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THE STEREOSCOPE.

341

round and behind objects. The convergence and sented, the most art can do is to imitate the impresdivergence of the eyes may be shown by the same sion of one eye alone. To produce the effect of diagram. The eyes, when directed on the object c, nature, we must do as nature does: two pictures are more converged than when looking at d. In must be painted, one for each eye, and combined, to other words, c is seen at a much greater angle than produce the sensation of one. This is effected by d; the rays of light proceeding from c or d compel the Stereoscope, the compound image having all the ling the pupils of the eyes to approach or recede from qualities of the natural picture, each part of it comeach other. This opening and closing of the visual pelling the eye to converge and diverge, as it apaxis may be fitly compared to the same action in a pears more or less distant. This is the most remarkpair of compasses, and it is by the quantity of this able part of the Stereoscope discovery, that two action going on with the eyes that we are enabled pictures on a perfectly flat surface, when combined, to estimate the relative distance of near objects. should necessitate the same opening and closing of The eyes, then, may be simply considered as a pair the visual axis as is occasioned by a natural picture of optical compasses, and the rays of light emanat where the parts which constitute it are separated by ing from the object as the limbs of the compasses. actual measurable space. The sensation or effect of distance results from the We will now proceed to examine the construction power which we possess with two eyes to see round

of the compound Stereoscope picture. It has aland behind objects.

ready been explained that it is constituted of two It has been fully explained, in the preceding dia pictures, each taken from a different point of sight gram, how we are enabled to see distant objects,

corresponding with the two eyes ; take, for examalthough other objects may intervene ; and this is ple, a, the simplest form of picture-an arrow standgreatly assisted by the necessary change of focus

ing in a vertical direction through a circle—it would which, whilst it makes the distant object clear and

appear to each eye like the diagram. These two distinct, at the same time makes the near and inter- { designs being all that is necessary to produce, with vening object less visible. The quality of focal change becomes of more value and importance in cases where the sight of one eye is lost. It may not be generally known that a person suddenly deprived of the use of one eye estimates with the greatest difficulty the distance of objects. It would be almost impossible to snuff a candle with one eye closed, or even to place the finger exactly on any fixed point. The single eye, like the single leg of a compass, cannot at first measure distance ; but, after some time, experience teaches the one eye to esti- the aid of the Stereoscope, the effect of one arrow mate distance by the change of focus alone, whilst standing through a single circle, with the barbed with both eyes we feel and measure distance by the end uppermost, it now remains to explain how this convergence and divergence of the visual axis. The } effect is produced. It is important to know that, in structure of the eye has at all times been quoted as looking at natural objects, both eyes are invariably one of the most beautiful illustrations of design and directed, or converge on the same point, and can natural mechanism, and certainly the additional only regard a single point at the same time, whilst discoveries which we may expect to be disclosed by the Stereoscope enables each eye to look at the corthe Stereoscope will not diminish our wonders at the

responding points of two separate pictures. This minute and beautiful arrangements by which ex-}is, indeed, the whole secret of this instrument, ternal pictures are painted on the mirror of the which, by bending the rays of light coming from mind. We have, then, arrived to this conclusion, each picture towards each other, enables each eye that, to experience the effect of distance or solidity, } to regard a different image at the same time. In certain circumstances must exist to compel the the diagram of the arrows, à a and \ b are correopening and closing of the visual angle, in propor- sponding points, the parts 'b b being separated by a tion as the eyes are directed to different parts of the wider space than à a: consequently, the eyes being same picture ; but, as in an ordinary single picture, { each directed on the parts ' b will be wider apart, like the painting of a landscape, all parts of it are or will have a greater divergence than when lookat the same relative distance from the eyes, it fol. ing at à a; and, as parts of the same object in nalows that the angle of vision is the same for all ture give the effect of greater or less distance in parts, and, consequently, the sense or feeling of dis- proportion as they cause the eyes to converge and tance cannot be experienced. It matters not diverge, it follows, according to this law, 'b b should whether we look at the foreground or background, { appear at a greater distance than à a; in other there can be no mistake about its being on a flat words, the barbed part of the arrow should appear surface; it gives rise to no feeling of distance; uppermost. The annexed diagram may assist the although the idea of nature may be skilfully repre. } explanation : here the arrows are supposed to be

VOL. XLV.-29

combined, or stand over each other; the eyes (o d) { directed to b: a comparison of the angles will at being directed on the corresponding points (à a), once show that b must appear in the background the visual angle will be represented by a cd; and { from the increased divergence of the eyes. The sinwhen directed on 'b b, the angle will be e cd; but { gular part of this case is, that only the right eye

moves, whilst the left eye is stationary. A mere glance at any geometric stereoscopio pictures will at once show which parts should be in the foreground, and which in the background. All that is necessary is to measure the space between corresponding points of both pictures; those which are widest apart will appear behind those parts which are nearer to each other. In this diagram, the pair

ecd is a much smaller angle than a cd; consequently, à a, or the barbed part of the arrow, must appear the nearest; that such is the fact may be proved by experiment. When this law is understood, the most curious effects may be produced by equally simple means; the addition of a mere dot, or a single line, to a diagram, will be all that is necessary to make it stand out from the surface on which it is drawn. The following are illustrations of some of the simplest forms of stereoscopic pic of pictures produce opposite effects to each other; tures : the first is intended to produce the effect of the part which stands out in one is behind in the

other. The law just mentioned will explain it. In the upper pair, à is nearer to a than ' is to b; hence the part à a will appear nearest, and vice versa in the lower pair of pictures. We cannot,

from vision alone, have the idea of distance; it is one ball standing before the other; the second, the

only when combined with the actual experience of effeot of the barb of an arrow pointing towards the

touch or measurement that we can say one part is nearer than another. Nothing can be more subject to deception than vision : as an example, the reflection of a natural picture in a mirror presents all the effects of distance; yet we know from experience every part of this picture is reflected from a plane

surface. Again, the recently-discovered pseudoobserver; the third, two lines; and the fourth, a {

scope has the effect of making objects exactly the nail.

opposite of what they really are: solids look hollow, An explanation of the construction of the first

objects on the right appear on the left, the most image will suffice for the remainder. The balls aro

distant objects look the nearest, objects approaching supposed to be in a direct line with the left eye;

have the effect of receding, &c. A natural picture consequently, the left image will be represented by

may, then, simply be considered as a picture conone ball, and the right image by two. This diagram

taining effects which cannot be rendered on a flat will also serve to show more forcibly how divergenco

surface; all the ideas associated with it, of distance, &c., are the result of a knowledge or experience which is quite independent of the picture itself, although they assist most materially in giving a character to the impression made on the brain. Color also assists in giving an idea of the form of irregular images, and, in a certain degree, may indicate distance by its force or tone. The chief function of color, by which is meant light and shade, is to

assist in exhibiting the shape of objects when there and convergence of the eyes are produced by terreo is an absence of direct lines. A globe is an illusscopic pictures: the combined pictures of the balls t ration of this; without light and shade, it would are represented in this diagram. The left eye, } look like a flat circle. being in a direct line, can only see the ball d, and § A few words, in conclusion, on the advancement remains fixed on this point when the right eye is { of photography. The commercial or public appli

THE HUSKING FROLIC.

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cation of photographic science in this country has been, in a great measure, confined to the action of light on metallic plates, although most beautiful effects may be produced on a more convenient and cheaper material, and it is probable that this branch of the subject will be more than ever investigated, since stereoscope pictures on metal, from their weight, cost, and other inconveniences, will not be 80 largely employed as camera pictures on paper.

In the course of this inquiry, many matters have been left untouched, through fear of confusing the

subject; the chief object being to show the analogy between the stereoscopio and natural pictures in their relation to the organs and sense of vision. To the scientific man, many of the foregoing explanations will appear unnecessarily explicit and tedious; but we trust, to the great bulk of our readers, we may have succeeded in making this beautiful and remarkable discovery intelligible : in that case, we shall not have failed in proving, in this particular instance, like effects result from like causes.

THE RED EAR; OR, THE HUSKING FROLIC.

BY T. S. ARTIUR.

(Sce Plate.)

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In rural districts, the merrymakings have a na- į service, and silently and coldly does its work. Yet, tural heartiness about them never seen in cities, here and there, a farmer, who cannot forget the towns, nor villages. Overweening self-respect has pleasant times when he was young, sends forth his not come in to fetter the motions of the body, nor annual summons after the maize harvest is gathered, to smother the laugh in its free utterance. Feeling and then comes a merrymaking for old and young and action are in close relationship. You come that is enjoyed in a way never to be forgotten. nearer to nature, untrammelled by custom and un.} Old Ephraim Bradley was a man of this school. affected by art.

If his head grew white under the falling snows of A merrymaking par excellence is a New England many winters, the grass was fresh and green, and husking frolic. The husking frolic at the South is the flowers ever blooming on his heart. With him, a different affair altogether. There, it is a congre the annual “husking" was never omitted. It was gation of negroes from the various plantations near like Christmas and Thanksgiving, almost a sacred at hand, who, while they work, make the air vocal thing, half involving sin in the omission. almost for miles around with their rude melodies, a Kate Mayflower, a wild romp of a girl from Bosfew of which have been rendered familiar to ears ton-at least some in the city regarded her as such polite by the “Serenaders” who have so highly -was spending a few weeks in D , when invitaamused the public during the past two or three tions came to attend a husking party at Ephraim years. But, at the North, the “husking," like the Bradley's. The old man lived some three miles “quilting," draws together the gentle maidens and from the village. Kate had heard about husking loving swains of a neighborhood, who meet to enjoy parties, and her young spirits leaped up when the themselves in their own way. And such enjoyment announcement was made that one was to be held in as they have, in kind and degree, is not to be met the neighborhood, and that she was invited to be with every day. In former times, the “husking" present. It was a frolic that, from all she had was a wilder affair than at present. Straight-laced heard, would just suit her temperament, and she set conventionality is gradually finding its way beyond off, when the time came, to make one of the party, the city limits, and binding the free spirits of our in the merriest possible mood. country maidens. They meet oftener with the } Evening had closed in on the arrival of the party “city folks,” gradually falling more and more into from D- , who quickly joined some score or two their habits as they partake more and more of their of young people in the large kitchen, where lay spirit; and, when they assemble for enjoyment, they heaped up in the centre a huge pile of Indian corn. check their impulses, restrain their movements, and “All that to be husked ?” whispered Kate, as she hush almost into silence the merry laughter that entered the room. seeks to leap forth like the singing waters of the “Oh yes; all that and more, perhaps," was the fountain. No; “huskings” are not what they were. smiling reply. “We have come to work, you Instead of seeing on the threshing-floor a troop of know.” young men and maidens, stripping from the bright “Now, gals," said old Mr. Bradley, who stood ears of grain their leafy coverings, amid laughter, looking on as the young folks gathered, with bright music, and the mingling of sweet voices, as of old, { faces, around the golden grain, “now for a good mere “ labor" comes in too often to perform the old-fashioned time. If there are not half a dozen

weddings between this and Christmas, I shall say the nerve required to go through with his part, as there is no virtue in red ears."

Kate clearly proved when it came to her turn to reAs he ceased, down dropped, amid gay voices and ceive a salute. Springing from her chair, she fled laughter, the whole company upon the floor, in all into the next room ; but this only increased bis graceful and ungraceful positions, in a circle around eagerness to touch the lips of “the beautiful girl the pile of corn. Kate alone remained standing, from Boston," and he soon had his arms around her for the movement was so sudden that she could not and his hands upon her cheeks. The struggle was act with it.

long and well sustained on the part of the maiden; “Here's room for you, Kate," cried one of the but her fate was to be kissed, and kissed by a rough girls who had come with her, making a place by young countryman whom she had never met before. her side ; and down sank Kate, feeling, for the first The deed was done, and then the blushing, panting time, a little awkward and confused. Beside her { girl was led back in triumph to the room from which was a stout, rough country youth, whose face was she had escaped. all merriment, and whose eyes were dancing with { Red ears were in plenty that evening. It was anticipated pleasure. The city girl eyed his rough, shrewdly guessed that every young man had come brown hands, coarse garments, and unpolished face, { with at least two in his pockets, for all the girls with a slight feeling of repulsion, and drew a little avowed that never before had farmer Bradley's field from him towards her friend.

of corn produced so many. As for Kate, she was “Oh, plenty of room, miss! Plenty of room," } kissed and kissed, until making, as she alleged to said he, turning broadly around, and addressing her her friend, a virtue of necessity, she submitted with with a familiar leer. “The tighter we fit in, the the kindliest grace imaginable; and, if the truth better. Lay the brands close, if you want a good must be told, enjoyed the frolic with as lively a zest fire."

as any one present. Kate could not help laughing at this. As she At length, the great pile of corn disappeared, and laughed, he added

the company arranged themselves for dancing ; but “All free and easy here.” He had grasped an they had hardly been on the floor half an hour, ear of corn, and was already stripping down the when supper was announced--and such a supper as husk. “A red ear, by jingo!" suddenly burst from that was! No pyramids of ice-cream or candied his lips, in a tone of triumph ; and, as he spoke, he oranges. No mock nor real turtle; nor oysters in a sprang towards, or rather upon Kate, with the grace dozen styles. Turkies there were, but not scientifiof a young bear, and kissed her with a “smack" {cally “boned." No; there were none of the fashthat might have been heard a dozen rooms off. Ere ionable city delicacies; but, instead, “a gigantic she had time to recover from the surprise, and, it round of beef in the centre of the table was flanked must be admitted, indignation, occasioned by this on either side with vegetables. A bouncing junk unexpected assault upon her lips, the hero of the of corned beef was at one end, and a big chickenfirst “red ear” was half around the circle of strug- į pie at the other. An Indian pudding, of ample gling girls, kissing both right and left with a skill dimensions, stood forth between the middle and end and heartiness that awoke shouts of applause from of the end dishes, and a giant pot of beans loomed the young “fellers," who envied his good fortune. } np on the other side ; whilst pumpkin-pies, apple

That was a new phase of life to Kate. She had } sauce, and a host of other fixings' filled up the heard of kissing as an amusement among young

spaces." folks, and had often thought that the custom was This was the bill of fare for the evening, and too good to have become obsolete ; but a practical our city belle looked on with a new surprise, as she view, and a personal participation like this, was a saw the articles disappearing one after another thing that her imagination had, in none of its vaga like frost work on window-panes at sunrise. If the ries, conceived. An old-fashioned, straight-backed, good wife did not say on this, as was said on a flag-bottomed chair stood near, and, unwilling to similar occasion, "Lay hold, and help yourselves, trust herself again upon the floor, Kate drew that gals—make a long arm; and let the men folks take into the circle, and seated herself close to the pile keer of themselves. If any on you likes turnips of corn just as the young man had completed his squat and buttered, equat and butter 'em to suit task of kissing every girl in the room.

yourselves"—at least as hearty and primitive an in“First-rate that !” said he, smacking his lips, as vitation to go to work on the good things was exhe threw himself at her feet. “Wasn't I lucky?" tended, and no one could complain that it was not

Kate's indignation had, by this time, all melted acted upon. What followed is best given in the away under a lively sense of the ludicrous, and she language of one who has already described a similar could not help laughing with the merriest. Soon { scene: another red ear was announced, and then the kissing “The guests seemed to do ample justice to the commenced again. Such struggling, wrestling, viands; mirth and festivity reigned around the screaming, and laughing, Kate had never heard nor} board. Jokes, witticisms, and flashes of fun would seen. The young man who held the prize bad all occasionally set the table in a roar.' All appeared CORN SHUCKING IN THE OLD DOMINION.

345

adepts and novices, took the floor and did their utmost:

determined to enjoy themselves at the top of their bent.'

“Soon as supper was over, all the girls lent a hand, and the table was cleared away in a jiffy. Blindman's buff was then introduced ; the company now was uproarious! Dancing was the next consideration. Amos Bunker screwed up his viol, rosined the bow, and did up' the toe and heelinspiring notes of Fisher's Hornpipe; whilst a number of the party, who were somewhat skilled in the terpsichorean art, put in the double shuffle rigadoon.' Presently the lookers-on caught the enthusiasm, and the whole company, old and young,

* 'Twas right and left, and down outside, six round and

back to back: Harum-scarum, helter-skelter, bump together, whack!

And thus was the husking kept up till the old clock, which stood in one corner of the kitchen, beat out twelve; then broke up this jolly gathering."

So it was at old farmer Bradley's. When Kate went back to Boston, she was free to own that she had enjoyed a new kind of merrymaking, and avowed her purpose to be at old Ephraim Bradley's when the next “husking" came off.

CORN SHUCKING IN THE OLD DOMINION.

(See Plate.)

TAE following is by the gentleman who kindly { for years, and constitutes the planter's provision of furnished us with the drawing of “Corn Shucking fuel. When a supply is wanted, one of these dead in the Old Dominion."

trunks is felled by the axe. The abundance of "I send you a pen and ink sketch, which, though light-wood is one of the boasts of South Carolina. familiar to all from the 'sunny South,' may be a Wherever you are, if you happen to be chilly, you novelty to those residing at the North. It repre- may have a fire extempore ; a bit of light-wood and sents corn shucking in the Old Dominion. This is a coal give you a bright blaze and a strong heat in the season of merrymaking among the blacks, who an instant. The negroes make fires of it in the assemble for miles around; and, for a supper of fields where they work, and, when the mornings are

hog meat and hominy,' and as much whiskey as wet and chilly, in the pens where they are milking will make them merry, will, in a single night, husk the cows. At a plantation where I passed a frosty the product of a large plantation. The labor of night, I saw fires in a small inclosure, and was told husking is made light by songs, and sometimes the by the lady of the house that she had ordered them music of a banjo. One man, who is celebrated for to be made to warm the cattle. his wit and his facility in rhyming, mounts the pile, “The light-wood fire was made, and the negroes and treats his sable brethren to a recitative song, dropped in from the neighboring plantations, singdescribing their joys and sorrows, their loves and ing as they came. The driver of the plantation, a their hardships, “in soul-moving poesy;' at the end { colored man, brought out baskets of corn in the of each line the chorus is caught up by those around { husk, and piled it in a heap; and the negroes began the pile, and for miles their songs are borne on the ļ to strip the husks from the ears, singing with great still night air, lulling to rest all who are within glee as they worked, keeping time to the music, and reach of its soothing influence. The party does not now and then throwing in a joke and an extravabreak up till near day, and many find great diffi {gant burst of laughter. The songs were generally culty in getting home, on account of their seeing of a comic character. double from their night debauch. P. H. C.” "When the work of the evening was over, the

The following we extract from “ Bryant's Letters negroes adjourned to a spacious kitchen. One of from the South :"

them took his place as musician, whistling and beat"A CORN SHUCKING.-But you must hear of the } ing time with two sticks upon the floor. Several of corn shucking. The one at which I was present the men came forward and executed various dances, was given on purpose that I might witness the hu capering, prancing, and drumming with heel and mors of the Carolina negroes. A huge fire of light toe upon the floor, with astonishing agility and wood was made near the corn-house. Light-wood perseverance, though all of them had performed is the wood of the long-leaved pine, and is so called, their daily tasks, and had worked all the evening, not because it is light, for it is almost the heaviest } and some had walked from four to seven miles to wood in the world, but because it gives more light attend the corn shucking. From the dances & than any other fuel. In clearing lands, the pines transition was made to a mock military parade, a are girdled and suffered to stand; the outer portion } sort of burlesque of our militia trainings, in which of the wood decays and falls off; the inner part, the words of command and the evolutions were exwhich is saturated with turpentine, remains upright tremely ludicrous. It became necessary for the

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