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Arm eg Parlantes
France, on river Lys, 10 m. N.w. of Lille, close to the Belgian frontier; largely manufactures cloth, hemp and table linen. Occupied by the English in 1339; captured by the French in 1668. Pop. (1901) 29,401.
Armes Parlantes, in heraldry the term applied to such armorial devices as a pun on the bearer's name or attributes. Also called rebuses.
Armfelt, Gustap Madtjitz (1757-1814), Swedish statesman; distinguished himself in the Danish War of 1788 and the Russian War of 1788-90, and was the Swedish plenipotentiary at the Congress of Variilii (1790). In 1805-7 he successfully commanded the Swedish troops in Pomcrania. His support of the claims of Gustavus IV.'s son to the throne caused his arrest, and in 1811 he was banished. Thenceforth he became a Russian subject, and Alexander I. made him governorgeneral of Finland in 1812-13. He encouraged the Czar to resist Napoleon I., and drew up for him the plan of the Russian c ampaign of 1812. Sec E. Tegner's Custaf Maurili Armlrlt (2nd ed. 188394); Ingman s G. M. Armjeli (191,0).
Armlda, m Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, an enchantress, who by means of a magical girdle attempted to seduce the crusaders from their vows to deliver Jerusalem from the Saracens. Overcome by a Christian talisman, and conquered by Rinaldo, she turned Christian, adopting Rinaldo as her knight. The story has been made the subject of operas by Gluck (1777) and Rossini (1818).
Armlllary Sphere is an instrument formed by a combination of several rings, snowing the relative positions of the imaginary circles of the celestial concave to which astronomers refer the situations of the sun, moon, and planets. The zodiac, or belt of the sky in which the movements of the greater planets take place, the equinoctial circle, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, the meridian and horizon, are represented, with the earth as centre. The instrument, by whose aid astronomical problems could Iw solved, has been superseded bv the celestial globe.
Arminius (18 B.C.-19 A.D.) served in the German auxiliary troops with the Roman army. When Varus, the Roman governor, aroused the German tribes by his exactions, Arminius secretly raised the country against him, cut oil his outlying forces, and annihilate d his main army in the Teutoburger Wald. The disaster caused great consternation at Rome. Tiberius led a force to the Rhine, which again became the Roman frontier. From 14 to 17 A.D. Germanicus fought with varying success against
Arminius, but was recalled by Tiberius in 17. On the ground of seeking absolute power over his countrymen, he was slain by his relatives. See Tacitus's Annals; Merivale's Romans under the Empire (1859-62).
Armlnlus, Jacobus (15601609), whose proper name was Harmenscn, founder of Arminianism, was born at Oudewater, S. Holland. He joined the ministry at Amsterdam (1588), and became a leading theologian and preacher. He was invited (1589) to refute the attack of Coornhert on the extreme predestinarianism in the Netherlands; but abandoned the task, convinced of the untenableness of either the higher or lower predestination. He then successfully defended himself before the eccfesiastical courts. In spite of the opposition of Gomarus of Leydcn, whom he defeated in argument, he succeeded Junius in the university (1603). Gomarus next traduced him as a Papist, a Pelagian, and a 'Coornhertcr'; whereupon he was proscribed by the clergy, and his students were subjected to persecution, although the states-general reported that he taught nothing but what could be tolerated. Prostrated by persecution, Arminius died at I-cvden. Arminianism is the antithesis to Calvinism. It maintains that in respect of responsibility, guilt, and penalty, there must be a free and unpredcstined will. It gave rise subsequently to the Remonstrant Church of the Netherlands, and left traces of its influence upon the Church of England. Arminius's Works were translated into English by James Nichols (1825-75). See Brandt's Life of Arminius (1724); Eng. trans. Guthrie (1854).
Armistice. A general suspension of military operations in time of war either by the whole or a large part of the forces engaged. It is within the power of commanders in the field to bring about such a suspension of operations by agreement, but it is more often the result of agreement by the governments of the nations at war as a preliminary to negotiations for a peace or from some high political or religious motive. A brief cessation of hostilities between combatants in the field for the purpose of burying the dead or other cause due to local conditions does not rise to the dignity of an armistice, and is known as a "suspension of arms.'
Armlstlclo, territory of Venezuela (area. 7,040 sq. m.) on the s.\v., including the country of the Vpiirr Ariure and its tributaries, and stretching w. to the Tachira R.
Arniltaitc, Edward (1817-96), a historical and mural painter, born in London. He was a pupil
(1836) of Paul Delaroche, f o whom he gave assistance in the celebrated Hemiycle in the Ecole des Beaux Arts. In 1843 and following years he won three prizes for frescoes for the Houses of Parliament, the subjects being The Landing of Casar (1843), The Spirit of Religion (1845), and The BaUle of Meeanee (1847)—as an oil picture now at St. James's Palace. A visit to the Crimea in 1855 led to his painting The Guards at Inkermann ana A Cavalry Attack at Balaklava. In 1883 he published I^ettures on Painting.
Armltajre, Thomas (1819-96), American Baptist clergyman, was born at Pontefract, England, and began work as a local preacher in 1835. Three years later he came to the U. S., where he was engaged in the Methodist ministry until 1848, when he was received into the Baptist ministry, and accepted a call from the Fifth Avenue (the Norfolk Street) Baptist Church, of New York. He held this pastorate until his retirement in 1890. Dr. Armitage was deeply interested in Bible revision, and was a founder and president (1856-75) of the American Bible Union. Entirely selftaught, he gained a high reputation as a polished ana scholarly pulpit orator. He wrote A History of the Baptists (1886).
Armor, strictly, garments of defence, but also applied to weapons. Previous to the discovery of metal, weapons and huntinggear must have consisted of clubs, axes of stone, and flint arrowheads. Axe-heads of many different kinds of stone and of a great variety of shapes and sizes are very characteristic implements of the earliest period. In addition to spear-heads and arrow-heads of exquisitely finished workmanship in flint, the art of fabricating weapons in this material reached its highest point in the knifedaggers, which, especially those of Scandinavian origin, display on their edges what is technically known as 'ripple-flaking.'
With the use of bronze the variety of weapons increased, in the form of axes, daggers, swords, and shields. The earliest form of bronze dagger is a thin, knifclikc blade about six inches long, broad at the hilt, and fastened to the handle by large rivets of bronze. The leaf-shaped sword, found all over Europe, was cast with the handle-plate in one piece, and was without a guard. Scandinavian bronze swords are longer than British. A narrow rapiershaped variety occurs frequently in Ireland. Spear-heads of bronw are chiefly leaf-shaped, though barbed examples have been found. The shields of the Bronze Age were circular, with concentric ridges and rows of studs, and the Armor Armor, Naval
handle was fixed beneath the boss. In Central Europe the Early Iron Age produced swords of iron formed in exact imitation of the leaf-shaped sword of the previous age. The Heroic Age in Greece is characterized by a bronze sword, double-edged, long and sharp, having gold or silver studs set in the hilt and scabbard; and its defensive armor consisted of helmet, cuirass, greaves, and shield, all of bronze. In the earliest Egyptian period the archers were provided with arrows made of a reed tipped with bronze. Their swordsmen carried straight, double-edged weapons of bronze, tapering from hilt to point. Their shields were of peculiar form, round-headed but square below, and the spears used at this time were fitted with bronze leaf-shaped heads. The armor of the Etruscans was, in the main, similar to that of the Greeks.
About the 1st century B.C. the Romans used two varieties of sword—the short, double-edged gladius, and the long, single-edged spatha. But of all the weapons carried by the Romans the most characteristic was the pilum, a wooden shaft fitted with a stout iron head resembling the modern pike. It could cither be hurled, javelin-wise, or used like a bayonet, as well as to ward off swordstrokes. The Prankish angon was a development of the Roman pilum.
Nearer the period prior to the Norman conquest, most weapons were of iron, consisting of broadswords with or without guards, and the curved blade called in A.S. seax, with sheaths of wood or leather. The longbow became of great importance, and mace-heads of iron and bronze were much in vogue. The shield, oval or circular, was of wood covered with leather, and had a high conical boss. Body armor consisted chiefly of the byrnie (chain-mail), the lorica, and crested helmets. A Norman knight was clad in hose of mail, steel knee-caps, a byrnie, gambeson, and helmet, and bore two swords, dagger, spear, and shield. Archery was encouraged in England by statute. The crossbow, at first prohibited by papal decree, came into use towards the close of the 12th century. With the 13th century archers and crossbowmcn increased; and the varieties of armor, weapons, and decorations largely multiplied. _With the advent of gunpowder in the 14th century, the use of body armor naturally decreased, chain-mail hauberks being discontinued. Leather and whalebone were much used in addition to metals in the manufacture of elbowguards, gauntlets, knee-pieces, and sollerets (armed shoes). From
French government in 1843; under the direction of General Paixhans, whose reputation as an artillerist had already been established by the application of shell fire to naval artillery, and also by the design of a type of gun long known under his name. These armor plate tests were continued without interruption for more than four years, and are noted for certain definite and valuable principles fully determined, which may be summarized as follows: (1) That a solid iron plate gave fully onethird more resistance to penetration than an equivalent thickness of laminated plating. (2) That a 4i inch solid plate was invulnerable to the heaviest fortress gun (68 pdr.) at point-blank range.
(3) That a backing of oak or similar wood, in addition to the planking of a vessel, was necessary.
(4) That through-bolting of plates to the ship was an element of positive danger. In addition much knowledge was gained and furnished to manufacturers concerning the ductility and toughness of metal required for such plates.
These results were first practically utilized by France in 1854, at the outbreak of the Crimean war, when a small squadron of steam floating batteries was constructed, sent to the Black Sea, and in their first action silenced the Kinburn forts effectively in an engagement of six hours at ranges not exceeding 1,200 yards, without material damage to the vessels.
As an immediate result of this work. France and England, at the close of the Crimean War, at once commenced building armored frigates, so that each nation had in commission before the end of 1859 a complete squadron of first-class cruising armored frigates, the progenitors of the battle-ship.
The Crimean war gave practical birth to rifled artillery as well as to armored protection, and the development of rifled gun power was so rapid that by the end of 1800 a thickness of 4} inches of plating was no lonpcr sufficient. As fast as iron-forging plants could be developed to meet the demands for thicker plates, the size and power of guns increased, until, when thicknesses of armor plating of 12 inches and over were attained, the limitations of naval architecture were reached to provide carrying power.
That steel was inherently a more resisting metal than wrought iron was already well known, hut no exact knowledge existed in the early OO's as to positive means of controlling the manufacture of steel in large masses, so that steel
During this development the French manufacturers, Schneider & Co., had undertaken a complete and careful investigation of steel manufacture in rivalry to the German factory of Krupp, with the result that as early as 1878 this firm could produce 12-inch, allsteel plates fully equal in resistance to compound ones, with the advantage of certainty of future improvement in the most necessary qualities of the material itself. These two systems, distinguished as Compound and Steel, maintained an equality in rivalry for several years.
For a long period it had been well known that steel could be alloyed and its properties modified by the introduction of small percentages of some other metal. As an instance, the ancient Damascus sword blade was the product of a steel alloy, the alloy itself and its method of incorporation being secret. Even when the science of chemical analysis had so far advanced as to discover the ancient alloy constituent, it was long before the alloy itself could be reproduced on account of the difficulty of successful incorporation, so that of the very many secret processes now prevalent in the manufacture of special grades of steel, almost all are based upon the peculiar conditions involved in creating the particular alloy, for no possible combination could remain secret under the power of revelation of chemical analysis.
Schneider & Co., in France, took up this line of development for their armor-plate manufacture, and between 1885 and 1889 scored another complete success in the production of Nickel steel, which is a common or carbon steel with an alloy of not more than about 5 per cent, of nickel nor less than 3 per cent. These plates surpassed in resisting power both the Compound and the Steel plates, but they had scarcely gained a confident footing when a most serious rival appeared, and this time the point of origin was the United States, and the originator an obscure foundry man, who took up and perfected a process that had in general been known and used almost since the discovery of steel itself in the days of Tubal Cain, but that had been entirely overlooked in the frantic search for improvement.
In metallurgy the term 'cementation' is applied to a process by which a piece of highly heated steel buried in charcoal dust or other highly carboniferous material is allowed to slowly cool, during which time it absorbs carbon to a marked degree and depth from its surface, thus greatly hardening the. outer material. Under proper treatment, this bar
700 ft. per second. The ball cartridge complete weighs 392 grains, and the rifle, with bayonet, 9.69 pounds. The barrel is protected by a wooden case to prevent burning the hand bv the heating of the barrel in rapid or long continued firing. The Lee Enfield rifle of the British army is a breechloader on the bolt system, with a detachable magazine for ten cartridges. The accompanying illustration shows the new nfle for the British army. The carbine used by cavalry is simply a short rifle with a smaller magazine, being a weapon lighter and more suitable to a mounted man. The modern tendency appears to be to reduce the length 01 the ordinary infantry rifle and make it available for all services, while for purely infantry purposes a lengthy sword-bayonet may be attached when necessary. The cylinder of a revolver is usually chambered to hold six cartridges. The calibre of the barrel is larger than that of a rifle, as the weapon is only used at short ranges, and it is necessary to have the bullet of a weight that will not only wound a man, but stop him from closing. The Colt six shot revolver, calibre .3S or calibre .45 is used in the U. S. army. The ordinary sword or sabre has a blade of fine steel, and is adapted both for cutting and thrusting. The Oriental sabre or scimitar and the naval cutlass are short weapons with a broad curved blade adapted for cutting only. The sword blade, when straight and narrow, is called a rapier, and is used only for thrusting. The ordinary sword of an infantry officer is generally of the rapier type, but is used more as a badge of authority than as a weapon of offence. All officers in the U. S. army wear swords of the same pattern, a light serviceable curved sabre. In the Philippines and in the South African campaigns dismounted officers carried carbines or rifles instead of swords, in order to avoid being singled out for special attention by the enemy's riflemen. The lance used r>y European cavalry has a shaft of bamboo or ash, with a head and shoe of steel. The British lance is 9 ft. long, and weighs about 4 Ibs. There nas always been a controversy among European nations about the respective merits of sword and lance at close quarters. The good points of each weapon are perhaps best utilized in the existing system of arming front-rank men with the lance, while the remainder of a squadron trust to their swords. Nolancesare used in the U. S. cavalry service. See Guns and Rifles; also Farrow's A meriranSmallArmsdSOS). and Publications of the tl. S. Ordnance Department; Greener's