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properly denoted dwellers in the woods, from Coille, a wood; hence it might just as well be applied to Germans as to Kelts, who, after all, are but an earlier separated tribe of the same great race.*

"That in the earliest times Kelts and Germans correspond appears from Arrian, (Exp. Alex. i. 3, &c.) who says, that Alexander found Kelts on the Ister, that this river springs among the Kelts, and that the Quades and Markomanns are the remotest Keltic tribes; now that the Quades and Markomanns were Germans, is as certain as that the Danube springs in Germany. Goths lived for centuries on the Danube, but how could Gauls have come there in the time of Alexander? The words which the Romans call Keltic are for the most part pure German; thus they called the following words Gallic, Festus, Sparum, the spear, German, Speer. Gellius, Lancea, the lance, German, die Lanze. Varro in Gellius, xv. 30. Petorritum, a four-wheeled chariot, and yet this is compounded of the Teutonic Fedwor, or Saxon Feother,† four; German, vier; and rid a wheel, German, Rad. Rheda, according to Quinct. i. 5, 57, 69, is Gallic, yet a waggon in Old High Dutch is Raida, equally from Rad. Plin. H. N. xviii. 18, says, that the Gauls put two wheels behind their plough, and call it Planaratum; this, one sees, is our German Pflug-rad. Plin. H. N. iii. 17, says, the Gauls call horse-breakers, Eporedicas; now Hoppe is the Swedish, Happel and Hampel the Silesian for a horse, and reda, rida, is to ride; the word is therefore Pferdreiten. Even Balga, Balg (Fell), and Merga, Mergel, are called Gallic, and yet they are German. According to Plin. H. N. iii. 17, Gauls founded Bergamo, yet the name Amberg or Bergheim, as well as Arminium, point to a German origin. Even so are many persons called Kelts, whose names yet are German."—(p. 11 et seq.)

As then a very trifling number of Gallic words are really found in Latin, and on the contrary a very large proportion of pure German, and these principally of Class I. a much closer union between the Romans and Germans, than between the Romans and the Gauls, becomes manifest; and since many words are isolated in Latin, which in German have all their forms and numerous derivatives, and since from various causes many later Latin words have become obscured, while the pure full forms, and the most resembling the Old Latin, are yet found in German, we must assume that the Germans were the head stem of the Roman people, and their language the foundation of the Latin.

"A few examples will make this clear, (p. 13)—

"Wind is not derived from ventus, but ventus from wind. It is in fact the participle of wehen, wehend, by contraction wind. The Latin has no word wehen.

Will the professor engage his faith to us for this?

For this word read Feower, which, we fear, will hurt the Professor's etymon consi

derably.

"Ordo, ordinj, ordinare. Ordnung and ordnen spring from the word ort, which is found in all the German dialects, and they denote the endeavour to assign to each his proper place. The Latin does not know this root.*

"Fenestra, fenster, signifies both in Latin and German, originally, not the opening of the house through which the light enters, for this is called lucke, but the board which shuts it up; (hence Horace's junctas quatiunt fenestras, i. 25.) and which as long as glass is unknown darkens the house; it comes then from finster, (dark,) a German word.

"Urbs, (probably pronounced with the digamma,) comes from the Old High Dutch Huuarban, hwarban, (Kero) to go about in a circle, to make a circle. In the building of a city they really did make a circle with the plough. Teutonic, warbes (a circle), urbes, urbs. [Hence also orbis, we yet have wirbel, wirbelwind.] Where a door was to stand the plough was lifted off, whence from the ancient bürden (portare), bürde, porta, pforte."

We pass over four more examples, viz. Vir, Virtus, Capo, Mulgere, and proceed to select one or two of words which, though they are isolated in Latin, have numerous connections in German.

"Herus, herr, (lord,) stands alone in Latin, we have herrscher, herrschaft, herrschen, herlich, and it connects itself with ehre. "Presagire, præsagit mens, and sagus, vorhersagen and wahrsager, very old Latin words which stand there isolated, while in German sagen is a complete verb with many compounds, ver, ent, vor sagen. Also in Persian the word is sachun.

We are not quite sure that Dr. Jäkel is right in this. The word in our Teutonic dialects appears briefly thus, Old High Dutch, or-t; M. and New High Dutch, ert; Anglo-Saxon, or-d; and if the Gothic word existed it would be us-d-s. In these words the or is root, the d syllable of formation, and in the Gothic the additional s is the inflection. Now though acies and mucro are two common meanings of ord, and locus is another, they are very derivative meanings indeed; ord is a point, and not seldom the beginning point, or creation of a thing; it is so in Anglo-Saxon, opposed to ende, finis. In this sense its root connects itself with the or in the word or-deal, and the German ur in uralter, primæval. And in this sense also it is the root of the Latin verbs orior, ordior, and the nouns origo and or-d-o. The better way is to give the Old High Dutch forms also; ordnen is ort-in-ôn; ordnung, or-t-in-unga; for till we learn to separate the roots from the other syllables by which they are defined and converted into words, etymology remains a chaos: ort is itself not a root, it is a word formed from a root common to both languages, viz. or.

+ "Cuto in originibus. Qui urbem novam condit, tauro et vacca aret: ubi araverit murum faciat: ubi portam vult esse, aratrum sustollat et portet et portam vocet. Serv. ad En. According to Festus this drawing the furrow was called urvare, from urrus aratri (aratri curvatura). But urvare as well as urvum is derived from hwarban."(Author's Note.)

These are all mere derivatives from the one word herr, and hardly fair examples. To the connection between herr and ehre we cannot readily assent. Does the Professor think that h is to go for nothing at the beginning of a root? The Anglo-Saxon ár, honour, connects itself with numberless words conveying the conception of labour. The Anglo-Saxon harja, a lord, seems rather to belong to Gothic harjis; Anglo-Saxon here, exercitus; and Old High Dutch, herjari, grassator. Comparative etymology, like comparative anatomy, alone promises safe results.

66

Esse, velle, have an infinitive form, which is very unusual in the Latin language, and point, since they express the earliest notions of men, to a high antiquity. In many parts of Germany we at this day hear esse and wolle for essen and wollen. The Danes, moreover, form their infinitive in e."

We omit Libet, Muscipula, and Sum.

<< The older the Latin is the nearer is its connection to the German. In the Lex Numæ we find the word loebesom. Sei quips homonem loebesom mortei duit, &c. So in the song of the Arvalian brothers we have, Neve luervem, Marmar, sins incurrere in pleores. Let, Mars, no plague-destruction-come upon our plains. Pleores has sometimes been explained by plures, sometimes by flores, yet neither one nor the other will do, while the old flor* or flur, boden, acker, (Somn. Dict. Ang. Sax. and Stiler Thes. L. Germ.) does very well. We have Stadtflur, Dorfflur, Flurschütz, Hausflur, which by no means come from Latin flores.

66

Lingua and Zunge have little similarity; but Martius Victorinus says, antiquos dixisse Dinguam pro lingua, Ulphilas's tugga,† the Swedish tunga, the Anglo-Saxon tung,t have thus with the Old Latin dingua the greatest similarity.

"Mitto and Lis seem to have no relationship to the German; but the older forms were smitto, (yet in the compound word cosmitto,) and stlis=stlit, (Fest. et Paul. stlitem antiqui pro litem dicebant. Conr. Schneid. Gram. i. 495.) and show the connection with schmeissen ; English, to smite; Swedish, smita, and streit."

We do not pledge ourselves to the correctness of the etymologies which we have here suffered to pass unnoted; concerning the Professor generally we shall have a word or two to say by and by. These quotations were, however, necessary to show the nature of his argument at this point; from which we continue our abridgment of it.

The forms of declension and conjugation in Latin are derived from the German, and can alone be explained by it. However, it is not to the modern German only that we must have recourse, but to the ancient language and its kindred dialects; nay, even to the vulgar expressions which have survived in certain provincial districts; we must, moreover, where we can, refer to the fuller and truer forms of the ancient Latin, and then, when we observe the changes which time has wrought in our own nearly connected tongues, and how much study a German must give to the ancient language of his own country, to Anglo Saxon, or old Norse, before he is capable of reading them, we may the better judge with what clearness the German element in Latin

The Anglo-Saxon word is long, thus, flor; New English, Floor. †The Anglo-Saxon is tunge, not tung. The Gothic, tuggó, not tugga.

would have shown itself to us, had we possessed the language in a less mixed and disturbed state.

Those scholars who would make out the Latin to be a mere Greek dialect, wander widely from the mark: for, first of all, the early Romans knew nothing whatever of Greek; and next, there were letters in Latin which the Greeks could not pronounce, F for example. (Cic. pro Fundanio. Quinct. L. i. 6.) The system of accentuation differs also widely in Greek and Latin, and in the Latin approaches nearly to the German. When all things are taken into consideration, many words which we have heretofore derived from the Greek, will be found to have their origin in German.

"Thus one derived Pater and Mater from warhp and μhrne, and paid no regard to the fact that Pater had the tone on the penultimate, azię on the last syllable, that the er was short, the np long-that the former was therefore to be marked Páter, the latter marip. If we now take into consideration that Frater may very well come from Bruder, but cannot from ἀδελφός (for φράτωρ and φρατρία have already too distant a meaning,) we shall find ourselves at quite another step in the relationship, and thus the more readily refer Pater also to Vater, which lies so much nearer the Roman accentuation. And so might the learned more readily have done by many words, in which they permit themselves the most astounding twistings and transpositions, puttings in and strikings out of letters, which I shall never do, in order at last to bring out a sort of likeness to the Greek. So Sero shall spring from onεipw; they are ready at once, by throwing out the , and do not consider that the p in orέp is radical, while in sero it is only inserted, as in haurio, quæro, &c. Had they reflected that its stem lay in the perfect and supine, sevi, satum, and that sator, &c. sprang from thence, they would have remarked the close connection which it has with our Säen. Saat, as Semen has with Samen. Peto must come from auréo, Frango; freg from phyvuμ, &c., yet they may be more easily derived from bitten and brechen. What wonderful etymologies does Voss not give for Haruspex (Arespex according to inscriptions), and yet how near to it lies Aarspäher, he that watches the eagle's flight! Rego must come by transposition from apxw, and yet it stands as near to our Regen, Richten, as Rer does to the ancient Reiks, Recke. Ancora must spring from aуkūρa, ἄγκυρα, and yet the Latin penultima is short, the Greek long. The names of beasts are mostly to be borrowed from the Greeks, yet do not Piscis and Vermis stand something nearer to Wurm and Fisch, than to ixus and akwλng? And is it not more natural that those tribes who probably

*

It should seem that this is not quite correct; the r in these two words probably grew out of an earlier s, without it the words would cut a curious figure: as for the lashing the Professor gives these convenient word-hackers, we agree with him from the bottom of our hearts. Epenthesis and Apocope and Syncrasis et hoc genus omne, these refuges and strong towers of defence to the weak and ignorant, have done more harm to Etymology, than the best labourers in that vineyard will be able to eradicate in a century.

brought the greater beasts with them out of Asia, in their gradual wanderings, should have brought their names at the same time, and not seawandering Greeks, who were be sure glad enough if they could put themselves and their families across, and leave the beasts behind, but who found in Italy inhabitants, beasts, and beasts' names too, which often corresponded with their own? Besides, veredus is a good deal more like Pferd=Pfered; equus more like the Swedish Oek, the Danish Og, the Islandic Eikur, than either of them is like the Greek ññoç. Taurus, one would think, is quite as nearly allied to Stier; Porcus and Porcellus to Borg and Ferkel; Sus to Sow; Cattus to Katze, English and Danish Cat; Asellus to Esel, as the similar Greek words. So is it also probable, that the fruits of the earth, whose native land is acknowledged to be Asia, were brought by the inhabitants along with themselves. For that the earliest colonists were already acquainted with sowing and reaping, and consequently brought this art with them into Europe and Italy, we see equally from the similarity of these words in Latin, German, and to some degree in Persian."

How, will it be asked, could the Romans so entirely lose sight of this Germanic origin? To which the answer is, because it took place so long before the art of writing was known, and their literature had commenced. Because, also, during the many wars of their petty tribes, the traditions had entirely perished. But how then has this German element escaped the notice of so many learned inquirers into Roman History? Partly because the learned would not condescend to look about their own feet for something which they had predetermined to find far off: partly, because till very lately they had paid very little attention to the Northern languages: and partly, because they have chosen to consider the establishment of the German tribes in Europe as of very modern occurrence.

We shall not follow the Professor in his refutation of this absurd opinion, the very origin and wide diffusion of which seem to us utterly unaccountable, so much is it at variance with probability, and so diametrically opposed even to the meagre notices which Greek and Latin historians have condescended to give us of our forefathers. Moreover, there are German works in abundance, which those who are interested in this matter may appeal to; for even if the zeal of Germans for their ancestors has sometimes led them to overrate a little their early civilization and importance, the amazing erudition and laborious research which have been made use of to substantiate their theories, will render the modern works upon these subjects durable monuments of interesting and useful learning. From all that has preceded the professor concludes-

"Since then the impossibility of an early immigration of German peoples into Italy, can by no manner of means be shown, but on the

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