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1820.]
Literary Intelligence.

347 and present Acts of Parliament respecting The Works of Sir Richard Blackmore, Insolvency. By RICHARD Hart.

now irst collected, with his Life, and • Desultory Thoughts in London, with Notes, By Mr. CHALMERS. Ju 10 vols. other Poems. By CHARLES LLOYD, author 8vo. of “ Nugæ Canoræ,” and translator of History of Galway, the principal City Alfieri.

in the West of Ireland. Embellished with Notes on Rio de Janeiro, and the Engravings. By James HARDIMAN, Esq. Southern Parts of Brazil, taken during a M. R. J. A. Residence of Ten Years in that Country, The Family Cyclopædia, embracing the from 1808 to 1818; with an Appendix, most recent discoveries and improvements describing the Signals by which Vessels in Agriculture, Chemistry, Domestic Ecoenter the Port of Rio Grande do Sul ; toge nomy, Gardening, &c. By James Jenther with numerous Tables of Commerce, NINGS. and a Glossary of Tupi Words. By JOIN Recollections of a Classical Tour made Luccock.

during the years of 1813 avd 1819, in difPreparing for Publication.

ferent parts of Turkey, Greece, and Italy. The Books of Genesis and Daniel (in By P. E. LAURENT, Esq. Illustrated wiih connection with modern Astronomy), de beautiful Engravings of the Costumes of fended against Count Volney and Dr.

each country. Francis--- Also the Sonship of Christ a The Beauties of Mozart, Handel, gainst John Gorton and the Rev. Mr. Pleyel, Haydn, Beethoven, and other ceEvans, as supplementary matter 10 the lebrated Composers, adapted to the words Genealogy of Christ. By John Overton. of farourite Psalms and Hymns, for one

A Sermon, . demonstrating that the or two Voices; with an Accompaniment Christian Priesthood is a perfect Hie and occasional Symphonies for the Pianorarchy, emanating immediately from God Forte, Organ, or Harp. By an eminent himself. By the Rev. John Oxlee, Rec Musical Professor. tor of Scawion, and Curate of Stonegrave. An Engraving of the Warwick Vase, in

The Privileges and Obligations of Chris the Lithographic manner. Also the First tian Parents and their Children, adduced Number of a progressive Series of Ornafrom a View of the Abrahamic Covenant. mental Sketches. By W. G, Rogers.

A Narrative of the Persecution of the The Boys' School ; or, Traits of ChaProtestants of the South of France, during racter in Early Life, a moral Tale. By the years 1814, 1815, and 1816. By Miss SANDHAM, author of the “School MARK Wilks. Illustrated with a Chart Fellows,” “Twin Sisters,” &c. of the Department of the Gard.

Volume III. of the Transactions of the The Crucifix exchanged for the Cross; Association of the Fellows and Licentiates illustrated in the Memoirs of Miss Marga. of the King's and Queen's College of Phyret Leader, of Dublin.

sicians in Ireland. A Scriptural View of the True and False An Account of a New Method of making Religion. By the Rev. G. SCRAGGS. dried Anatomical Preparations ; exbibit

The Private and Confidential Corre. ing the various structures of Animal Bospondence of Charles Talbot, Duke of dies, so as to present the same appearShrewsbury, during the Reign of King ances as a fresh subject when first disWilliam the Third, never before published; sected. by Mr. Joseph Swan, Member illustrated with Historical and Biographi. of the Royal College of Surgeons. cal Narratives, from the original Docu Augustus ; or, the Ambitious Student. ments in the possession of the Duchess The Universe, a Poem. By the Rev. of Buccleuch, to whom the work is in Mr. MATURIN, Author of “ Bertram,” &c. scribed, by permission. By WILLIAM “Scheming,' a novel, will shortly appear Cuxe, F.R.S. F.S.A. Archdeacon of Wilts. from the pen of a person of high fashion,

A new Pocket Edition of Bagster's Time's Telescope for 1821; or, a Com. Walton and Cotton's "Complete Angler," plete Guide to the Almanacks. To which under the care of the Gentleman who will be prefixed an Introduction, containedited the last Edition. Wales's Designs ing the Elements of British Ornithology, will be engraved on a reduced scale, as well as the Portraits of Walton and Cotton. Other fresh Prints from the real Scenery

MODERN GREEKS. of both Parts of the Work will be intro The Public Schools established at duced : and, amongst them, an exterior Smyrna and Chios bave bitherto been atView of the Palace of Theobalds in its tended with the lappiest success. The perfect state, from an antient Painting. great College of Chios is particularly disNew Lives of Walton and Cotton will be tinguished, and students' flock to it from given, and great improvements and addi all parts of Greece. Its three most celetions to the notes throughout. The re. brated Professors are Bardalochos, Seleri, presentations of the Fish, with numerous and Bambas. Bardalochos has published smaller embellishments, will be cut in wood, a Compendium of Experimental Philoso

phy,

phy, and an Essay on Greek Provuncia- ing from Corinth and traversing Attica in tion, in which the modern Greek etacism every direction, and describing the longiis treated with more than usual leniency. tude and the situations of the places with Professor Seleri has nearly ready for the the utmost accuracy,

From Attica he press, a Manual of Mathematics, selected proceeds to Baotia, Phocis, Locris, and from bis Lectures. Bambas, who for a Thessaly ; his plan also embraces the long period studied Mathematics, Philo islands Ægina and Salamis. He is at sophy, and Natural History, in Paris, is present, in conjunction with Col. Leake,

now about to publish, in the modern occupied in drawing up a map of the Greek language, an elementary book on whole of Greece on the scale of a foot to Chemistry from Thenard. His Compen every degree. The Athenian Society of dium of Rhetoric has already had an ex the Philomusæ, which was instituted by tensive circulation. Some time ago, a the Vienna Congress in 1815, proposes new printing-office was established at sending four young Greeks to Italy and Chios, the whole apparatus for which was Germany to complete their education : brought from Paris. (See Parti, p. 253 ; the Society consists of 300 members, most Part ü. page 61.), A German, named of whom are foreigners. According to Bayrhoffer, is at the head of this esta letters from Mr. Robert Pinkerton, that blishment.

active agent of the British Bible Society, Chios at present enjoys perfect Iran it

appears that a Society for the Promulquillity; for in consequeuce of an agree. gation of the Gospel has been established ment entered into with the Turks, it is at Athens. The Archbishop residing at governed entirely by Greek Magistrates. Constantinople has been chosen President, In the meanwhile large sums are devoted and the British Consul, Logotheti, togeto the maintenance of public Institutions ther with Mr. Tirnaviti, are Vice-Prema Library is forming under the superin- sidents. tendence of the celebrated Greek Scholar, The modern Greeks speak a language Coray of Paris ; through the liberality of resembling that of the ancients in almost private individuals, about 30,000 volumes every respect. But time, conquest, sla. are already collected. The College of very, the barbarism of ages, have introChios at present contains about 700 stile duced some new terms, and altered the dents, and their numbers are constantly rules of syntax, in certain points. The augmenting. Professor Kaumus is at the Greek inhabitants, however, understand head of the College Smyrna; he has pretty exactly all the antient Greek, when published a System of Philosophy, in 4, it is spoken in the pronunciation now in vols. modelled after the system of Profes use, which seems to have been that of the sor Krug, of Leipsick. The work is dedi. time of Constantine. As the two laycated to Coray.

guages accord in so many points of conThese improvements among the Mo tact, the modern Greek may be considerdern Greeks must naturally tend to ren. ed as a mere idiom contined to the lower der their language popular throughout classes of society, and which it would be Europe. Weigel, the bookseller of Leip. well to remove, as far as it may be pracsick, has published an excellent Dic- ticable, by recalling the antient. tionary and a Modera Greek Grammar by It is curious to observe the gradual disProfessor Schneider; and in England use of Greek among the Greeks, produced there has lately appeared a very useful by the chavge of their residence. In Jittle Grammar of the Modern Greek lan Greece the Turks speak only Greek; in guage, by Dr. Robertson, who is a mem Constantinople the Greeks speak both ber of the Philomusa Society of Athens, Greek aud Turkish, but only the former and of the Ionian Academy. The stereo to each other; in Asia Minor, along the typed editions of the Greek authors pub- coast, they can speak Greek when adlished by Tauchnitz of Leipsick, are ex dressed in it, but talk Turkish to each tensively circulated throughout Greece on other. And in the interior parts of Asia account of their cheapness. Weigel is Minor, they know no other language than also engaged in preparing a corrected edi. Turkish, tion of the principal Greek prose writers

ASIATIC LANGUAGES. and poets, which is to be published under the general title of the “ Bibliotheca The King of France has issued an ordiGræca ;" it will no doubt be eagerly nance authorising the Secretaries of the sought after in Greece. Even the obser- Acudémie Française and the Académie des rations on Greek geography are gradually Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, to accept acquiring fresh accuracy. The learned the legacy of 24,000 francs bequeathed to Sir William Gell has lately written on them by the late Count Chassebæuf de this subject. His topographical works Volney, with the view of exciting the phion Argolis, Ithaca, and Morea, may justly losophic study of languages, and encouhe styled classical. He has lately pub raging every undertaking that inay tend lished an “ Itinerary of Greece,” depart. to put in practice a method invented by

the

1820.]
Literary Intelligence.

349 the testator for transcribing the Asiatic There are in all seventeen hundred ma. languages in European characters.

nuscripts in the Studio, of which three HERCULANEAN MANUSCRIPTS.

hundred are already uvrolled. The eyes The following is the method that has

of all the amateurs of classics are anxious. long been pursued, in the unrolling of ly turned to the discoveries which may be these important records of antiquity :

made by these means, and they are justly Every manuscript looks exactly like a

impatient to see the result. Hiiherto, the piece of charcoal cut into the shape of an

most valuable of the works which have antient volumen, and it requires the

been uprolled, are a treatise by Epicurus, greatest care to prevent it from crumbling

and several others by his disciple Philodeinto mere coal-dust.

For this purpose,

mus, on music, rhetoric, virtue and vice.” the outer part is covered with very small

CLASSICAL MANUSCRIPTS. pieces of skin applied to it with a light glue or liquid gum. The roll is suspended 'The Abbé Amadeus Peyron, Professor on two ribbous, fastened to an upper of Oriental Languages in the University board, which, with two parallel support of Turin, has discovered some fragmen's ers, forms a sort of frame, of the shape of of Cicero in a MS. from the Monastery of a Greek pi (). The roll is, moreover, St. Colomban di Bobbio, a town on the tied with two small threads to two pegs, Trebia, in the King of Sardinia's domi. which, being geoily turned, unfold it by nions. This MS. contains important new very slow degrees. As far as the whole of readings of oratinns already known, and what was seen outside has been covered confirms the identity of several texts with skin, and glued together, to prevent wbich have been cruelly tortured by inits falling to pieces. The pegs are of discreet critics. It coutains, besides, fragcourse fastened on the upper board also, ments of the orations, Pro Scauro, pro M. and the beginning of the volume is drawn Tullio, in Clodium, orations which are un. upwards by them, so as always to leave fortunately lost. Some of these fragments the upexplored part of it resting on the had been already published by M. Mai, ribbons by means of its own weight. The after a MS, of the same library at St. Coside-boards have no other use than that of lomban, preserved in the Ambrosian Lisupporting the apper one. It is difficult to brary at Milan; so that at the first sight make this description quite clear to those those two MSS. would appear to have oriwho have not seen the thing itself; but ginally made but one. But the difference the simplest machinery is often very diffi. of the writing, that of the parchment, the cult to be described.

circumstance that one of these MSS. is It is impossible to avoid the loss of written in three columns and the other in some part of the manuscripts, which the tud as well as that several deficiencies in violent action of the heat, combined with the Ambrosian MS, are supplied by that other accidents, has either melied toge of Turin, leave no room to doubt of their ther, or so completely fastened, that they being copies essentially different, cannot be drawn asunder entire; but these The great Helenist and Orientalist, blanks are not nearly so numerous as Ariston of Samos, fell a victim to the late might be expected. The writing of the conflagration at Constantinople, and all Grecian manuscripts is so uncommonly his precious MSS. (among:t others, that beautiful, that it makes the task of decy. containing the entire history of his extenphering them, as fast as they are unrolled, sive travels over great part of Asia, comparatively easy; the Latin ones are Oceana, Africa, and Europe), were de. much more difficult. The whole of the stroyed. It is said, his fellow-traveller, inside of the rolls is black; but a slight the Chevalier de Rienzi, will shortly supdifference of shade renders the ink suffi. ply this deficiency, with the addition of his ciently perceptible. The invention dues own travels in America and Englande the highest honour to the man who first From the specimens which this gentleman conceived the possibility of unrolling a has given the public of his productions piece of charcoal. Millions of well both in French and Italian, his travels informed men would have thought it ab may be expected to be very interesting. surd to undertake it.

ANTIQUARIAN AND PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCHES.
EGYPTIAN MUMMY.

may be considered as the most in'erestThe Huuterian Museum at Glasgow ing addition, in the antiquarian deparihas been enriched by the acquisition of ment, made to that very valuable colan Egyptian Mummy, the donation of lection since it became the property of Mr. Joshua Heywood, jun. of that city; the University. which, from its high state of preservation, The body, shrouded in froni üfty to

sixty folds of rather coarse pale brick-red seen, remarkably white, and regularly coloured linen, is deposited in a strong shaped. wooden coffin, fashioned so as to bear a One circumstance must have struck all rude resemblance to the human shape. who had an opportunity of seeing the At the upper extremity is carved a face, above interesting examination ; namely, the features of which (as is the case with the dissimilarity of the features to what all Egyptian sculpture) are very much of we are taught to believe were those of the the Negro cast. The coffin, along the inbabitants of Egypt, at the remote peentire length of its outside, is richly or. riod at which the custom of embalming namented with a profusion of hierogly: existed in that country. A moment's rephical characters, of various colours, all flection will susfice to convince us, that in a state of the most perfect preservation. this circumstance can in no way throw

The case immediately containing the discredit on lhe antiquity or genuine body is again inclosed in a second, simi character of the Mummy. It is sufficiently larly shaped, but more sparingly orna. well known that at all times the conqueror mented, and exhibiting a greater appear has adopted, in a greater or more partial ance of antiquity.

degree, the customs of the conquered. This highly interesting relic was exa We should therefore nalurally expect that mined in the presence of several Pro. the Grecian settlers whom Alexander left fessors. Upon opening the inner coffin, in different parts of Egypt, after its conthe freshness of the linen forming the in quest, would imitate the habits of the vestment, excited a desire of carrying the Egyptians in this and other respects; or investigation the length of ascertaining we have, perhaps, a more direct solution the actual existence of an embalmed hu of the difficulty (if so it can be considerman body.

ed), by supposing, what would in many A longitudinal incision was made instances take place, the intermarriage of through the coverings immediately over an Egyptian with the daughter of a Greek. the face, which were evidently continuous Mr. Millar, portrait painter in Glasgow, folds of the same web. Those in imme is at present finishing a likeness in oil of diate contact with the skin were soaked the face and surrounding parts, as they iu liquid asphaltum, a substance of highly appeared immediately after they were exantiseptic power, and said to have been

posed ; and was completely successful in employed by the Egyptians in embalm. the accuracy of the likeness before the ex. ing. . The head was completely denuded posure to the air bad converted the face of these coverings, shewing a face, ap from a brown to a sable bue, which it did parently female, in an astonishing state in the short period of three hours, of preservation. Though the features were much col.

AntiENT WELL NEAR MANCHESTER. Japsed, the face was no where dirested In cutting and carrying away a part of skin. The skin itself was of a chesput of Castlefield, to make the ground level brown colour. The brow was well shaped,

new warehouse, lately erected though, if any way defective, narrow ; on the banks of the Canal, a very antient and to some it may be interesting to learn, well was discovered about four yards be. the organ of music was prominent. . The low the level of the field, which has been nose, though slightly compressed, retained cut down for the above purpose. The enough of its original shape to be recog well was square, and was formed of four nised as Roman. The cheek bones were upright posts, driven at the four angles prominent. The mouih, most likely from into the bed of clay, and closed in by the shrinking of the muscles attached to other logs of wood, placed, one upon anoit, was wider than accorded with the ge ther, in the simplest manner, on the out. neral good proportion of the face. The side, so as to form a kind of chest, which space between the nose and the chin, es. was floored with the same rude materials. pecially between the nose and mouth, was The logs were rudely hewn; they had evialso proportionally too distant. Indepen. dently never been sawn, either on the dent, however, of these exceptions, the sides or ends; they were about five or six face was decidedly handsome. There ap inches square, and together formed a holpeared upon the chin not the slightest low cube of four feet. The upper logs vestige of hair, but that upon the eye were level with the top surface of a bed of brows was distinct and finely arched. clay, by which the well was surrounded, Upon the scalp there was a profusion of and into which the timber bad been iu. silky golden hair, about two and a half serted. The wood when first discovered inches in length. A small portion of the had little more consistency than paste, scalp accidently removed, shewed the but on its exposure to the air, became skull witb all the freshness of recent bone. much harder, and more wood like; it was Having separated the lips about the eighth perfectly black, and so much of a coalpart of an inch, the fore-Teeth could be like appearance as to favour the theory of

such

near

a

1820.) Antiquarian and Philosophical Researches. 351 such naturalists as suppose that pit-coal the Antient Britons (before they knew how was originally a vegetable substance. At to cut stone), so as to serve for the pur. the bottom of the well, a quantity of large pose of a well, and before saws were ia stones, such as in this neighbourhood are their possession; and as the spring from called bowlers, were found; they were which that well had been supplied, turned black and dirty, as though they had been out in another place, in the same bauk, taken from a sewer. The clay which ad after the floods, the old well was soon forhered to the timber, had also changed its gotten. In all human probability, the colour by its proximity, from the rusty work now discovered is upwards of 2000 iron tinge of the native clay, to the ap years old, for it is 1741 years since the pearauce of the inferior potters' clay found Romaus settled here; and the section of in Dorselshire. Over the well, unbroken, the foundation which intersects the line of were various strata of sand and gravel, strata above the well, is proof that they which, as the bank was broken down, gave were not aware of its existence, proof that, except for about a yard and a half

PERPETUAL Fire. below the surface of the field, it had never In the Peninsula of Abeheron, in the been exposed to day light since the strata province of Schirwan, forinerly belonging was laid by the disposal of a flood. The to Persia, but now to Russia, there is part which the section discovered to have found a perpetual, or as it is there called been acted upon by human industry, was an eternal fire. It rises, or has risen, very visible to the depth of about a yard; from time immemorial, from an irregular and a few yards to the West of the part orifice of about twelve feet in depth, with beneath wbic the well was discovered, a constant Aame. 'The flame rises to the the remains of a part of the foundation height of from six to eight feet, and is unof the antient fortification built by the attended with smoke, and yields no smell. Romans, afforded evidence, by contrast The aperture, which is about 120 feet in of colours, that the materials immediately width, consists of a mass of rock, ever above the well were already there, and retaining the same solidity and the same that the well was lost, mhuried by the depth. The finest turf grows about the wreck of some great flood, -before the borders, and at the distance of two toises Romans began to dig the foundations are two springs of water. The neighbourwhich are to this day so great an object ing inhabitants have a sort of veneration of curiosity. to Antiquaries. In all hu for this fire, and celebrate it with reli. man probability the weli was the work of gious ceremonies.

given up.

ARTS AND SCIENCES.
SIDEROGRAPHY.

pressed, experiences in all its parts an A French Artist, M. Guillot, ex-director

extension proportioned to its degree of anof assignats, has claimed for his country.

nealing, and to its thickvess. The differmen the invention of Messrs. Perkins,

ence belween two impressions in copper Fairman, and Heath, evidently without

has been found to amount, in the eagle having ascertained the nature of their pro

and in the figure of liberty, to two centicess. M. Guillot lays “ claim to the

meters 25-100ths (a line): hence the priority of the invention of engraving in identity is destroyed.” M. Guillot has, relief on copper, by the pressure of a plate

we think, fairly proved, that although the engraved by incision (en creux) on steel.”

French Artists long ago conceived the idea The inventors of this valuable art do not

that engravings might be multiplied, yet claim the discovery of engraving in relief they could not put their ideas into prac. on copper ; it constitutes no part of their tice, and, after many expertinents, it was process of multiplying copper or steel engravings. The method adopted by the

PRO'TOGRAPHY. French artists to multiply engravings is M. Bruguer, antient Professor in the not practicable, and is acknowledged by Academy of Nanci, has been lately read. M. Guillot to have been abandoned long ing Lectures at Genera and Lausanne, on since. What practical man could suppose Protography, or the Art of Primitive that copper, having been pressed into a Writing. The inventor of this method steel engraving, although made harder by professes to designate, by a single stroke, the operation, could indent, by its relief, every sound of the voice, or each moveanother copper plate, without enlarging ment produced by one of the orgaus of each, and thereby distorting and injuring speech. He has taken for the groundthe engraving? M. Guillot, after claim work of the confirmation of his characters, ing for his countrymen this invention, says the form of those organs, the character of it is worth nothing, and points put the which is intended to represent the sound. reason why. He says (and we perfectly In these respects, his plan is described as agree with him), “ copper, wlien strongly being novel, ingenious, and just.

New

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