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missing trophies of byegone genius, we should be entitled to add to our stores of words and forms. But is the record closed? Then it is wise to search and know what our treasury actually contains, that accuracy in the knowledge of words may add to accuracy in the knowledge of thoughts and things.

It is curious that Scotland, by no means, of late years at least, generally distinguished for classical research, should have contributed more than her due share to the minute knowledge of the Greek verb. Matthiæ and Buttmann had done much. But the late Mr. A. N. Carmichael, of the Edinburgh Academy, a laborious and accurate scholar, whom we are surprised to find that Mr. Veitch does not even mention in his preface, by a careful perusal of the Greek authors, furnished a list much more complete than any that had preceded. The work was, however, notwithstanding Mr. Carmichael's minute scholarship, defective in certain particulars. He was not careful with regard to the editions to which he referred ; and hence he introduces forms now rejected by the best critical authorities. And he did not discriminate sufficiently between the use of a simple verb and its compounds ; if a tense was found in the one, he inferred that it might be found in the other,-a conclusion by no means safe, and which exposed the list to many chances of error.

Both these sources of mistake have been avoided by Mr. Veitch, another scholar of Scotland. The editions to which he refers are the best and the most accurate that have been produced. And he carefully distinguishes between the tenses found existing in the simple and in the compound verbs. Hence we have placed before us at a glance the result of the labours of many independent critics, and our trouble and perplexity are abridged and removed. Peculiarities in the signification are not overlooked, and much acuteness is evinced occasionally, in hints at the interpretation of disputed passages. The author seems to revel in minute verbal criticism, while now and then flashes of humour reveal the fact, that his has been a labour of love. It is above all refreshing, to find a man who reads and thinks for himself on matters, where we are all too much inclined to permit others to think and read for us. To all we cordially recommend this work as a trust-worthy guide; and the most accomplished scholar will not fail to find remarks on points of criticism, both as to various readings, to meaning, and to quantity, which he will regard as valuable and suggestive.

We had almost omitted to mention that, in this work, the usage of the verb, as existing in the later prose writers, as well as of the later poets, is given, while the difference between them and the prose writers is carefully marked.

To enable our readers to judge for themselves,--though this is al

most impossible in the case of a work like the one under review,we shall give beneath, the treatment of a verb chosen at random from Buttmann, (translated by Fishlake,) Carmichael, and Veitch.


Kai'ww,' I bend : fut. xaivão; aor. 1. exdire; aor. 1. Midd. inawauny; aor. 1. pass. ixaís Iny and ivaítnu, (1) both forms in Homer;' but iraivdny exclusively Ep. and Poet. : much less frequent is the aor. 2. pass. and perhaps used only in the compounds, as xataratvmuers, Plato and Aristoph. guyxatarinís, Aristoph. Ach. 981. Perf. pass. xixažmas, part. xsxaizivos.--Midd.


Kairw, I bend, fut. xàow, Dem. 1450, 3 ; Arist. Plut. 621 ; perf. xixalza, Anthol. (Straton.) 12, 213, 1 ; perf. pass. xixainast, I. , 135; Æsch. Pers. 926 ; Xen. Eq. v. 5 ; 1 aor. pas. ixaótny, Odyss. 9, 470 ; Soph. Trach. 1228 ; Eurip, Cycl. 540 ; Xen. Cyr. viii. 7, 4; and ixaóvInv, N. 9, 360 ; , 468 : Hes. Theog. vii. 11 ; Archil. Frag. xxvi. 4 ; Xen. Hist. Gr. iv. 1, 30 ; 2 aor. pass. ixaisns, (1) Arist. Lys. 906, Vesp. 1208, 1210 ; Plat. Cono. XXXVII. 40, 60; for its fut., see Arist. Eq. 98 ; Plat. Cono. xlv. 17; 1 aor. Act. iraiva, Il. , 37 ; Eurip. Alc. 277 ; Xen. Cyr. vi, 3, 3.

The Mid. has the intransitive sense of lean, incline, with fut. xdivoüuzi, Arist. Lys. 910 ; and 1 aor., Odys. 340.

Obs. The Act. is sometimes found with pure writers in the Mid. in sense, com. pare Herod. ix. 16 ; Xen. Mem. 111. 5, 13 ; Apol. Rh. 1, 452. For the rejection of y in the perfect of this and certain other verbs, see xgirw, Obs.

Construction. In the Act. the acc. with the dat., the latter varied by the acc. with #pos ; in the Mid, and Pas. the dat. varied as in the Act.


Kai'vw, To bend, N. xxiii. 171 : f. late in simple raivā, Lycophr. 557 ; (Dem ?) Prooem. 1450, 3, lyratanAr. Plut. 621 : aor. Ixaiva, 11. viii, 435 ; Pl. Tim. 77 : p. xixaixa, Polyb. xxx. 10 ; Anth. x11. 213 : pp. xexainas, Il. v. 709; Xen. Eq. v. 5: Ep. 3, pl. xixabara, N. xvi. 68 ; aor. ixaílny, Od. xix, 470 ; Pind. 01. 1. 92; Eur. Hip. 212; Pl. Phaed. 109, xar—, Xen. Hell.iv. 1, 30 : Epic and Poet. exclusively, ixairbnv, Il. m. 360 ; Hes. Th. 711 ; Archil. Fr. 30 (Toup's emend.); Theocr. 111. 44 : f. xataratroopas, Eur. Alc. 1090 : 2 aor. I'vnv, Her, ix, 16 ? (Dind.) xat~, Ar. Lys. 906 ; Pl. Conr. 213 : f. xaraxanhoopas, Ar. Eq. 98 ; Plat. Cono. 222. M. raivaun, átomto lay oneself down, recline, &c. Her. 11. 104 : f. xarroūpas, xera—; Ar. Lys. 910 : aor. iraivaunu, Od. xvii. 340. For f. xdeci, Dem. p. 1450, 4, Sauppe reads subj. xairn. 1 aor. forms with v, ixaívámy and compounds, are not now admitted in prose. The only instance we know of 2 aor. ixaívny simple, is W. Dind. suggestion xhave for xairan, Her. ix. 15, the necessity of which we do

not see.

1 On the formation of the perf. and Thesaur.), and in Æsop. Fab. 143, Heusaor. 1. pass., see Teivw.

ing., but in this latter the writing is un* Examples, however, of xaouIña, may certain. be found in Plutarch (See Stephan.

2. The ANABASIS OF XENOPHON ; chiefly according to the Text of L.

Dindorf. With Notes : For the use of Schools and Colleges. By John J. Owen, Principal of the Cornelius Institute. 6th Edition.

New York. 1847. The ODYSSEY OF HOMER, according to the text of Wolf; with Notes:

For the use of Schools and Colleges. By John J. Owen, Principal

of the Cornelius Institute. 5th Edition. New York. 1847. The CYROPAEDIA OF XENOPHON, according to the text of L. Dindorf; with

Notes: For the use of Schools and Colleges. By John J. Owen, Principal of the Cornelius Institute. New York. 1846.

THESE are all the works, we believe, hitherto published, of a set of classical commentaries, known in America as Owen's Classical Series. That they have arrived at a high pitch of popularity there, is evident from the numerous editions through which those of them first given to the world have run. We do not think that they are much, if at all, known to English Schools or Scholars. And we are glad to be the medium through which they are introduced to the British public, as they possess many excellencies, and are marked by few of the defects too often belonging to such works.

Our notice of them, however, must be brief. We intend to devote an article in an early number to that which is becoming of greater importance every day, an examination of the principles that ought to regulate School Commentaries. And from this series, as well as from other works, we propose to draw illustrations of our views. But it is due to Mr Owen to state, in the meantime, that so far as we have examined his Series, it presents a gratifying specimen of an accurate text, of notes in the main judicious, and a full array of those appliances, which, while they facilitate the progress of the learner, do not interfere with, nor impede the exercise of his own judgment or powers of thought.






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