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considerable height from the ground, is a bas-relief of the Lion of St. Mark, with an inscription below it. The natives of Crete long considered their own countryman Titus as their patron saint. The bronze guns which had been suffered by the Turks to remain on the ramparts of this city, and on those of the other Venetian fortresses, were taken by Mehemet Ali to Alexandria. The several consulates look on the port, and aro distinguished by their flags. Greek is generally Bpoken throughout Crete; Turkish and Arabic will be heard in the towns. Khania stands on or near the site of Kydonia, as appears from Strabo, Skylax. and other authorities; no remains of the ancient city are discoverable. The earthquake of October 12,1856, caused great destruction here, as also in tho other towns of Crete.
The environs of Kliania afford delightful excursions. One should not omit to visit the village of Murnien, nt the foot of tho mountains; near it is the monastery of St. Eleutherios, in the chapel of which aro paintings of our Saviour, tho Virgin, and various saints, and a crucifix consisting of an iron cross, with a Christ in alto-relievo upon it. This latter is remarkable as being a novelty in tho Greek Church, approaching to the practice of the Roman Catholic worship.
Not far from this convent, and about 2 m. from Khania, is a spacious country house, with garden, erected by Mustafa I'osha, a former governor of Crete, and which should by all means bo visited, both as a good specimen of tho country residence of an opulent Turk, and for the beautiful view to bo enjoyed from the flat roof.
The most interesting of all the short excursions from Khania is that to tho rich and beautiful valley of Platania (Excursion 6).
A long doy may bo devoted to the AkroteYi. a jieninsular promontory immediately to the N.E. of Khania. By setting out early the traveller may reach tho ruined convent of Katholico, 4 hrs. from tho town, where he can dine on provisions taken with him,
returning to tho city the same evening, llalf-an-hour N.E. of Khania is tho village of Kalepa, on a rising ground not far from the Bhore. From abovo this village is a noblo view of the snow-clad Sphakian mountains, and of part of the plain, to tho 1. and to the rt. of the fortified city, of tho Gulf of Khania, with tho Dictynnrean promontory beyond, and, in the distance, of tho Corycian capo. The road henco to tho convent of the Holy Trinity passes near two or three villages without entering into any. Tho part of the Akroteri, over which it passes, is barren and uncultivated, but almonds in partridges. The monastery of the Trinity is surrounded by lofty cypresses. Tho church in tho middle of tho court is in the form of a Latin cross; tho front is ornamented with Doric columns; over the doorway is an inscription dedicated to the Trinity. The monasteries in this part of Creto pay conjointly a sum of money to tho patriarch of Constantinople, who is said to receive not less than 2000Z. annually in dues from the island. Tho convent of St. John is less than 3 m. from that of the Trinity, and is approached through a winding rocky gorge; J m. farther is the Cave of the Hear, at the entrance of which is a little chapel. The cavern derives its name from tho resemblance of a pieco of rock within it to the form of a sitting bear. At tho distance of J m. from this cave is tho secluded and now ruined convent of Katholico. Near it is a grotto, to which the traveller descends by a flight of 140 steps. Its height varies from 10 to 50 or GO ft., and it is nearly 500 ft. long; its sides are covered with beautiful stalactites, Bome of them forming columnar supports for the roof of the cavern, somo transparent, and others brilliantly white. A few paces below tho mouth of the cavern is a small church cut out of tho rock. Near it are the cells of monks now abandoned. In tho bridge, here thrown across the deep ravine, is an opening leading into a a cell, said to havo been used by tho monks as a place of imprisonment. Tho wild and sequestered spot in which the convent of Katholico is situated is not almve 1000 paces from the sea. No place could be better fitted than this glen for those who desire "remote from man with God to pass their days."
FROM KHANIA BY THE JiAY OF SCDA, APTERA, &C, TO RHITUYMN08.
From Khania to Rhithyrnnos are counted about 12 hrs., or one day's journey; but, with pood horses the distance may easily bo accomplished in 7 or 8 hrs.
From Khania to Palxo-hastron, on the Bay of Suda, the road leads over the plain, the greater part of which was stripped of its olives when Ibrahim Pasha alighted here in 1825, on his way to the Morea. Near the saltpans (in Turkish Tuzla), the ground liecomes a marsh, and is only rendered passable by the remains of portions of the old Venetian paved road. The marsh abounds in snipes. The rock of Suda, a conspicuous object, is said to have been a receptacle for corsairs during the 10th centy., and was used as a landing-place in 1571 by the Turks, who ravaged the territory of Khania, and burnt the town of Rhithyrnnos. In consequence the Venetians fortified the islet, and retained it with the castles of Qrabusa, at the N.W., and of Spinalonga, near the
• In those excursions we chiefly follow Mr. Pashley, and we refer our readers to his learned and valuable work for details respecting Uie antiquities, Set, of Crete.
N.E., extremity of Crete, for many years after the Turks took lxwsession of the rest of the island. The islet of Suda and the rocks around it were the Lettcic of the ancients, and have been supposed to 1k> the Siren hies of Homer. Leaving the Bay of Suda, and crossing a ridge, we descend to the plain of ApohWona, bounded on the S. by the eastern half of the White Mountains. To the 1., on commencing the descent, we rind 2 ancient tombs, and soon after reach ruins called PaUeokastron, in the midst of which is a monastery. A little distance to the S. and S.W. arc traces of 2 buildings, near which ore fragments of seveml columns, and farther to the E. similar fragments indicate tho site of 3 or -I other buildings. Near these remains are those of a theatre, but not cut out of the rock like most Greek theatres. A considerable portion of the walls of the city remains; part appears to have been constructed before the Roman conquest of the islaud, and iu one sjwt J m. N.E. of the monastery, the remains aro polygonal, and are almost as massive as those of Tiryns. N. and N.E. of the monastery is a large brick building, probably Aptera, composed of numerous arches, some above and some below ground. There are also the remains of a largo cistern under ground.
Here is the scene of the legendary contest between the Sirens and the Muses, when after the victory of the latter, the Sirens lost the feathers of their wings, and having thus beeomo white, cost themselves into the sea— whence the name of Aptera, and the neighbouring islets henae. Berecynthos was in the district of Aptera, and has been identified with the modern Malum.
From Palei.-ltastron to Tihithymnos the road continues over the plain of Apokiirono, with the White Mountains on the right, and the promontory of Drepnmm on the left, and after passing a fountain called While Water, arrives at the so-called 1leUeiiie.hrifl<jt\ It then follows tho E. bank of a river which runs down from tho White Mountains, and falls into the sea near the hamlet of Armyrd, where are the remains of a modern castle. Here all is desolation: the castle was stormed and dismantled by the Greeks at the commencement of the revolution, and tho village has shared tho same fate. In this neighbourhood must have been the ancient Amphimalla or Amphiinallion. jf hour from Amyro is the small hamlet of Murni. At the foot of tho hills near this place is Lake Kurna, so called from a village on the hill above it. 1 hour hence, on the shore, is the vdlage of Dramia, occupied in winter by the Sphakians, who descend from the mountains in October, and remain here till April. It is probable that the city of Hydramon existed on or near this spot.
The village of Episcopl, a short distance farther, consists of 100 families. It contained before the revolution 300.
Episcopito Polis (called also Gvddaropolis, the City of Asses).* This town is within tho confines of Khithymnos, though very near the borders of Sphakia. Before reaching Polis are considerable remains of a massive brick building, at one end of which are some large buttresses. Closo by ore tho remains of a circular building. 300 paces 8.S.W. of Polis is an ancient cistern, 70 feet long, and nearly 20 wide. A rapid descent, on the W. side of the village, leads to considerable remains of a Bornan brick building, beyond which, in tho deep valley between l'olia and tho mountain Phterolako, is the stream which divides the district of Apokorona from that of Bhithymnos. There are remains of somo Venetian buildings in the village, one of which was evidently a palace. Polis is supposed to be the site of the ancient city of Lappa, or Lampe, restored by Augustus, a fact which accounts for tho number of Soman remains.
The village of St. Comlantine is only 4 miles from Polis, but the rood is very
• 'H roi'SoupoiroXi*. Similar terms of reproach or ridicule arc frequently applied to towns in Greece hy neighbours.
bod. 1 mile hence is the village of Hustika, and tho monastery of the Propliet EUas. 1 mile from Bustika we cross a streamlet in a picturesque valley, and soon after traverse a plain i miles long, and, passing through tho villages of Prine" and AliUdpulo, arrivo at a bridge of 2 rows of arches, one above the other. This was a common mode of construction among tho Bomans; witness the Pont du Card near Nimes. Near this bridge are excavations in the rock, one of which is a chapel dedicated to St. Antony.
Rhithymnos (Betimo), a place of less importance in ancient times than in modern, contains a population of about 0000 souls, of whom two-thirds are Moslems. Tho bazaars and streets have entirely a Turkish character. The port is protected by a mole, and resembles that of Khanin, though on a much smaller scale. The town is surrounded by mediawal walls. Tho citadel has a picturesque appearanco from the sea, its half-ruinous walls enclosing the summit of a rocky eminence to tho \V. of the town. As in most other Turkish forts, those guns which are not dismounted are unserviceable from ruBt and neglect. There ore among thom several largo bronzo Venetian swivels.
Bhithymnos should bo mado tho headquarters for a visit to the caverns of Melidoni (Excursion 2), which may be accomplished in one long day, starting very early, and returning late, but to which a day and a half hail better be devoted—the traveller sleeping in the village of Melidoni. This town is also the most convenient starting-point for the ascent of Mount Ida. The first day the traveller should proceed to the village of Pistol, 5 hours from Bhithymnos by the direct road, and 7 hours by the more picturesquo route which leads by the monastery of Arcadi (Excursion 5). Pistal is a Greek village on the western slope of Ida, and indifferent sleeping accommodation may be procured therein, as also mules for the ascent. Henco it is 2J hours to the grotto: probably that in which, according to the old legend, tho infant Jupiter was concealed and fed by bees (Virg., Georg. iv. 152). The path so far descends by bold cliffs and through a magnificent forest of evergreen oaks. So far the ascent can be performed on mules, as also half an hour further to the base of tho bare central cone of tho mountain, somewhat resembling that of Parnassus. It takes 2 hours to ascend this cono to tho highest of the three peaks in which it terminates; nor is tho undertaking of great labour in summer, when thero is littlo or no snow. On the summit is a cairn-like chapel of rough uncemented stones, dedicated to tho Holy Cross (Tf/uos STaufxis), and in it a Greek priest annually jiorforms mass on tho anniversary of that festival, September 26. The view from this point in clear weather is one of the most glorious panoramas in nature. The whole of Crete, except where an intervening hill occasionally shuts out some low ground, is spread like a map under the feet of tho spectator. The outlines of the White Mountains at tho W. end of the island, of the Dictamn Mountains at the E. end, of tho coast-lino of tho iEgean to tho N., and of the African Sea to the S., are almost ]>erfcct in their variety and beauty. The thrco chief towns of Khania, Khithymnos, and Megalokastron are all distinctly visible; as also, in clear weather, some of the ^Egean islands, and—in the African Sea—the islets of Gandos. The summit of tho High Mountain (Pselorites, from J^iriKhn and Spos), as tho modern Cretans emphatically coll Ida, is 7G74 feet abovo tho sea.
FROM RHITHYMNOS BY AXOS "AND TYLISSOS TO MEGALO-KABTBON.
From Rhithymnos to Megalo-kastron, or Candia, is one day's journey.
Leaving Rliithymnos wo proceed to the village of Fege, i. o. WelU; on ouo side of which are about 1000 olive-treea, which were formerly the property of the Sultana. The KieUr Aga, or Cliief of the Eunuchs at Constantinople, used to name tho Aga of this village, who, if not liked by the inhabitants, was removed at the end of 2 years. They once kept the same Aga, a Mohammo dan of tho village, for 33 years.
An hour after leaving Pegc we reach tho village of BaqaloltliM, and soon see, to the right, the ruins of another village, Khamale'cri. 1 mile farther is tho small and impoverished monastery of Artani. Tho church is dedicated to St. George, and contains an elementary school. 6 miles from Arsani, the road leads over tho top of a ridge, whence the view extends over the fertile plain of Myfopotamo, interspersed with villages among olive-trees. Beyond tho plain is the conical mountain of Melidoni. The road then passes tho ruinous village of Perama. Proceeding hence towards Melidoni, we turn to the left of the regular road between Khithymnos and Megalo-kastron, nud after a short and steep ascent reach a barren tract, which extends as far as the olive-trees by which Melidoni (5 hours from Rhithymnos) is surrounded. An ascent of 4 hour from the village conducts to the entrance of a Cavern, which, from the beauty of its stalactites, rivals the grotto of Antiparos. It was dedicated to the Talla>an Hermes, as appears from an ancient inscription over its entrance (Pashley'a Crete, vol. i. p. 138). Lights are neceesary for the exploration of this cavern; they may be procured in the neighbouring village. On passing the entrance, the traveller finds himself in a K]>acious chamber, running E. and W., almost as wide as it is long. Its vaults and sides are fretted with noble stalactites, while stalagmites of great size are scattered on tho ground. In tho middle of this chamber, on the S. side, is the mouth of a low wide passage, about 30 feet long. The stalactites in it sometimes descend to tho ground. On the opposite side of the entrance cavern is another passage, 20 feet wide and 60 high, almost closed at the extremity by a group of stalactites. Beyond this spot tho pnssago becomes 30 feet wido and 80 high; it terminates in a perpendicular descent of 18 feet, beyond which the cavern has not been explored. At tho N.E. extremity of tho entrance is another passage, 10 feet long, terminating in a chamber, 27 feet long, on tho opposite side of which is another narrow pass, 13 feet long. On emerging from this passage we descend to another apartment, 150 feet long, where a spectacle of surpassing beauty presents itself. Between 20 and 30 feet from tho mouth of tho pass is a great stalagmite, which rises up and forms a column reaching to the top of the cave; while the stalactites on either side hang in perfect order; a rango of stalactites, on the 8.W. side of this apartment, separates it from a good-sized passage which leads to a small room; below are 2 other small rooms. During the revolution 300 Christians took refuge, in tliis grotto, when Mustafa and Khusein Beys came to Melidoni with their troops. They retreated to what was deemed an impregnable fortress, and had provisions to stand a siego of half n year. Khusein Bey summoned them to come from their lurking-placo; his messenger was fired upon and fell. He then attempted to force an entrance, and in so doing lost 24 Amaouts. A Greek woman was then sent to them, but Bho was shot, and her body cast from tho mouth of the cavern. KhuBein Bey then caused tho entrance of tho cavern to bo filled up with stones,
thus depriving tho Christians of air and light. The next morning it was found that an o[ieiiing hod been made. The attempt of tho Turks was twice repeated, but finding that tho Christians could still breathe and live, they filled up the entrance with wood, barrels of oil, straw, sulphur, &c, and set fire to these combustibles. Tho denso vapour Bo rapidly filled the first apartment, that many perished before effecting their escape to tho inner recesses; gradually it penetrated into tho second chamber, whero many moro fell, and finally into the farthest chambers, when the work of destruction was completed. After 18 days tho Mahommedans sent a Greek prisoner to ascertain the state of things, and on his report they entered the cavern, stripping their victims of everything of value, and appropriating to themselves the stores and property which they found. Soon after this, 0 Christians, who had friends in the cavern, were impelled, by their anxiety, to ascertain the truth: 3 of them descended, of whom one never raised his head again, and died only 9 days afterwards, and another died in the course of 20 days. According to tradition, the caverns of Creto were used in a similar manner in very early times, so that the Cretan's Refuge (Kpr><r<piycTov) became tho general name of grottos thus supposed to bo places of security from danger.
Leaving Melidoni, wc regain tho regular road to Ehithymnos, which we had quitted at Perama, and pass by the village of Va/nidet; Mount Ida is to the right, and tho hill of Milidoni still in front: 3 miles farther is the Khan Papativrysi, now a ruin. The villago of Ghardzo, celebrated for tho beauty of its fenialo inhabitants, is at a short distance up tho S. Bido of the valley.
From Gharazo, a gentle ascent of 1$ hour leads through vineyards to Aztis. Before entering this village, we observe some tombs excavated in tho rocks. Tho river Axos flows past tho villago; it is alluded to by Virgil