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and most malignant degrees of the lues, where there are exoftofes, caries, &c. a considerable quantity of mercury, a total change, a perfect resolution, and a plentiful evacuation by a regular ptyalysm, are neceffary to perfect the cure. - In the less malignant degrees of the universal'lues, where the disease is not fo firmly rooted in the solid parts, Mr. Wathen judiciously observes, that it may be cured without a salivation ;-he gives the mercury in such doses as lightly to affect the mouth, and keeps it acting in this proportion, by the well-timed interposition of opening medicines.

The letter addressed to Mr. Collinson contains the case of a child which had swallowed an ear of dog's grass. This accident occafioned violent reaching, coughing, and a kind of strangulation ; after this a pain in the stomach, fever, loss of appetite, stinking breath, and at times the expectoration of matter : all which symptoms disappeared in about fourteen days. A tumor then began to form upon the back ; this fuppurated, and on opening it there was found a spike of the berdeum spurįum of Parkinson. Many cases similar to this are related by practical writers; in most of which, however, the progressive motion of the extraneous body was not affifted by the circumstances here enumerated.

The Plays of William Shakespeare, in Eight Volumes, with the Cere

rections and Illustrations of various Commentators. To which are added Notes by Sam. Johnson. 8vo. 21. 8 s. bound. Tonson, &c. Concluded, from Page 301.

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T is presumed the distinction we endeavoured to establish, in

our former article, respecting the effects of dramatic representation, is too obviously supported by facts, to be called in question by even the most scrupulous reader. It is not a little surprising, therefore, to find the critics implicitly adopting each other's sentiments in this particular, and succeffively maintaining the neceflity of our being so far deceived as to believe the distreis of a tragedian to be real, before we can possibly be affected by it. Thus the ingenious Abbé Batteux, in treating of this subjea, observes, that if the place of the dramatic action be changed, or the time of it prolonged, the spectator muft neceffarily perceive there is fome artifice used; after the discovery of which deccit, he can no longer be brought to believe any thing that passes, and consequently nothing in the representation will to capable of affecting him.' It is notorious, however, as hah already been observed, that the spectator is affected, and yet be

lieves nothing at all of the actual distress of the scene, or as our Editor calls it, the materiality of the fable. It is, also, no less certain, that the interest we take in the representation of the drama, doth by no means depend on those retrospective refinements of intellect, to which Dr. Johnson imputes it. We are moved by sympathy, and to this end the appearance, the imitation, of distress, even though we are conscious, on reflection, that it is no more than imitation, is yet sufficient:

Ut ridentibus arrident, ita fentibus a lsunt

Humani vultus. And hence the poet proceeds to lay down that rule, which hath been as frequently misapplied as his incredulus odi already quoted : a view of the whole passage, however, will sufficiently explain it, as it did the former:

Si vis me flere, dolendum est
Primum ipse tibi ; tunc tua me infortunia lædent
Telephe, vel Peleu : male si mandata loqueris,

Aut dormitabo, aut ridebo. We see here that it is the mere appearance, the imitation, of paffion* only, which is insisted on as necessary and sufficient to affect the audience. Indeed, if this were not the case, the critics must have even gone so far as to confine unity of character to identity of person. And this they might have done also, with almost as much propriety, as they pretend that a fpectator actually supposes himself to be where the fcene of the drama is laid. For it is surely as difficult for him to conceive himself actually at Elsinore, while he is sitting in Drury-lane theatre, as it is for him to imagine Mr. Garrick, whose face he knows very well, and who talks plain English, thould be really Hamlet, prince of Denmark.Dr. Johnson, therefore, may fully prove the impossibility of the drama's being in its materiality credited, and yet by no means exculpate Shakespeare in the breach of the dramatic unities.

It does not appear to us that either Aristotle or Horace, from whom we seem to derive the necessity of observing the unities of time and place,' had any such notion, as the moderns entertain, of the necessity of making the drama credible;' at least in such a manner as Dacier, Boflu, Rapin, Le Blanc, and Dr. Johnson would have us believe. The defective manner in which the plays of the ancients were represented, rendered indeed such an attempt to impose on the audience still more impracticable than we even find it at present, with all the advantage of mova ing scenes, and perspective paintings.

Nothing seems clearer than that Horace, in particular, knew how far the delufion could be carried, in its greatest de

• Agreeable to this the poet fays, FALSIS terroribus implet.


gree of perfeétion; and that diately affected by dramatic r ceffary, in moving the passion cumstance should have, in th of the reafon or understanding train of reflections which ma object or circumstance, and w mory, are directly suggested w not offer any thing repugnant on the senses. Thus the fict in the ftreet, may bave the fa that is real, although very diff the different objects, when th between them. And hence, unnatural distinction between far sentiment, which is a mixtu judge and arbiter of dramatic ment is not so blind as mere af the other hand, fo discerning absurd, indeed, to go to the th there only to see, veluti in fpecu the world, not to study that ph it really is. And hence the pact, as it were, to keep holida themselves within the ordinary usually called common sense. E not to be broken. It is taken materialiter a fiction. But, not that what is represented, thou what might have happened, or that is, the drama must proceed fity. It is here to be observed, the drama are not immediately so the understanding is not imm .bility or neceflity. Nor does it {opher affected as much as a clovwould know on reflection to be a other, let him reflect as long as it very probable. A philofopher thousand things to be probable, to be utterly impoflible. And ye life, they reason and act nearly where the business of ratiocinatio them to be equally affected wi drama. The reason is, that the know on reflection that what is re pbyfically, impoffible; yet, kno

e such is not the general opinion of the world, in conformity to renk:. which he is in a manner obliged to live, think and act, he

judges of probabilities according to the common standard, and

gives his passions their full play amidst a thousand absurdities print and improprieties : for why should be expect that truth and pro

priety upon the stage which he does not meet with in life?

Thus we find that the conduct of the drama, admitting its representation to be, as it really is, only a representation, requires only that degree of probability which is consistent with the common sense, or common mode of thinking of the times, in which it is represented. And hence we see that the same characters and actions, which in one age or country might seem natural and probable, might in another appear unnatural, improbable and marvellous. At the same time, it is evident there must be some general rules, arising from the constitution of human nature, and the progressive developement of things, which must be applicable to all ages and nations. So that the representation of what happened in a distant age or country, though marvellous, if represented of the time and place of representation, is included within the bounds of dramatic probability. This is a circumstance also, to which the audience ought ever to pay a proper attention; as without it we do not see how any other probability than that common to their own age and nation could go down with them; unless they were in a difpofition to accept the marvellous instead of the pathetic.

It is observed by the French academy, in their strictures on the Cid of Corneille, that it is essential to the probable, whether it be of the ordinary or extraordinary kind, that when it is presented to the audience, either the immediate impression it makes on the mind, or their reflections on its parts and consistency, thould excite them to believe what is represented to have been true, as they find nothing in such representation repugnant to that belief. Le vraisemblable, tant le commun que l'extraordinaire, doit avoir cela de particulier, que soit par le premiere notion de l'esprit, soit par reflexion sur toutes les parties dont il refulte, lorsque le poëte l'expose aux auditeurs et aux spectateurs, ils se portent à croire, sans autre preuve, qu'il ne contient que de vrai, pour ce qu'ils ne voient rien qui y Tepugne.'

Here we see the probable is defined to be, that which is generally conceived possible, and carries with it an apparent proof of such poffibility. We come now to consider, how far the obfervation of the dramatic unities may be necessary to support the apparent proofs of this posibility; and how far Shakespeare heel broksn through them. To begin, as usual, with that of

tion. The unity of action is sufficiently observed when a fingle end is proposed, to which all the means made use of



the piece, effectually tend. These means, consisting of subor. dinate actions, may accordingly be few or many, provided their several directions converge to one point, in which they unite and are concentrated. There is one circumstance, however, to be particularly observed with regard to the unities in general; and this is, that those of action, time and place, should never break into that of character. It were neeuless indeed to mention this to critics, who maintain the necessity of observing thele unities in the stricteft manner, as described by Boileau,

Qu'en un lieu, qu'en un jour, un seul fait accomple

Tienne jusqu'à la fin le theatre rempli: Because it would be impoßible for them to err in this particuJar: but the case is different with regard to those, who may affirm with Dr. Johnson, that, because the drama exhibits successive imitations of succeflive actions, the second imitation may repiesent an action that happened years after the first. It is absofutely essential to drainatic representation, that the persons of the drama should be known and fixed. Now, though it is not to be supposed, that, in the space of twenty-four hours, any great revolution can happen in the personality of the characters, so great a change is naturally produced in a term of years, that the apparent proofs of the dramatic possibility required would necessarily be wanting in the representation. For instance, when Lcontes, in the Winter's Tale, is looking at the imaginary Atatue of Hermione, and says to Paulina,

-But yet, Paulina,
Ilermione was not so much wrinkled, nothing

So aged as this seems : It is impossible for the fpectator not to be offended with the palpable affront which is here offered to his fenfes *. For if the features of the player be not artificially disguised, since the was seen about an hour before, fixteen years younger, in the first and second act, it is a molt glaring imposition on his eyerights and though her features should be a little begrimed with charcoal, to help the deceit, her shape, air, and manner are the same, and it is plain she was too recently in his company to pass upon him so foon again for an old acquaintance that had been fixteen years absent. The imposition is ftill more gross with respect to the personality of Perdita, in the same play; whom Paulina presents, in the second act, in swaddling cloaths

-Behold, my Lords,
Altho' the print be little, the whole matter

And copy of the father ; eye, nose, lipCan any thing be more improbable than to see the fame Perdita in the fourth act a marriageable young shepherdess? Whatever

• Not merely to his understanding, for his imagination might possibly have falvcd the absurdity, from the reflection of its being a fiētion.


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