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NOTE 1. A finite verb is one that is limited by number and person: Hence, all verbs are finite except the verb in the infinitive mood.
NOTE 2. The principal objects which Syntax has in view, are the agreement which words have with each other in person, number, gender, or case; and the government which they exercise in causing words to be placed in some particular mood, tense, or case. Hence, written or spoken language, embodied in sentences, should have reference to all the foregoing rules for the principles of government and agreement. Also, to the following illustrations of the same rules under the head of false Syntax, in the correction of bad grammar,
Easy words of thrce syllables;-accent on the 2d;-vowels short.
a-bắn dòn ă-măl' găm
ǎs-sǎs' sin dē-văs' tāte ĕm-p: n' něl
e-nĕr väte ē tĕr nål for-get' ful fra-těr năl
in-ten' dǎnt în-ter' ment
e-nig må fûl-fil' ment
The Simple Series.-Lesson 6.
RULE 3. When four single words commence a series, the first and fourth take the RISING and the second and third, the FALLING inflection. Thus:
Metals', minerals', plants, and meteors', contain many curious properties.
Health', peace, fortune, and friends', may be ranked among the most soothing blessings of life'.
The high', the low', the rich', and the poor', return to a common level.
OBS. 1. When four single words form the closing series," the first and fourth take the FALLING inflection, and the second and third the RISING. Thus:-
The four elements into which philosophers classed the material world', are fire', water', air', and earth'.
Changes are constantly taking place in customs', manners', minds', and opinions`.
When so good a man as Socrates fell a victim to the madness of the people', there fell with him', knowledge`, virtue', innocence', and truth'.
RULE 4. When the simple series extends to five or more single words, it may be divided into periods of three particulars each: then, the right hand period, in the commencing series, must be read agreeably to rule second, all the others, agreeably to Obs. rule second, and the odd particulars, agreeably to rule first.
Mines of gold', copper', lead`, iron`, and allum', are found in Norway'.
The elk, the deer', the wolf', the fox', ermine', and martin', are found in the Russian dominions.
The Amazon, La Plata, Mississippi', Missouri', St. Law rence, Oronoco', and Ohio', are among the largest rivers of the new world'.
OBS. When this long list of single words, occur in the closing series, they have the same division, and are pronounced as the closing series of three numbers; to wit:--the first and third take the falling, and the second, the rising inflection. Thus:
Some of the chief cities in the U. States, are New-York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston', Charleston', and NewOrleans'.
The Americans, from the fertile shores of their leagued domain, export to foreign markets, a variety of lumber, fish', beef, pork', butter, cheese', and four.
The soul can exert itself in many different ways of action: it can understand, will, imagine), see', hear', feel`, love', and discourse'.
SIMPLE INTEREST.LESSON 7.
CASE 2. When the given time is for two or more years. RULE.-1. Find the interest for one year, agreeably to the provisions of the 1st case.
2. Multiply that interest by the given years; the product will be the answer. Thus:
(1) What is the Interest of $225 for 5 years at 7 per cent. per annum? 225X7=15.75-100-$15.75 Int. for 1 year. and $15.75X5=$78.75 Ans.
(2) What is the Interest of $781, for 4 years, at 6 per Ans. $187.44.
cent. per annum.
NOTE. Per cent. means a hundred, and per annum, means a year;hence the proposition is, what will the use of $781 come to, (at the rate of $6 for each $100 for 1 year,) used for 4 years.
As $100 is to 6:: $781: $46.86 And as 1 year,: 4 years, :: 46.86: $187.44. Ans.
OBS. When the given time is years and parts of years, then multiply the Interest for one year by the given years, and take even parts of the Interest for the parts of the year. Thus:-(3) What is the Interest of $122, for 3 3-4 years at 6 per cent. per annum? 122×6=732÷100=$7.32X3 2-4 1-2 of a year, and $7.321-23.66, Int. for 1-2 ys. 1-4 12 of 2-4, and 3.66-1-2 1.83 Int. for 1-4 ys.
$21.96, Int. for 3 years.
$27.44 Ans. 3 3-4 ys.
5 2-4 years, at 7 Ans. $86.625. 1-4 years, at 6 per Ans. $23,985.
(4) What is the Interest of $225 for per cent. a year?
(5) What is the Interest of $123 for 3 cent. a year?
Application of the rules of Grammar, to the correction of faulty language, in a series of practical parsing exercises, with notes and illustrations.
RULE 1. The verb must agree with its subject in person and number, as, good advice has its influence.
What signify good advice unless properly regarded? This sentence is faulty, because, signify, is a verb of the plural number, and does not agree with its subject, advice, which is singu tar; in violation of the first rule of syntax:-therefore, signify, should be signifies; thus:-What signifies good advice, unless properly regarded?
Daily blessings has been conferred upon him.. I does all the work, and I pleases him. They sees how little has been done for the poor. Nothing but foolish pursuits delights the young. Has the goods been sold, and has the buyers made
a bargain? They directs him to go. clocks and watches were recently unknown. teemed. The bad is despised.
NOTE. The scholar should not only make the language correct, but afterwards, parse the whole as corrected.
Easy words of three syllables;-accent on the first;---vowels long.
ǎ-bãte'měnt àr-mă dă
vi-rā gō ǎl-bē it
i dē ́ăl
Accent on the second syllable.
The mechanism of
ré-fine ment rē-tire'měnt să-li'vă
Accent on the third syllable.
Easy words of three syllables, accent on the first, second, and third syllables.
The broad, grave, and sharp sounds of the vowels, and the dipthongs.
ar sẽ năl hàr'mō-nize ǎp-pâl'měnt in-stâl'měnt in-thrål'ment
COMPOUND SERIES.-LESSON 10.
NOTE. The compound series consists of two or more successive mem bers composed of two or more words, of similar arrangement.
RULE 1. When two or more compound members, occur in the commencing series, they all adopt the falling inflection, except the last, which takes the rising. Thus:
The poet's imagination` and the warrior's bravery', are subjects of high admiration'.
The ignorance of the moderns, the scriblers of the age', and the awful decay of poetry', are the topicks of detraction with which the fop enters the world'.
The descriptive part of this allegory, is likewise very strong, and full of sublime ideas:-The figure of death'; the regal crown on his head'; his menace of satan'; his advancing to the combat, and the outrage at his birth', are circumstances too noble to be passed over in silence'.
OBS. The only exception to this rule, is when the members of the series commence with some suppositive phrase; such as when, where, though, &c. for then they adopt the RISING inflection. Thus:
When we see him at the burning bush', when we accompany him to Pharaoh', when we hear him demand the release of his brethren', when we follow him to the Red Sea and behold the waters divide before him', when we trace him thro' the wonders of Sinai and a journey of forty years in the wilderness', we find his whole character shines with a radiance like that which his face received from the Son of Righteousness'.
So when the faithful pencil has designed