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nor their la-
bourers, nor mechanics, were permitted to
send their children to school without the
lord's leave! How different the time, when
the whole of a town, or assembly of work-
people, were viewed as the lord's vassals!—
no commoner dreamed of having a
voice in the making of his country's laws,
nor in the regulation of his country's govern-
ment and public affairs! Now,"
classes of our g
great towns are middle
the true
sovereigns of England, but happily intel-
ligent enough not only to know their own
Estrength, but also wise enough to use it well.

We have now traced some of the great
movements by which the English nation
was formed, rose, and has progressed toward
its
but Aunt
has more to tell you has more Pictures to
show, especially of the national progress:
and this subject is so many-sided, so replete
with interest and instruction, that she has
no fear of your being wearied, and therefore,
whilst bidding you all an affectionate adieu
for this year, anticipates with pleasure a
re-union in 18519xs yasm y Doola79b
n91blids bas nemow sausosd betnemal a
of loodoa bas stad mot ysws web 915
-uten elive 38918 bas 2917019st 9 mi do
19dio bas no TRIFLE eais vis
I drids I bas 8297901qai 978 299a8do
public-house in Newcastle,

hig
a where

In
an old man was seated near the fire, accosted him
with the customary salutation of Gude mornin'."
The old man raised himself up, and taking from a

it his ear.

capacious, pocket a trumThe honest pitman stood,
and after waiting with the most anxious expecta
tion for some minutes, he exclaimed, with a dis
appointed air" Nay man! it winna death
thou
canna play wi' thy lug!""

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intelligent, and religious heads, where the
workers certainly are better off in regard
to the means of domestic comfort and edu!
cation than the same number of working
people out of the

of England of AS stem in any part
however, such pri-
vileged places
and the *** captains
of industry the rich mill-owners too
little regard their duty, in respect to the
people they employ.qt givormi vinsie

The great towns London, Liverpool,
Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, and others

all remarkably exhibit the progress of
the middle classes in freedom of thought
and in political power. How different the
time, when the great lord or priest ruled
with despotic

time, when neither different the buot ad of boodTuodngren et bas 19189

As round thy blazing fire or sportive board, lo st
We taste of joys thy days alone affordraf strains
I love thee, Christmas for thy

ITS Expand the heart, and love triumphant reignsv69W
Friends meet together; some unexpected jest das
TB May call to memory one gone to rest

Or dear one far in distant climes

wont to set the table in a

The laughter-loving soul of by-gone times! erb of gibes and jokes he had a plenteous store, 9100 Fain would I wish, when life has ceased to Benet 30 Enough! Cheatre would fondly speak of me.en ob In mystic numbers to confuse the fair!Gi ent By jests which cheerful Friends for them indite! $5 -ns M lo anoffob 903 976 bltow eldstidst

Christmas

the

JE

PRACTICAL PUZZLE. ONO XXI. bus
100 to 30 oral and Vistarpebs lle
aibabu And see-
Now, sir, your coat is off! d
Your right-hand pocketed !dir!

So let it be: sbs1 1101100
While o'er your arm 199 30
An endless
Some three yards round

Hangs like a sling. b938979
Take the string off- lenigas
But, just for fun as fre&
It be

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A VISION.

was on a cold foo

last 1 fell into a kind

It evening, when the wind down the chimney, that I sat in my old arm-chair whistled round the corners of the house and roared reading. I laid expressible sense of comfort, gazed in the fire. laid down my book, and with an inGradually my mind wandered-the faces my im agination had pictured in the fire, became more of waking and mong dream. Methought I saw before mea wilderness, where the wild beast roamed free in the endless solitudes, and grass and weeds grew unrestrained where the birds built their nests in the oak and beech trees which towered above the rest, and feared not the encroaching hand of man. But an old veteran, whose hair was grey, and whose body was bent by the weight of years, came byo When I waste, and waved his staff, on

again, saw the huge monarchs of the forest falling beneath the stroke of the axe band where once stood a giant oak, now stood an emigrant's hut, and several little chil staff waved-the hut had disappeared the trees were door. before the the

encumbered the ground no more; for in their place stood cottages, corn-fields, and ploughed lands The husbandmen were busy at work, some sow ing, and some following the plough. The little

children I had seen before were now grown to manhood, and tilled lands of their own. Once more the old man flourished his staff-what a change did I see: Corn-fields, cottages, husbandmen, and all had vanished; and their place was occupied by a large manufacturing town. The streets resounded with the din of carts and carriages. Bells tolled from steeples of magnificent churches; and where once existed a swamp was now a noble edifice. Day and night the manufactories echoed with the busy hum of labour and the song of the artizan. But was there no alloy to this pleasurable scene? Alas! that I should record it! There was: and in the place of soberness, cleanliness, and innocence, there were drunkenness, poverty, and filth, and theft, and murder! Alas! that these crimes should pollute the tract of civilization-If but so it is. I awoke, and with the first sensations of my dream, there had gone out my fire, and the lamp was flickering and nearly extinguished; so I hurried shivering to bed. Reader, who was the old man I saw in my dream? While seeing him, I was losing him: and when I had again found him, I had lost him.-E. S.

2.

At my second assembled were,
Many gay lords and ladies fair,
Whose bosoms were elate with joy,
Unmingled with sad care's alloy.
Little they reck'd for the starving poor,
Pinched by cold, and hunger sore;
Whom poverty compelled to roam,
In this harsh world without a home
To shield them from the chilling blast,
That over them its breath did cast,
While my first was thickly falling-
Making their lot yet more appalling.
There was one wretch in whose face,
One might the lines of sorrow trace;
Who, plodding on his weary way,
To beguile the hours of night away,
A portion of my first would take,
And of it a compact substance make:
But no spirit had he, I ween,

To play with it as I have seen
Others, whose hearts were light and gay,
And paths illumined by Fortune's ray. H.M.

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Dark was the night, damp, miserably cold, When a bold traveller, who had ridden far O'er hill and dale that day, at length beheld. Though still at distance seen, my first's pale light. Spurring his jaded steed, whose weary steps Told how he toil'd, my first he gladly reach'd

My second from my first-how different!
Through man's existence: it will raise his hopes,
It forms a wild, imaginative dream
Though fraught with dark despair, to joyous scenes:
Again 'twill cast him to the lowest depths
Of misery-unutterable woe!

My whole tells of that time when mortal man,
ever, during their brief life on earth,
Seems clad with roseate tints of heavenly hue:
Their minds, adorn'd with innocence and truth,
Wear nought but pure simplicity; such as
Were our first parents whilst in Paradise.-T.R.V.

5.

My first-how rapid is its flight,
Death comes upon its wings!
And yet to man and maiden fair
Pleasure and mirth it brings:
It bringeth joy, it bringeth woe-
A mighty Ruler deals the blow.
My second is of ev'ry size;
Its rough and tawny skin,
Its funny eyes, its uncouth shape,
Hold a soft heart within.
Yes, and so dainty is my second,
Its breath a luxury is reckon'd.
It yieldeth beauty, giveth life

To millions. And wise men
And schoolboys say 'tis sometimes square,
'Tis round, soft, hard; and then
In lakes, seas, rivers, it is found;
And sometimes it is in the ground.

My whole does from my second come,
And counteracts the pain
My first has left. It comes from far,
Nor comes it here in vain;
The little and the sick proclaim
That it is well deserving fame.-E. M.S.

6.

Up from his couch Sir Ronald rose,
When all was buried in repose;
He left his tent my last to keep,-
For he, in vain, had sought to sleep;
And by the pale moonlight he sought
The field whereon, that day, he'd fought:
And long he gazed by the moonlight dim,
Upon my first, so cold and grim
Stretched out before him, all around,
Amidst the wounded on the ground.
When Sir Ronald coured sleep again,
Strange visions floated er his brain;
As he lay awake upon ats bed, i

He heard my whole beneath his head.-ES

7.

Oh! Alice, leave those hateful towers,
And come away with me;

The moon shines bright, and sheds her ligh
Mildly o er the sea.

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14.

My whole is mostly seen with frown severe;
And I of many am the dread and fear,
And more so still if guilt is on their mind,
Since to the smallest faults I'm seldom blind.
Yet what I do is needful in its place,

15.

If you, with stealthy tread, my dear, Approached some timid person's ear, And "Bo'd!" when you were very near, He would do me.

Say what you will about my frowning face!
Behead, and Winter then can tell a tale
Of miseries which in my reign prevail;
Though many call me pleasant, and delight
To see my varied forms before their sight.
Thus many then do I great pleasure give,
Whilst others in my presence scarce can live.
Yet, strange to say, I so put all about,
That every one conspires to shut me out!
Behead once more, I'm what few like to be;
And what but few will live themselves to see.
Good dear! how ladies stare if you should say,
You think they're getting something in my way.
Yet shun me as they will-pray where's the use?
'Tis very silly when they me abuse;
Since each one hopes to be what I am now,
And have my name engraven on their brow.
T. H. N.

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Ils to end.

17.

-1177 1
9 THE THREE JEALOUS HUSBANDS.

Three men, with their wives, have to cross a river in a boat, which holds only two at a time; no 5 woman must be in the presence of a man, unless her husband is present, or he will be jealous; how did they manage to get across?

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18.

- **

3

EXTRAORDINARY DOUBLE TRANSPOSITION.

A lover begged of his mistress a proof of her sentiments towards him; she wrote on a slip of paper "THE NOVEL PROOF," bidding him change one of the consonants into a vowel, and transpose the letters into an answer. He did so, and was quitting her in despair, when she asked him by what mishap it was that her token of affection 1 should cause him so much pain? Query. How did the lady wish the letters transposed, and how did the swain transpose them?

A. E. B.

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WILD FLOWERS-DECEMBER.

CONUNDRUMS, &c.

1. WHAT was Joan of Arc made of?
2. Why was a certain general ejected from a
brewery?
3. What colour is the grass when covered with
snow?

4. What dress should a lady procure to keep the

rest of her wardrobe clean? 5. When is a lady not a lady? 6. Had you rather that a lion eat you, or a tiger? 7. What word is that, which, being made shorter, becomes longer, and when longer is shorter

than it was before?

8. Take me away from what you intended, and leave an insect.

WHAT two nouns of two syllables each, contain more letters than two other nouns each of six syllables? C. Y.

THE following sentence has the same meaning, whether read or spelt backwards or forwards :(L) LEWD DID I LIVE!

WILD FLOWERS-DECEMBER.

"Love me well; I am the last of the sisterhood of months that you can love."--GILFILLAN.

unfrequently, in open weather, to the commencement of the present month.

Those tufts are formed by the traveller's-joy, or virgin's bower, Clematis vitalba, of which the stems extend from ten to twenty feet, and are covered in July, August, and September, with numerous sweet-scented flowers, which gradually give place to long, feathery, and downy seeds, "Traviler's joie, is this same plant termed," says Gerard, "as decking and adorning waies and hedges where people travell. Virgin's bower, by reason of the goodly shadowe which they make with their thick bushing and climbing; as also for the beautie of the flowers, and the pleasant scent and savour of the same; and by country folks Old man's beards,' from the hoary appearance of the seeds which remain long on the hedges."

This favourite creeper is common in the southern and western counties, especially in calcareous soils, and thrives even among rocks and loose stones; restricted, however, to certain localities: and though growing abundantly in Gloucestershire, is rarely seen northward of Worcestershire, as remarked by Withering. The elegant profusion with which the traveller's-joy ascends lofty trees, and even rocks, on the southern shore of the Isle of Wight, excites the admiration of every traveller. Those also who visit in autumn the Ballast Hills at St. Anthony's and Wellington Quay, Northum berland, observe with pleasure the effect produced by its hoary seeds, when mantling the huge stones and hedges of its windy domicile. Few, if any, among our native plants, are sufficiently promi nent in their "autumn glory" to exhibit those changing hues, or lights or shadows, which are produced by clouds or sunbeams; such however, is the case with the wild clematis: and we have seen it under different aspects, reflecting the beams of the setting sun as if "tinged with a golden finger," or catching the cloud shadows as they come and go. Often, too, have we lingered with delight, to observe the striking contrast presented by their silver tufts, and the clear blue of an autumnal sky, when partially veiling some high cliff, which rose precipitously from behind the road; or when, having covered the leafless branches of some way-side tree, the undulating clusters were seen waving in the wind.

We have looked carefully along the banks, and in many a sheltered nook, hopeful to find at least some crane's-bill, or yellow ox-eye-latest children of the year; but vain has been our search. Adopting, therefore, the idea suggested by the imaginative Kästner, we shall speak concerning the berries and brown leaves, and those elegant pensile tufts, which hang like drapery on the autumnal hedges in profuse masses, enlivening the roadsides after flowers have long vanished; and remaining, not

The traveller's-joy has, like all plants, its own brief history inscribed on stems, and leaves, and flowers, that he who passes by may read and take pleasure in the simple record. This, there fore, is its history; or rather, perhaps, the uses to which the different parts may be applied:-The branches are sufficiently tough to make bands for faggots or hurdles; and the whole plant is well

KÄSTNER, the Hanoverian minister, whose talents are justly eulogized by the poet Hans Anderson, embodied in one of his flower paintings a truly poetic thought. He introduced an arabesque of flowers, as emblematic of the flora of every season. It commenced with the crocus and snow-adapted for covering arbours and rock-work in drop, the peeping nanny and pale primrose, suc-pleasure grounds, being of rapid growth and ex ceeded by summer flowers; then came autumnal tremely hardy. Field-mice avail themselves of ones; and lastly, red berries and yellow-brown the long, feathery down attached to the seeds, to leaves, trophies wherewith December crowns his render their nests both warm and soft, and hence hedges and wild woods. they are often found at the entrance to their holes.

"For oft the little mouse Illudes our hopes, and, safely lodged below, Hath formed his granaries."

3+ Ye & *A*

In France, the twigs are much used to make bes hives and baskets; and those who occupy the selves with observing the wonderful arrangement and construction of vegetable tubes and air-vesse will do well to submit a branch or leaf of this teresting creeper, to a common magnifying-g

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Our village boys, however, know nothing of these curious facts; but having found out that air circulates freely through the stems, they cut a long stalk from some dry branch, which they light at one end; this done, they proceed to mimic the doings of grave men, who assemble on the village -common beneath some old meinorial tree, and, unmoved by poetic association or legendary lore, puff tobacco smoke through their long, unsentimental pipes. Hence the country name of smoke pipe, which is applied to the wild clematis.

forth from amid tufts of moss, or on old weedy walls and rocks, in company with lichens of all shapes and tints, associated with many a spiritstirring tale of by gone days, and delighting the youthful botanist who climbs fearlessly to some giddy height in order to obtain such a novel prize. In like manner, the scarlet conferva (C. coccinea) equally affects both rocks, and stones, and fuci, within reach of the wild waves' play; and the bright red-cup lichen (L. cocciferus) holds forth its slightly hollowed cups, edged with beautiful scarlet tubercles, on lone heaths, when even the hardy fern looks brown and withered. You may hear the voices of young children calling eagerly to one another, when they first discover the scarlet peziza (P. coccinea), on decayed sticks in woods, and on damp hedge-banks where streams ooze forth; or else its pale orange relative (P. punicea), on old walls, or lichen-dotted branches

Young naturalists often amuse themselves with placing a small cutting in some bright coloured liquid, such as an infusion of saffron or cochineal, and observing how gradually the pores become filled. The same effect is shown by the white hyacinth of our woods in spring, but in that case, the transparency of the stem enables the progress of the coloured sap to be distinctly traced.

some near tree.

We have spoken in past months of the black-which the winds of autumn have broken from briony, or lady's seal, Tamus communis, as ornamental to our hedges in May and June-that brilliant creeper, which terminates its long geographic range (from as far south as Algiers) on the north bank of the river Wear, above Sunderland. The bright red berries look beautiful among the leafless branches, and beside them often gleam the equally red berries of the wild vine, Bryonia dioica, of which the root is sometimes formed into the human shape, by means of a mould adapted for the purpose, and sold for the Atropa mandragora of warm climates.

Look at the mournful yew (Taxus baccata), springing from out the interstices of some rocky acclivity, grasping the firm soil, and spreading forth its dark branches when all other trees are leafless. Methinks there is much of beauty in that stern evergreen, though poets and moralists speak only of its sable plumes; of cheerfulness, it may be-for what can equal in hue or form the bright cornelian berry that grows profusely on even the slenderest twig? Small birds resort in winter to the friendly yew, as to an open banquet: they sing not those sad ditties which embody nought but moody feelings; their grateful songs are rather heard chanting the praises of One on high, who "careth for them," who has set the yew-tree often among wild rocks, and in stony valleys, where even the wild vine and ladies'-seal can hardly find a rooting-place.

Why is it that poets will tune their harps to mournful numbers? theirs is a glorious gift, that should gladden the hearts of those who hear them. They are the world's minstrels-their place is to lead the chorus of universal nature, which arises from grove, and field, and glen, and mountain, even when the yellow corn is gathered in, and sapless branches cast their summer suits; when gusty winds wrestle with forest trees; and sunbeams, coming forth as if by chance, shed a wayward light on meads and waters; when, too, the nights grow cold and long, and sleety storms career athwart a wintry sky-there is still much of gladness left, ay, of pleasant sights; why, else, these beauteous berries, that shine along the hedges, not brown, nor grey, but of the brightest tints, that wayfaring birds may readily discern them?

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And low upon the ground grow many simple plants of equal brilliancy, as if to cheer the hearts of those who pass through miry ways. The scarlet cartilaginous helvella (H. cartilaginea) peeps

Listen to what old Gerard wrote, more than three centuries since, concerning the arum, cuckoopint, wake-robin, or lords and ladies (A. maculatum)-for by such dissimilar names is this singular plant designated: and if you have not already sought for it in shady places, ditch-banks, and rough grounds, go forth while yet there is time, and you cannot fail to find the arum, for its scarlet berries embellish many a lone haunt, when flowers are no more, and even its own foliage has long since disappeared.

"This plant," said the prince of herbalists, hath great, large, smoothe, shining, sharp-pointed leaves, spotted here and there with blackish spots, mixed with some blewnesse, among which riseth up a stalke nine inches long, besprinkled with certain purple spots. It beareth also a certaine long hose, or hoode, in proportion like unto the eares of a hare, in the middle of which hoode cometh forth a pestle, or clapper, of a murry, or pale purple colour, which being past, there appeareth in place thereof a bunch or cluster of berries, in manner of a bunch of grapes, greene at the first, but after they be ripe, of a red, like coral, and full of juice; wherein lie hid one or two little hard seeds. This hooded plante do differ according to the varieties of countries, being sharper and more biting in some than others. Travellers relate that in the northern partes, bears, after they have lien in their dens without any manner of sustenance, doe, as soon as they come forth, eat the cuckow-pint."

Men in old times were ready to believe whatever travellers were pleased to relate; the fact, however, concerning the shaggy occupants of Scandinavian forests, is by no means improbable. The qualities of the root are both nutritive and farinaceous, and Widelius conjectures that the plant named chara, on which the soldiers of Julius Cæsar made a sort of bread at Dyrrachium, during a scarcity of provisions, was either this species of arum, or one much resembling it. We may, therefore naturally conjecture that the bear, when first awaking, seeks for such roots or vegetables as are best adapted to supply his wants. Thrushes, in like manner, often in winter repair to places where the arum grows, and scratch off the snow, in order to obtain the warm and pungent roots. Is this an act of memory, or of instinct? Does the warbling thrush, when singing to his mate in spring, observe the stemless arum, with its large

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