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native country, though he knows I inherit from my grandfather Massinissa, and my father Micipsa, the friendship and alliance of the Romans.
For a Prince to be reduced by villany, to my distressful circumstances, is calamity enough; but my misfortunes are heightened by the consideration—that I find myself obliged to solicit your assistance, Fathers, for the services done you by my ancestors, not for any I have been able to render you in my own person. Jugurtha has put it out of iny power to deserve any thing at your hands; and has forced me to be burthensome, before I could be useful
And yet, if I had no plea but my undeserved miseryma once powerful prince, the descendant of a race of illustrious monarchs, now, without any fault of my own, destitute of every support, and reduced to the necessity of begging foreign assistance against an enemy who has seized my throne and my kingdom-if iny unequalled distresses were all I had to plead-it would become the greatness of the Roman commonwealth, the arbitress of the world, to protect the injured, and to check the triumph of daring wickedness over helpless innocence. But to provoke your vengeance to the utmost, Jugurtha has driven me from the very dominions, which the senate and the people of Rome gave to my ancestors: and from whicha, my grandfather and my father, under your umbrage, expelled Syphax and the Carthagenians. Thus, Fathers, your kindness to our fainily is defeated ; and Jugurtha, in injuring me, throws contempt on you.
O wretched prince ! O cruel reverse of fortune ! O fa. ther Micipsa! Is this the consequence of your generosity; that he whom your goodness raised to an equality with your own children, should be the murderer of your children? Must then, the royal house of Numidia always be a scene of havoc and blood? While Carthage remained, we suffered, as was to be expected, all sorts of hardships from their hostile attacks; our enemy near; our only powerful ally, the Roman cominonwealth, at a distance. While we were so circumstanced, we were always in arms and in action. When that scourge of Africa was no more, we congratulated ourselves on the prospect of established peace. But instead of peace behold the kingdom of Numidia drenched with royal blood; and the only surviving son of its late
cing, flying from an adopted murderer, and seeking that safety in foreign parts, which he cannot command in his own kingdom.
Whither-Oh! Whither shall I fly! If I return to the oyal palace of my ancestors, my father's throne is seized y the murderer of
brother. What can I there expect, put that Jugurtha should hasten to imbrue, in my blood, hose hands which are now reeking with my brother's! If I were to fly for refuge or assitance to any other court from what prince can I hope for protection, if the Roman commonwealth give me up ? From my own family or friends, I have no expectations. My royal father is no
He is beyond the reach of violence, and out of hearing of the complaints of his unhappy son. brother alive, our mutual sympathy would be some allevi. ation. But he is hurried out of life, in his early youth, by the very hand, which should have been the last to injure any of the royal family of Numidia. The bloody Jugurtha has butchered all whom he suspected to be in my interest. Some have been destroyed by the lingering torment of the cross. Others have been given a prey to wild beasts, and their anguish made the sport of men, more cruel than wild beasts. If there be any yet alive, they are shut up in duogeons, there to drag out a life, more intolerable than death itself.
Look down illustrious senators of Rome! from that height of power to which you are raised, on the unexampled distress of a prince, who is, by the cruelty of a wicked intruder, become an outcast from all mankind. Let not the crafty insinuations of him who returns murder for adoption, prejudice your judgment. Do not listen to the wreich wlio las hutchered the son and relations of a king, who gave him power to sit on the same throne with his Owl sons. I have been informed that he labours, by his emissaries, to prevent your determining any thing against him in his absence: pretending that I magnify my distress, and might for him bave staid in peace in my own kingdom. But if ever the time comes when due vengeance froin above shall overtake him, he will then dissemble as I do. Then he who now hardened in wickedness, triumphs over those whoin his violence has laid low, will, in his turn, feel distress, and suffer for his impious ingratitude to my father, and his blood thirsty crueliy to my brother.
Oh murdered, butchered brother! Oh, dearest to my heart-now gone forever from my sight! but why should I lament his death ? He is, indeed, deprived of the blessed light of heaven, of life and kingdom, at once, by the very person wlio ought to have been the first to hazard his ow a life in defence of any one of Micipsa's family! But as things are, my brother is not so much deprived of these comforts, as delivered from terrour, from flight, from exile, and the endless train of miseries, which render life to me a burden. He lies full low, gored with wounds, and festering in his own blood. But he lies in peace. He feels none of the miseries which rend my soul with agony and distraction, while I am set up a spectacle to all mankind, of the uncertainty of human affairs. So far from having it in my power to revenge his death, I am not master of the means of securing my own life. So far from being in a condition to defend my kingdom from the violence of the usurper, I am obliged to apply for foreign protection for my own person.
Fathers ! Senators of Rome !—The arbiters of the world! To you I fly for refuge from the murderous fury of Jugurtha. By your affection for your children, by your love for your country, by your own virtues, by the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, by all that is sacred, and all that is dear to you, deliver a wretched prince from undeserved, unprovoked injury; and save the kingdom of Numidia, which is your own property, from being the prey of violence, usurpation and cruelty.
IX.-Speech of Canuleius to the Consuls; in which he de
mands that the Plebeians my be admitted into the Consulship, and that the Laws prohibiting Patricians and Plebeians from intermarrying, may be repealed.
WHAT an insult upon us is this? If we are not so richi as the Patricians, Are we not citizens of Rome as well as they? Iohabitants of the same country ?-Members of the same community ? The nations bordering upon Rome, and even strangers more remote, are admitted, not only to marriage with us, but to wliat is of much greater importance-the freedom of the city. Are 'we, because we are commoners, to be worse treated than strangers ? And when we demand that the people may be free to bestow
their offices and diguities on whom they please, Do we ask any thing unreasonable or new? Do we claim more than their original inherent right? What occasion then, for all this
uproar, as if the universe were falling to ruin ? They were just going to lay violent hands upon me in the senate house.
What! Must this empire, then, be unavoidably overturned ! Must Rome of necessity sink at once, if a Plebeian worthy of the office, should be raised to the consulship? The Patricians, I am persuaded, if they could, would deprive you of the common light. It certainly offends them that you breathe, that you speak, that you have the shapes of men. Nay, but to make a commoner a consul, would be, say they, a most enormous thing. ---Numa Pompilius, however, without being so much as a Roman citizen, was made king of Rome. The elder Tarquin, by birth not even an Italian, was nevertheless placed upon the throne. Servius Tullius, the son of a captive woman, (no body knows who his father was) obtained the kingdom, as the reward of his wisdom and virtue. In those days, no man in whom virtue shone conspicuous, was rejected or despised on account of his race and descent. And did the state prosper the less for that? Were not these strangers the very best of all our kings ? And supposing, now, that a Plebeian should have their talents and merit, Would he be suffered to govern us ?
we find, that, upon the abolition of the regal pow. er, no commoner was chosen to the consulate."-And, what of that? Before Numa's time, there were no pontiff's in Rome, Before Servius Tellius's days, there was no census, no division of the people into classes and centuries. Who ever heard of consuls before the expulsion of Tarquin the proud ? Dictators, we all know, are of mode ern invention; and so are the officers of tribunes, ædilles, quæstors. Within these ten years we have inade decemvirs, and we have unmade them. Is nothing to be done but what has been done before? That very law, forbidding marriages of Patricians with Plebeians, Is not that a new thing? Was there any such law before the decemvirs enacted it? And a most shameful one it is in a free state. Such marriages, it seems, will taint the pure blood of the nobility! Why, if they think so, let them take care to
match their sisters and daughters with men of their own sort. No Plebeian will do violence to the daughter of a Patrician, Those are exploits for our prime nobles. There is no need to fear that we shall force any body into a contract of marriage. But, to make an express law to prohibit marriages of Patricians with Plebeians, What is this but to show the utmost contempt of us, and to declare one part of the community to be impure and unclean?
They talk to us of the confusion there would be in families, if this statute should be repealed. I wonder they don't make a law against a commoner's living near a noble inan, going the same road that he is going or being pres. ent at the same feast, or appearing in the same market place. They might as well pretend that these things inake confusion in families, as that intermarriages will do it. Does not every one know that the children will be ranked according to the quality of their father, let him be a Patrician or a Plebeian? In short, it is manifest enough that we have nothing in view, but to be treated as men and citizens ; nor can they who oppose our demand have any motive to it, but the love of domineering. I would fain know of you, consvis and Patricians, Is the sovereign power in the people of Rome, or in you? I hope you will allow, that the people can, at their pleasure, either make a law or repeal one. And will you, then, as soon as any law is proposed to them, pretend to list them immediately for the war, and hinder them from giving their suffrages, by leading them into the field ?
Hear me consuls. Whether the news of the war you talk of be true, or whether it be only a false rumour, spread abroad for nothing but a colour to send the people out of the city: I declare, as a tribune, that this people, who have already so often spilt their blood in our country's cause, are again ready to arm for its defence and its glory, if they may be restored to their natural rights, and you will no longer treat us like strangers in our own country; but if you account us unworthy of your alliance, by intermarriages; if you will not suffer the entrance to the chief offices in the state to be open to all persons of merit, indifferently, but will confine your choice of magistrates to the Senate alone-talk of wars as much as ever you please-paint in your ordinary discourses, the league and