop; little is derived from the old word lite, as mychel person or persons to whom the command is addressed, the word has or myckle from much, &c. Thus, kingly is to king, as royal to the been transferred to inanimate objects in which there is a uniformity of French roy, and regal to the Latin rex, or rather to the root reg. The phenomena ; and although there is no command received, no command formation and development of language proceed almost exclusively on given, and no intelligence to work upon, we yet speak of the laws which this principle.
regulate the motion of matter, the succession of the seasons, the diffuFrom what has been said it is evident, 1, that in an analogy there sion of heat and light, and other physical appearances which follow in must be two ratios, and consequently four terms or objects of com a constant relation of cause to effect. In this case the proper characparison ; and 2, that there is no connection between resemblance and teristics of a law being neglected, one of its relations is alone considered; analogy, and that things may be analogous without being similar, and and hence the analogical application just mentioned. When such an similar without being analogous.
application is made, not from a vague or inaccurate use of language, 1. With regard to the first of these propositions, it should however but from a desire to add beauty or energy to the expression by the be observed, that, although there must be four terms, it is not neces- transfer of words, this transfer and sometimes the transferred word sary that all the four terms should be different. If there was such a itself, is called a metaphor. Thus, when Shakspere represents Macbeth necessity, one of the chief uses of analogy, as an engine of argument as saying of Duncan that and discovery of truth, would be destroyed. All that is required is,
" His virtues that there should be two distinct ratios : of what terms those ratios
Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against may consist is indifferent. Thus in the case of brethren, the parents
The deep damnation of his taking off," are in an analogous situation in respect of each brother : so the grandfather is to the son, as the son is to the grandson. In such cases he means that Duncan's virtues will arrest the public attention as as these, both the relations are known : frequently, however, the forcibly as the sound of trumpets. The analogy is obtained by relation in which one thing stands to another being known enables us referring the two objects compared to the general class of things to discover, with greater or less certainty, the relation which the same which instantly attract universal notice. thing bears to something else, which is unknown. Thus the moral The word proportion properly signifies an analogy of quantities or government of mankind by the Deity, in this world, furnishes a means magnitudes, as a proportion of numbers, lines, surfaces, &c. In popular of conjecturing his religious government, both in this world and the usage however proportion is commonly made synonymolis with ratio,
as when 'we speak of the proportion of deaths to births, the proportion triangle, neither is their product. Leaving this unorganised method of of wages to profits, the proportion of convictions to commitments, &c. examination, we recollect, that if CB were parallel to De, the then Sometimes also it is used for portion, as when we speak of a large pro- similar triangles ADE, ABC, would give a well-known relation between portion, a small proportion, a fair proportion; in this case however, a AD, DB, AE, and Eo. To try whether this may help us, draw cg parallel ratio is meant, as the part is considered as bearing a certain relation to to, de, which gives the proportion the whole.
AD : DG :: AE : EC, (On the subject of Analogy see Aristotle's Poetic, c. 21; Rhetoric, b. ii, c. 2; Hist. An. i. c. 1; Coplestone in the Appendix to Whate
or if we represent the lines by the number of units which they contain, li's Rhetoric; Whately's Rhet., part i, c. 2, s. 6; Mill's System of Logic,
AD EU = AE X DG • . (1.) cap. iii. s. 12.)
Because ac is parallel to DF, we have ANA’LYSÍS, a Greek word, signifying literally the act of unloosing
GD : BD :: CF : BF, or untying ; its opposite is synthesis, which is the act of putting together. The modern meaning of the term analysis is the process by which facts,
or GD X BF = BD X CF .. (2.) results, or reasonings are separated into their simple and component and the equations (1.) and (2.) multiplied together, and the result parts, or by means of which a simple truth is obtained when given in divided by the common factor Gb, gives a more complicated form; so that, in its most general sense, the
AD X EC ® BF = AE X BD X CF . . (3.) greatest part of human knowledge consists in the results of analysis. It is, however, for the most part applied in a more particular manner whence the relation required between the six lines is as follows: Let to the methods employed in those branches of inquiry, which most them be separated into two lots of three lines each, in such a way that strikingly exhibit direct analysis; namely, mathematics and natural no two lines which have a common extremity are both in the same philosophy, particularly chemistry. By a very incorrect misnomer, lot; then the product of the first three will be equal to the product of algebra, the differential calculus, &c., have been called by the general the second three. name of analysis, in opposition, not to synthesis, but to geometry, in
If instead of asking for the relation, if any exist, between the six which latter science synthetical methods are most usually applied. lines, the equation (3.) had been given, and it had been required to This perversion of the term prevails on the Continent to such an extent, detect whether it were true or false, the process would have been that it must always be taken for granted, that'analyse’ stands for the similar ; and we should have found that the equation (3.) is true, and a algebraical branches of pure mathematics. In this sense it is again necessary consequence of the proposition, that a line drawn parallel to subdivided into algebraical analysis' and infinitesinal analysis,' the one side of a triangle divides the other sides into proportional segments. latter including the fluxional ordifferentialcalculus. And by geometrical
The synthetical form of the preceding process differs from it much analysis' is frequently understood the application of algebra to geometry. less on the paper than would be the case in the mind of a student, who It must, however, be remarked, that the exact sciences have appropri- had actually hit upon the solution in the progress of investigation. ated this word, simply because in these branches of knowledge the use For, not being able to tell the various steps by which one of our of analysis has been made most conspicuous.
readers would endeavour to arrive at the same conclusion, we are Confining ourselves to the primitive meaning of the term, it is obvious obliged to prompt him with a right guess, and thereby give him only a that all discovery must be entirely either the work of analysis or of synthetical description of that which was in our minds an analytical accident; and that, therefore, geometrical analysis must be as old as process. It only remains, therefore, to make the demonstration syngeometry. Nevertheless, this does not appear from the earliest treatises. thetical in form, which, as will now be readily seen, will consist in The work of Euclid is strictly synthetical. Instead of taking the pro- stating the proposition to be proved, directing to draw og parallel to position asserted, and examining it by means of preceding propositions, DF, without giving any reason, and combining the steps of the preceding and in the mean time assuming it to be true, in order to ascertain demonstration. whether the results deduced from it agree or disagree with what has
The geometrical analysis is generally ascribed to the school of Plato; been already proved,-Euclid first enunciates the point which he means but, in reality, as we have already observed, must be of a date as early to establish, and then proceeds to put together the considerations by as geometrical reasoning itself. The use of PORISMS, or problems (see which it is demonstrated, leaving the earner nothing to do but to also Loci) admitting an indefinite number of solutions, the establishjudge of the truth or falsehood of each argument as it arises, without ment of the properties of the Conic SECTIONS, and the various efforts taking into consideration the methods by which the arguments them- made for the DUPLICATION of the cube and the TRISEOTION of the angle, selves were first obtained. This is the natural and proper method of all of which were the work of the school already mentioned, most teaching what has already been discovered, for its own sake; not only certainly increased the power of the analyst, that is, made the means because it neglects to introduce difficult and embarrassing considera of discovery more obvious and more successful ; but there is riothing tions, and allows of the subject being broken up into portions which in the methods which entitles them to the exclusive appellation of are easily learnt at one time, but because there is, in reality, no per- geometrical analysis. fectly general and certain method of analysis which can be made
The peculiar distinction between algebra and geometry is, that the obvious to the beginner. In attempting the analysis of a new problem, analytical method is pursued in the former from the commencement. though the discoverer will naturally first try those methods which The solution of a problem consists in inquiring into the consequences have been successful in preceding cases, he has no means of assuring of the solution supposed to be found, by introducing at every step some himself beforehand which will be successful. The chemist is similarly known truth, such as will produce a more simple consequence,
and thus circumstanced. Let a new substance, or one supposed to be such, be reasoning backwards, so to speak, until at last the answer itself is presented to him, from which he is required to find out whether it is directly produced in numbers, which was before implicitly involved in already known, or if not, of what it is composed. No effective analysis the conditions of the problem. The methods are more general than in can commence without requiring the results of all his previous know- geometry, that is, a larger number of problems may be solved by each ledge ; for he must have some method of recognising each and every process. The same observations apply still more strongly to the higher substance with which he is acquainted, previously to pronouncing parts of algebra, and the differential calculus. whether or not that under consideration is one of them. He must
The solution of equations of the first four degrees, and the approxi. then proceed to trials of that substance with various others,
and mation to that of all higher degrees, render the analytical solution of a nothing but the sagacity which arises from previous experience can vast number of common problems a matter of certainty. The solution direct him in his choice of the methods to be employed. No general of differential equations, where that can be done, is an additional step rules of analysis can be laid down : that is, no processes which must of even a more important character. Within the last century, matheend in the discovery of the component parts required. The same matical analysis has made considerable approaches to a state which observations may be made on mathematical analysis. We give a enables us to determine, almost immediately, whether a problem can geometrical instance, with its result, and the synthetical form of the be solved by such means as we possess, or not; no small advantage, proposition arising out of it.
when it is considered how much time was previously wasted in the
ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL. [CHEMICAL ANALYSIS.]
ANAMERTA or ANAMIRTA, the name of a genus of plants belonging to the natural order Menispermacece, to which the plant yielding the Cocculus Indicus of commerce is now referred. It has the following characters : flowers diccious, calyx of six sepals in a double series with two-close pressed bracteoles, corolla none; stamens
on separate flowers united into a central column, dilated at the apex; The sides of a triangle ABC are cut in D, E, and F, by a straight line. flowers with pistils are not known, but the fruit is a one-to three-celled
anthers numerous, covering the whole globose apex of the column. The Six segments are thus formed, AD and DB, whose sum is the side AB; drupe. The seed is globose, deeply excavated at the hilum, albumen AE and Eo, whose sum is the side ao; and br and rc, whose difference fleshy, cotyledon very thin, diverging. The plant which yields the is the side BC. It is required to investigate the relation which exists berries of commerce is the only species of this genus. It is a strong between these six segments, if there be any relation.
climbing shrub, and is met with on the coasts of Malabar and the Some relations will be thrown out of the question upon the slightest Eastern Islands. It is called Anamirta Cocculus ; it possesses a powerful consideration : the sum of the six lines is not the same in every bitter poisonous principle, and is used for external applications only.
ANAMIRTIC ACID. (CH350,?) Obtained from the seeds of as, for instance, in the three middle syllables of the word anticipātion.
forms one of the most marked distinctions between the musical chaANAMIRTIN (C3$7.90x) A white crystalline body obtained by racter of the one language, and that of the other. Francis from the seeds of the Anamirta Cocculus. When saponified by ANAPÆSTIC VERSE, a species of verse composed of a succession potash it is said to yield anamirtic acid:
of anapæsts. Among the Greeks the anapæstic verse was freely used ANAMORPHO'SIS (avåuoppwois, a remodelling or change of form'), both in tragedy and comedy. Some forms of it occur very often in is such a representation of an object that, except when viewed from a Aristophanes. Both in tragedy and comedy, the anapæstic verse particular point directly, or in a cylindrical mirror, or through a poly. admits also dactyles and spondees. In English, only poems of the hedral lens, it will appear to be distorted, or disconnected, or to be a lighter sort have been usually written in anapæstic verse. Anstey's view of something very different from the original object. Such New Bath Guide' may be quoted as a well-known example. The representations are only made for the amusement of young persons, line is often reduced to eleven syllables, by the retrenchment of the and therefore a very brief explanation of them may suffice; but the first, or the substitution at the beginning of an iambus instead of the art of forming them has been treated at length in the Thaumaturgus anapæst. Thus, in the following lines from the work thus mentioned: Opticus' of Niceron; and in the Perspectiva Horaria' of Maignan. Distorted figures which are to appear, when viewed directly from a
“ For I'm told the discourses of persons refin'd
Are better than books for improving the mind; given point, in the just proportions which they have in an original
But a great deal of judgment's requir'd in the skimming drawing, or print, may be easily traced in the following manner. Let
The polite conversation of sensible women" the original be covered with a network of squares, and imagine it to stand vertically on paper laid on a table, the eye being in a given it will be observed, that the first foot of the second line consists only position in its front; then draw lines through the ground line, in the of one short or unaccented syllable followed by a long; and a similar directions in which planes passing through the eye and the vertical retrenchment might be made of the commencing syllable of any of the lines drawn on in the original would cut the paper, and other lines others, without spoiling its prosody. parallel to the ground line at places where planes passing through the ANARCHY properly means the entire absence of political governeye and the horizontal lines on the original would cut the paper. If ment; the condition of a society or collection of human beings inhawithin the trapezoidal areas thus formed the parts of the original biting the same country, who are not subject to a common sovereign. figure which fall in the corresponding squares be drawn, the figure Every society of persons living in a state of nature (as it is termed) is thus traced will be the distorted figure required; and, when viewed in a state of anarchy; whether that state of nature should exist in a from the assumed place of the eye, it will evidently appear exactly as, society which has never known political rule, as a horde of savages, or to an eye in the same point, the original would appear if it were placed should arise in a political society in consequence of resistance on the in a vertical position with the base on the line which was drawn part of the subjects to the sovereign, by which the person or persons to represent it; that is, it will appear to be an exact copy of the in whom the sovereignty is lodged are forcibly deprived of that power. original.
Such intervals are commonly of short duration ; but after most revoA distorted representation of some object, which is to appear correct lutions, by which a violent change of government has been effected, on being viewed from a given point, and by reflection from a cylindrical there has been a short period during which there was no person or mirror whose curvature and position are also given, may be drawn body of persons who exercised the executive or legislative sovereignty, on a plane by means of a perspective representation, as already de --that is to say, a period of anarchy. scribed, or the squares drawn within a square circumscribing the Anarchy is sometimes used in a transferred or improper sense to original print or drawing. Thus a circular are being drawn with a signify the condition of a political society, in which, according to the radius equal to that of the base of the cylinder, to intersect, between writer or speaker, there has been an undue remissness or supineness the eye and the ground line, all the oblique lines drawn in forming of the sovereign, and especially of those who wield the executive that representation; let lines be drawn from the intersections, making sovereignty. In the former sense, anarchy means the state of a society respectively equal angles with tangents to the circle, so as to represent in which there is no political government; in its second sense, it means the reflections of those oblique lines; and on the reflected lines set the state of a political society in which there has been a deficient distances from the circumference equal to the distances of the parallel exercise of the sovereign power. As an insufficiency of government is lines in the former representation from the same points in the circum- likely to lead to no government at all, the term anarchy has, by a ference. Then curve lines connecting the points so determined will common exaggeration, been used to signify the small degree, where it form, with the reflected lines, spaces within which the parts of the properly means the entire absence. [SOVEREIGNTY.] original figure are to be traced so as to correspond to those within the ANASTATIC PRINTING. In the year 1841, the proprietors of squares first drawn. This distorted tracing being laid horizontally on the 'Athenæum' received from a correspondent at Berlin a reprint of a table, and the mirror being set up vertically on the arc which repre- four pages of a number of that journal which had been published in sents its base, the reflected image will, to the eye, appear exactly London a few weeks earlier. The copy was so perfect a fac-simile, that similar to the original figure.
had it not come to hand under peculiar circumstances, it would have Distorted figures, which are to be seen corrected when viewed been taken for two leaves out of a sheet actually printed in London ; through a polyhedral lens or multiplying glass, may be traced mecha- the observable difference was, that the impression was somewhat nically thus let the multiplying glass be placed in a tube, like the lighter, and the body of ink less in quantity than usual. In reply to eye-piece of a telescope, at a distance from the end to which the eye further inquiries, the correspondent at Berlin could only discover that is to be applied rather greater than the focal length of the glass, and the secret was said to be in the hands of a person at Erfurt. He had let a very small aperture be formed in the cover at that end: then, on seen a fac-simile of an Arabic MS. of the 13th century; and another placing a lamp or candle before the aperture, the rays of light passing fac-simile of a leaf of a book printed in 1483—both such close copies through the faces of the lens will project, on a screen placed perpen- as hardly to be detected from the originals, and both taken without dicularly to its axis, at any convenient distance beyond the focus, a injury to the originals. It was also stated that a prospectus was issued number of luminous spaces corresponding to the several faces of the at Berlin, of a pirated edition of the 'Athenæum, to be produced in a lens, with intervals between them. In these luminous spaces, whose similar way, and sold at a low price. outlines should be traced with pencil before the light is removed, there In January 1845, the 'Athenæum' was enabled to announce that must be drawn by hand parts of a landscape or figure, so that, on the inventor or discoverer of the method was a M. Baldermus, who looking through the aperture, they shall seem to form a correct repre- had communicated the discovery to a person in London; and to consentation of the intended object,
vince the proprietors of that journal of the reality of the method, a The portions thus drawn, when viewed in any manner except page of 'L'Illustration, French journal, was faithfully copied in a through the aperture, will be unconnected; and the intervals may be quarter of an hour, The method became known by the name of filled up with any objects at pleasure, so that the whole may appear Ånastatic printing ; and many of the London journals directed attention confused, or may represent something different from the original land- to the subject. In the 'Art Union,' for February, 1845, pages 40 and scape or figure: then, on looking through the aperture, towards the | 41 of the number were printed from zinc plates obtained by the screen, the intervals before mentioned, and the objects drawn on them, Anastatic process. The compositors' set-up' in the usual way, suffiwill be invisible; and there will appear only the representation of the cient matter to fill two quarto pages of the work, leaving spaces for object formed by the junction of the parts within the outlines first three wood-cuts, three drawings, and a few lines of writing in pen traced, that is, a correct copy of the original object.
and ink, which were properly adjusted to the blanks left for them. ANAPÆST, a foot in Greek and Latin metre, consisting of two All were alike copied or transferred to the zinc plates, and then printed short syllables followed by a long, It was sometimes called Anti-from--several thousand copies being taken. The impressions were dactylus, as being the opposite of the dactyle, which consists of a long fainter and less distinct than those from the original types, but were syllable followed by two short. Assuming accent in English to be the unquestionably remarkable. same thing with quantity in Greek and Latin, the word temporal Professor Faraday explained the rationale of the Anastatic process would be an example of a dactyle, and the word superadd of an in 1845, at the Royal Institution. The process depends on a few anapæst. From the tendency of English enunciation to carry back known properties of the articles employed. "lst. Water attracts water; the accent towards the beginning of polysyllables, there are not many oil attracts oil; but each repels the other. 2nd. Metals are much single words which make anapæsts in our language. But the foot more easily wetted with oil than with water ; but they will readily be frequently results from the union of two or more words : as in Do yoŭ moistened by a weak solution of gum. 3rd. The power of wetting hcūr, Lět alone ; and sometimes it is found in part of a single word; metals with water is greatly increased by the addition of phosphatic
acid. 4th. A part of the ink of any newly-printed book can be readily the communication of blood vessels with each other by the opening of transferred by pressure to any smooth surface beneath ; if, for the one into the other. The blood vessels are the tubes by which the example, a corner of a newspaper be fixed on a white sheet of paper, different parts of the body are supplied with nourishment. If the and then pressed or rubbed with a paper knife, the letters will be dis- blood-vessels destined to nourish a part be obstructed so that it cannot tinctly seen in reverse on the paper; and indeed every one knows that if receive a due supply of blood, that part must necessarily die, or, as it a book be bound too soon after the printing, the pages become disfigured is technically termed, mortify. But the blood-vessels are soft com. by the setting off or transfer of the ink upon the opposite pages. From pressible tubes, liable, by innumerable circumstances, to have their these data the rules for the process are derived. The printed paper, sides brought so closely into contact as to prevent the flow of a single whether letter-press or engraving, is first moistened with dilute acid, particle of blood through them. In order to prevent the consequences and then pressed with considerable force by a roller on a perfectly that would result to the system from the operation of causes thus clean surface of zinc; by which means every part of the sheet of paper tending to impede the circulation, provision is made for the freest is brought into contact with the plate of zinc. The acid, with which possible communication between the main trunks of the blood vessels the unprinted part of the paper is saturated, etches the metal, while and their branches, and between one branch and another. All the the printed portion sets off on it, so that the zinc surface presents a arteries of the body spring from one great trunk (AORTA) which issues reverse copy of the work. The zinc plate, thus prepared, is washed from the heart, and which passes from the heart through the chest, with a weak solution of gum in weak phosphatic acid; this liquid is into the abdomen, where it divides into large branches which supply attracted by the etched surface, which it freely wets, while it is the lower extremities. In this course this vessel gives off innumerable repelled by the oil of the ink in which the writing or drawing on the branches, which supply different parts of the body, and these branches plate is traced. A leathern roller, covered with ink, is then passed form innumerable unions with other branches which proceed from the over the plate, when a converse effect ensues; the repulsion between main trunk of the artery. All the branches which form such com. the oil, ink, and watery surface over which the roller passes, prevents munications are called anastomosing branches, and this union of branch any soiling of the unfigured parts of the zinc plate; while the attraction with branch is termed anastomosis. Now 80 numerous are these between oil and oil causes the ink to be distributed over the printed anastomosing branches, and so competent are they to carry on the portions. In this condition the anastatic plate is complete, and impress circulation, that if the main trunk of the aorta be tied in the abdomen, sions are pulled from it by the common lithographic process. When or even in the chest, the lower extremities will receive a sufficient it is required to apply the anastatic process to very old originals, which supply of blood to maintain their vitality through these collateral or do not set off their ink on pressure, the page or print is first soaked in anastomosing branches. The knowledge of this fact enables the modern a solution of potash, and then in a solution of tartaric acid : by which surgeon to perform with ease and safety operations which the surgeon is produced a perfect diffusion of minute crystals of bi-tartrate of of former times would have pronounced impossible. Anastomosis is potash through the texture of the unprinted part of the paper. As of two kinds, that between large trunks, and that between small this salt resists oil, the ink-roller may now be passed over the sur branches. When the communication is direct between two large face without transferring any of its contents, except to the printed trunks, there is no difficulty in conceiving that the circulation may parts. The tartrate is then washed out of the paper, and the ope- readily go on though one of the trunks be obstructed, because the ration is proceeded with as before, commencing with the moistening trunk which remains open may transmit a sufficient quantity of blood by nitric acid.
to nourish the part to which it is destined. But when a limb is supWhen these interesting details became publicly known, it was soon plied by one large artery only, and when that is obstructed, how does ascertained that the so-called anastatic printing was little more than the limb receive a sufficient quantity of blood to support it? Suppose an extension of processes known long before in England. Mr. Jobbins, there is an obstacle to the free passage of the blood through its usual a lithographic printer, took copies of printed pages by a process ana- channel, namely, the main artery of the limb. What is the conselogous to that of anastatic printing, as far back as the year 1840. quence?—the blood is driven in greater quantity, and with greater Mr. Cocks, of Falmouth, writing to the ‘ Mechanics Magazine,' said, force into those branches which spring from the main artery above the "In the year 1836 I introduced a process for the transferring of seat of the obstruction. These branches, in consequence of receiving copper-plate engravings (by the old masters), as well as letter-press a greater influx of blood than usual, gradually enlarge in diameter, and printing, &c., to stone, zinc, tin, pewter, type-metal, fusible-metal, transmit through them a proportionally larger quantity of blood. At lead, copper, glass, &c., and had impressions taken from each ; but the the same time, the more minute branches, which anastomose with the original subjects were destroyed by the chemical agents used. Since branches given off below the obstruction, are in like manner dilated that time I have succeeded in transferring prints and letter-press and admit a correspondingly free passage of blood to the inferior part without even soiling the originals, fixing the same on metal, wood, or of the limb. At first the circulation is in this manner carried on paper, and printing from the form any nuinber of copies. The process through a congeries of minute anastomising arteries, but in a short is so faithful in its operation, that the finest line of the etching needle time a few of these channels become more enlarged than the rest : 23 is preserved.”
these increase in size, the smaller vessels gradually collapse, and thus In 1848 Mr. Strickland and Mr. Delamotte instituted experiments ultimately a few large communications constitute permanent channels with a view to ascertain how far the anastatic process would be avail through which the blood is transmitted to the parts which it is destined able as a substitute for lithography. They succeeded in transferring to supply. Such is the beautiful provision established in every part or printing from drawings made on paper with lithographic chalk; of the body to secure to it a due supply of blood, if any obstacle should within an hour after the drawing was made, a perfect anastatic fac- obstruct the course of this vital Auid through its accustomed channel. simile was produced, hardly to be distinguished from it. The chief ANA'THEMA, a Greek word, properly signifying, a thing set apart difficulty here seems to be the production of a kind of paper which and devoted. Among the Greeks a piece of armour or anything else shall possess a surface similar to lithographic stone. A mode has been which was offered to the gods, and placed in a temple, was called an devised of imparting to India paper a clear sharp granular surface, aváðnua (anathéma), or offering. Tripods, votive tablets with inseripwell fitted for the purpose as far as regards surface ; but it is almost too tions, such as may be seen in the Elgin collection of the British tender in substance. Mr. Strickland found that metallic paper, used Museum, belong to the class of anathémata. But the dedication or for metallic pencils, had the required surface. For fine subjects copied setting apart might be to the powers of evil as well as to those of good, in this way, it is essential that the lithographic chalk be of a hard or, according to Pagan notions, to the infernal as well as to the celestial quality, and cut to a fine point.
gods. Hence the word came, in one of its applications, to signify In 1853, a particular application of lithography was introduced into much the same thing with the word accursed. It is thus that it is England from Germany, where it had been patented by M. Sigl. It principally used in the Old and New Testaments, where it appears, in was a process of machine-printing in lithography, for cheap commer i Corinthians xvi. 22, with the added form of the original maran-atha, cial purposes rather than for matters of fine art. In preparing the said to mean in Syriac,“the Lord will come,' and is supposed to allude plates, a mode of transfer was adopted somewhat analogous to that to the third and principal excommunication among the Jews. In this of anastatic printing. A reference to LITHOGRAPHY will, indeed, show sense the form anathema (åvádena) was employed, and not anathému, that this analogy extends much farther.
though both are really the same word. In the decrees of popes and An officer of the United States Survey department, devised a mode councils, also, a common form of expression is, whosoever shall do, or of transfer, nearly allied in character to the above, for the printing not do, or believe, or not believe, a particular act or dogma, • let him of maps and charts. An impression from an engraved copper-plate is he anathema,' that is, let him be held excommunicated, separated from taken with ordinary ink, on a peculiar kind of paper coated with a the society of the faithful, and branded with the curse of the church. fatty, substance; and it is then transferred to a lithographic stone, On the other hand, a heretic, when he renounced his errors and was which can be prepared and used in the customary way.
received into the bosom of the church, was accustomed to declare his Soon after the introduction of the anastatic process, much alarm heresy 'anathema,' or a thing accursed. In English we more frewas expressed in the commercial world lest it should facilitate the quently use the term anathema in the sense of the curse or severe forgery of bank-notes, bank post-bills, cheques, bills of exchange, and denunciation itself than for the object of the curse; as when we speak other monetary documents. The uneasiness appeared to be not wholly of the church directing its anathema against any particular opinion. groundless; but the interval between 1841 and 1859 has passed over ANATOMY ACT. Before the passing of 2 & 3 Will. IV. c. 75, on without any serious realisation of the fears entertained. The transfer the 1st of August, 1832, the medical profession was placed in a situa. of impression is remarkable; but it could not escape the keen scrutiny | tion both anomalous and discreditable to the intelligence of the country. of persons accustomed to watch for fraud in written or printed The law rendered it illegal for the medical practitioner or teacher of documents.
anatomy to possess any human body for the purposes of dissection, ANASTOMYOSIS, from avà, through, and otbua, a mouth, signifies save that of murderers executed pursuant to the sentence of a court of
justice, whilst it made him liable to punishment for ignorance of his addition may, therefore, be considered as the last step towards the profession; and while the charters of the medical colleges enforced the present form. Each ship then had several anchors; the chief one duty of teaching anatomy by dissection, the law rendered such a course was called iepa, or sacred, and reserved for the last extremity, impracticable. But as the interests of society require anatomy to be precisely as the largest and best is now used in emergencies under the taught, the laws were violated, and a new class of offenders and new name of "sheet anchor;" but the veneration paid to it has much crimes sprung up as a consequence of legislation being inconsistent declined since the custom of paying 51. to the master on letting it go with social wants. By making anatomical dissection part of the penalty was discontinued in the navy. For the purposes of the present for crime, the strong prejudices which existed respecting dissection article, we shall notice first the mechanical action of an anchor; were magnified tenfold. This custom existed in England for about then the mode of its manufacture; and lastly, the changes recently three centuries, having commenced early in the 16th century, when introduced in its form. it was ordered that the bodies of four criminals should be assigned The technical parts of an anchor, which must be borne in memory, annually to the corporation of barber-surgeons. The 2 & 3 Will. IV. are the following :-The shank is the main or central shaft; the small c. 75, repealed $ 4,9 Geo. IV. c. 31, which empowered the court, when is the end of the shank near the top; the throat near the bottom; the it saw fit, to direct the body of a person convicted of murder to be trend two-thirds down the length of the shank; the ring is at the dissected after execution. Bodies are now obtained for anatomical extreme upper end; the stock branches out immediately beneath the purposes under the following regulations, enacted in 2 & 3 Will. IV. ring; the arms branch out at the other end of the shank; the palms, c. 75, which is entitled An Act for regulating Schools of Anatomy.' or Hukes, are flattish portions at the ends of the arms; the bill, or peak, The preamble of this Act recites that the legal supply of human bodies is the extreme end of each palm; and the crown is the part farthest for anatomical examinations was insufficient, and that in order further from the ring. to supply human bodies for such purposes various crimes were com It may suffice at present to state that the difference between bower, mitted, and lately murder, for the sole object of selling the bodies of sheet, stream, kedge, and spare anchors, is rather one of size than of the persons so murdered. The Act then empowers the principal secre- construction. Referring, therefore, to the annexed cut for an illustratary of state, and the chief secretary for Ireland, to grant a licence to tion of the several parts of an anchor, we proceed to show its mode of practise anatomy to any member or fellow of any college of physicians action. or surgeons, or to any graduate or licentiate in medicine, or to any person lawfully qualified to practise medicine, or to any professor or teacher of anatomy, medicine, or surgery; or to any student attending A, the ring. any school of anatomy, on application countersigned by two justices of the place where the applicant resides, certifying that to their knowledge or belief such person is about to carry on the practice of anatomy. BED, the shank. Notice is to be given of the place where it is intended to examine bodies anatomically one week at least before the first receipt or possession of a body. The secretary of state appoints inspectors of places where anatomical examinations are carried on, and they make a quar
B, the small. terly return of every deceased person's body removed to each place in their district where anatomy is practised, distinguishing the sex, and the name and age. Executors and others (not being undertakers, &c.) may D, the throat. permit the body of a deceased person, lawfully in their possession, to undergo anatomical examination, unless, to the knowledge of such executors or others, such person shall have expressed his desire, either E, the trend. in writing or verbally, during the illness whereof he died, that his body might not undergo such examination; and unless the surviving husband or wife, or any known relative of the deceased person, shali
FD, 1 d, the arms. require the body to be interred without. Although a person may have directed his body after death to be examined anatomically, yet if any surviving relative objects, the body is to be interred without undergoing such examination. When a body may be lawfully removed
P, the palm, or fluke. for anatomical examination, such removal is not to take place until forty-eight hours after death, nor until twenty-four hours' notice after death to the anatomical inspector of the district of the intended re 1, the bill or peak, or "pea." moval, such notice to be accompanied by a certificate of the cause of death, signed by the physician, surgeon, or apothecary who attended during the illness whereof the deceased person died; or if not so
When the anchor is let go from the ship's side, it will, on reaching attended, the body is to be viewed by some physician, surgeon, or the bottom of the sea, most commonly fall upon the crown and the end apothecary after death, and who shall not be concerned in examining of the stock; because the stock moves through the water in the direction the body after removal. Their certificate is to be delivered with the of its length with less resistance than in that of its breadth. From body to the party receiving the same for examination, who within this position the anchor must be turned or canted over. The longer twenty-four hours must transmit the certificate to the inspector of the stock, within the practical limits of stowage, the more certainly will anatomy for the district, accompanied by a return stating at what day the anchor turn properly; and, when hooked in the ground, the more and hour, and from whom, the body was received, the date and place powerfully will it resist any effort to overset it. Also, it is evident of death, the sex, and (as far as known) the name, age, and last abode that the anchor will turn the more easily as the arm is shorter. In of such person; and these particulars, with a copy of the certificate, repairing old anchors, it is common to shorten the shank; in doing are also to be entered in a book, which is to be produced whenever the this, it is the custom also to shorten the stock in the same proportion. inspector requires. The body on being removed is to be placed in a This, which is equivalent, in fact, to lengthening the arms, might, if decent coffin or shell, and be removed therein; and the party receiving carried to any extent, prevent the possibility of the anchor turning it is to provide for its interment after examination in consecrated over, and therefore it appears that when the shank is shortened, the ground, or in some public burial-ground of that religious persuasion to stock should remain unaltered. The amount of force required thus to which the person whose body was removed belonged ; and a certificate overturn any given anchor might be found by calculation, or by actual of the interment is to be transmitted to the inspector of anatomy for trial; and it is remarked that the result of the former may be dimithe district within six weeks after the body was received for examina- nished by one-seventh when the anchor is under water. tion. Offences against this Act may be punished with imprisonment
The anchor being in the position of fig. 2, its weight, supposed to be for not less than three months, or a fine of not more than 50%.
collected at the centre of gravity, G (not including the stock), tends to The supply, under this Act, of the bodies of persons who die friend force the fluke F into the ground;
Fig. 2. less in poorhouses and hospitals, and elsewhere, is said to be sufficient and as this pressure on F will for the present wants of the teachers of anatomy; and the enormities evidently be greater, as the verwhich were formerly practised by 'resurrection-men' and 'burkers' tical line og passes nearer to rc, have ceased. ANCHOR. The anchor, which, under some form or other, must
this pressure is W. A9_(W. = have been as ancient as ships of any magnitude, is mentioned by the weight, exclusive of the many Greek and Latin authors; by whom also its invention was stock). As soon as the cable ascribed to various persons. The first anchors were, most probably, pulls from a, it causes the fluke what they now are among uncivilised nations, namely, large stones, or to catch or hook deeper, that is, crooked pieces of wood loaded with heavy weights. The latter form it forces the fluke down; and the position of the fluke should be such is mostly used by the Chinese, and indeed upon our own coasts at the as to form the angle most favourable for this purpose. present day single heavy stones are used as anchors or "kitticks, by Suppose the arm or imbedded, or the shank lying along the bottom, fishermen. The first anchors had but one fluke; another was after and the cable acting in the line ca with a tension t; then the pressure wards added : but the anchor was yet without a stock, as appears on the fluke taking place perpendicular to its surface, draw ri per. from ancient monuments, and must have been very incomplete. This pendicular to the nuke, and draw FP, tangent to the fluke, meeting
ARTS AND SCI. DIV. VOL. I.