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need not take the trouble of scheming a lead | ace and two small ones, with four trumps, of your own.
gave him credit for the knave, and probably Never lead trumps, even if led first by
one or two others; he therefore put the aco your partner; it is wasting them, as they
on the queen, to get it out of his partner's might make tricks by trumping. *In all other cases, do the best you can.'
way, then succeeded in drawing all the
trumps, and returned the third little spade. The only idea of skill possessed by these The original player had no more, and the players, is in recollecting the high cards adversaries brought in several cards of the that are out, and in discovering when the suit and won the game. partner is likely to be short of a suit, that If players of this class knew how easily they may force him to trump; they are they might step into the rank of first-class quite indifferent as to the play of sequences adepts, by simply adopting the orthodox and small cards, and wonder at anybody at- system, they might be induced to devote a taching importance to such trifles. This few hours to its acquisition; but the great class forms the great mass of domestic play- obstacle to their improvement is the pride ers; they are generally very fond of the they take in their own skill, which they obvame, and practise it a great deal; but their ject to make subservient to a set of rules, mprovement is almost hopeless, as it is so and, perhaps, in some instances to the will hard to get them to take the first step, i.e. of a partner inferior to themselves. to unlearn everything they already know. The second class are those who play ac
The third class are more deserving of recording to correct system, but who, from spect. They have probably belonged origin- want either of practice or of talent, do not ally to the fourth class, but by reading shine in individual skill. This is generally Hoyle or Matthews, or some of the old the case with the young who are properly books, aided by careful attention, practice, taught, and their number is happily increasand natural ability, they have risen much ing every day. Two such players would unabove it, and have acquired, in domestic questionably win over two much superior. circles, the reputation of being superior adversaries of the third class : and they players. They are very observant, recollect make such admirable partners, that a fine and calculate well, draw shrewd inferences player, working with one of them, would of as to how the cards lie, and generally are himself realize almost the full advantage of adepts in all the accidental features of good the combination of the hands. This class play. Their management of trumps is dia- are eminently hopeful; they are already eninetrically opposed to that of the fourth titled to the name of good, sound players, class, as they have a great penchant for and if they have only moderate abilities, leading them, a course almost always advan- they must continually improve. tageous for them with inferior adversaries. The first, or highest class, are those who,
But skilful as these players are, they to the soundness and system of the second commit, as Deschapelles says, one long and class, add the personal skill of the third. continual fault which they do not see,' they They then become fine players, and, although are “forts joueurs qui sont de détestables there may be among them many grades of partenaires. They do not play upon sys- excellence, they may, as a class, be said to tem ; they will not conform to the conven- have arrived at the summit of the scale. We tional language of the game; and hence may refer to Mr. Clay's book for an exemthey lose the great advantage of the com- plification of what a fine player should be. bination of their own with their partners' To improve any larger number of whisthands. They, indeed, usually object to sys- players in the lower classes is more than can tem altogether, arguing that the play should be hoped for; few of the old hands are be dictated by their own judgment. A open to conviction or anxious for instruction. player of this class will often lead from But for the benefit of younger aspirants, short suits, or will lead trumps when weak, and of others who may have the ambition or abstain from leading them when strong, to rise out of the dull ranks of the incapables, or will even refuse to return his partner's we will offer a few words of guidance. lead in them; or, in fact, will adopt any First then, we say to the student, you other mode of playing for his own hand must be convinced that you have somealone, the worst fault,' says Mr. Clay, thing to learn. It is the want of apwhich I know in a whist player.'
preciation of this truth that accounts We lately saw a fatal instance of the evil for such a general prevalence of bad of this style of play. A good player of this play. People fancy they can become good class opened by leading the king of spades, players by mere practice, which is a great which he followed by the queen. His part- mistake; they only move on in one eternal ner, a systematic player, who had originally blundering round. The scientific game has
been the result of years upon years of ela- | When whist playing is studied on system, borate thought and incessant experiment, to use Dr. Pole's words,and you can no more arrive at it by your own limited experience, than you could be
"Itois astonishing in how different a light come acquainted with scientific astronomy being
the game appears. Its acquisition, instead of
my being laborious and repulsive, becomes easy by watching the apparent motion of the and pleasant; the student, instead of being stars. And, further, if you have already frightened at difficulties, finds them vanish bslearnt and practised whist on the erroneous fore him; and even those who, having formerly principle of considering merely your own practised without method, take the trouble of hand, you must wipe out all that, and make | learning the system, suddenly see the light a tabula rasa on which true knowledge can
break in upon them, and find themselves rebe inscribed.
paid a hundredfold in the increased enjoyment
and satisfaction the game will afford them.' The next thing to be done is to make yourself acquainted with the recognized sys | Practise as much as possible, with good tem of modern play, embodying the com- players, but do not be turned aside from plete language of the game. This is the correct play by unsound criticism, or by unall-important thing; the three great points favourable results, both which you will often of modern whist are system, system, system. have to encounter. Neither be discouraged You will be surprised to find, if you ap- by finding at first your memory at fault. proach the subject with a docile disposition, Systematic play aids this largely, by showhow easy this system is to acquire; the dif- ing to what points it is most important to ficulties only arise from its clashing with direct attention ; first the trumps, next the pre-conceived notions; some dozen sentences higher cards of your own long suit, then embody its chief features, and when their those of your partner's, and so on. Trust to spirit is once well impressed on the mind, your natural memory only, avoiding everythe great portion of the learning is done.* thing artificial, except carefully sorting and
counting your cards at the beginning of the
hand. All other mnemonic arrangements * The following short memoranda of some of the most important points of the modern game
do mischief; the practice even of putting might be committed to memory, or printed on a
the trumps in a particular place is as childcard for easy reference:
ish as that of turning the picture cards the 1. Lead from your most numerous suit. Be right way up, to prevent,' as Deschapelles gin with the lowest, unless you have several high cards, as mentioned in the text.
says, the flow of blood to their heads. 2. Lead your own suit before you return your
When you have become thoroughly fampartner's, unless he leads trumps, which return iliar with the system, and can speak the immediately.
language of the game with fluency, then 3. In returning your partner's suit, if you vou may turn your attention to the accidente have only two left return the highest ; if more, the lowest.
of play, which have the object of taking 4. But in any position, if you hold the best the best advantage of particular situations. card, play it the second round.
You will find plenty of examples of these in 5. Holding five trumps, lead them, or call for Cavendish's published Hands,' and many 6. Look out for your partner's call for trumps,
more in Hoyle and Matthews, which you especially if weak in them yourself. If he calls. ) may at this period study with advantage. and you hold not more than three trumps, lead And here you will find the field gradually the highest ; if more, the lowest.
opening for your personal skill; your know7. Second hand, conerally play your lowest. llade of system has already placeð vou in the
8. Do not trump a doubtful trick second hand, if you hold more than three trumps; with three
second class of players; you have then to or less trump fearlessly.
advance into the first rank, and to mount as 9. Do not force your partner if you hold less high in it as your ability will allow you. than four trumps yourself; but force a strong | You will encounter difficulties, and must not adverse trump hand whenever you can. 10. Discard from your weakest suit.
expect to get on too fast, as you may be 11. If not leading, always play the lowest of a years before you really excel; but do not be sequence.
discouraged, as you are in the right way. 12. Be very careful in the play of even your Yo y el tiempo,' was Charles Vi's maxim, smallest cards, every one of which will conveyond
ch will convey and your perseverance will be sure to be
our perseverance will be sure to be information to your partner. Why cannot whist be taught professionally,
rewarded. like chess and billiards ? Hoyle set the example, I One of the most difficult, but at the same at a guinea a lesson, and there is now much time most frequent cases for the exercise of more scope for instruction than there was in his fine skill is in judging when and to what exday, from the game being reduced to so much more systematic and teachable a form. So easy ls it, that we know a child, under seven years of through the formalities of the modern game åge, who, having been properly taught, can go with tolerable correctness.
tent the systematic rules should be departed | 8. Elsass und Lothringen, und ihre Wiefrom. Towards the end of the hand, for dergewinnung für Deutschland. Von example, all rules may often be laid aside ; | Prof. Dr. Adolph Wagner. Fünfte Aufand the state of the score will frequently lage. Leipzig, 1870. warrant exceptional play. With a partner, 9. What we demand from France. By too, who does not understand the combined Heinrich von Treitschke. Professor system, it would be folly to adhere to it, as of History in the University of Heidelyou would only be giving information to be berg. Translated from the German. used against you. În such a case you have, London, 1870. in fact, three adversaries instead of two, and 10. Des Relations de la France avec l'Alleyou must fight your own battle single-hand- magne sous Napoléon III. Par le Mared as well as you can. Your partner's quis de Gricourt, Sénateur de l'Empire. neglect to aid you may, perhaps, lose you Bruxelles, 1870. the game; but if you exert your skill, you 11. La Prusse devant l'Europe. Par le will, like the old French, physician, when his Comte Alfred de la Guéronnière. Lettre patient died, have “toujours la consolation de S. E. le Comte de Bismarck au Comte d'avoir fait quelque chose.'
Alfred de la Guéronnière. La Réponse. Cavendish sums up his work with the fol Bruxelles, 18.70. lowing words, which will form an appropriate termination to our own remarks:
The two works, placed first at the head
of the present article, will supply our read“The theory of whist tells you how to players with considerable information respecting your own hand to the greatest advantage, how
the public and private life of Count Bisto assist your partner, and how to weaken and obstruct your opponents. This knowledge
marck. The former of these works is the constitutes a sound player. If to theoretical first volume of a French translation, which perfection you add the power of accurate ob- has appeared at Berlin, of Count Bismarck's servation, and of acute perception, together collected speeches in the Prussian Chamwith a thorough comprehension of the whist bers and in the Parliament of the North capacities of partners and opponents, you have German Confederation. They extend at all the elements necessary to form a master of
present no further than the Sessions of the science.'
1867; but these speeches embrace all the principal questions, foreign and domestic, from that of the military establishments of Prussia to that of Luxemburg, which have
given rise to debate between the Prussian ART. III.-1. Les Discours de M. le Comte | Legislature and Government, or between
de Bismarck avec Sommaires et Notes. Prussia, and Europe. We understand the Vol. I. Berlin (n. d.).
proofs for this publication are corrected by 2. Das Buch vom Grafen Bismarck. Von Couņt Bismarck himself, and as he has just George Hesekiel. In drei A.btheilungen, now not a little on his hands besides, it is reich illustrirt von namhaften Künstlern. not surprising if the second volume do not Bielefeld und Leipzig, 1869.
follow the first so soon as might otherwise 3. Deutschland am Neujahr 1870. Vom be expected. We have in the Discours' Verfasser der Rundschauen. (Ascribed before us as much of Count Bismarck's to Von Gerlach.) Berlin, 1870.
mind as he thought fit to utter on each of 4. Krieg und Friede. Zwei Briefe an the questions which came under discussion, Ernst Renan, nebst dessen Antwort auf and as much of Count Bismarck's manner den ersten. Von David Friedrich Strauss. as could be preserved in a French translaLeipzig, 1870.
tion. The speeches now before us may be 5. Die bundesstaatliche Einigung Süd- divided into two periods—that preceding und Nord-Deutschlands unter Preussens and that succeeding the Austrian War, and Führung als nothwendiges Ergebniss des the formation of the North German Congegenwärtigen Krieges, und ihre Be- federation. The former of these might be deutung für das Europäische Gleichge- designated—as was a by-gone epoch of wicht. Berlin, 1870.
German literature-as the Storm and Stress 6. Unsere Grenzen. Von Wolfgang Men- Period;' the latter as a period of compara
zel. Stuttgart und Leipzig, 1868. tively calm weather, condonation and com7. Elsass und Lothringen. Nachweis, promise. If, as has been said, a good man wie diese Provinzen dem Deutschen struggling with adversity was a spectacle Reiche verloren gingen. Von Adolf for the gods, an able Minister, struggling Schmidt, ord. Prof. an der Univ. Jena. for four successive years against majorities Dritte vermehrte Auflage. Leipzig, 1870. I in the popular House of Parliament, and, finally, coming successfully out of such a great events of the day before—(vin ordistruggle, is a spectacle so strange to Eng- naire only, say the German chroniclers of lishmen as, for its very strangeness, may the campaign, having previously appeared well engage our best endeavours to under at the royal table)—and the King proposed stand and explain it.
a toast in the following terms :The Book of Count Bismarck,' the title of which stands second in our list, has gone
“We must to-day, in gratitude, drink to the
health of my brave army. You, War-Minister through several German editions, and has
Von Roon, have sharpened our sword; you, Genbeen translated into English in a fashion of
eral Von Moltke, have guided it; and you, which we will say no more than that it re- Count Von Bismarck, by your direction of the sembles many manufactures of a similar national policy for years, have brought Pruskind for the London book-market, which sia to her present pitch of elevation. Let us would almost justify critics in rendering
then drink to the health of the Army-of the Uebersetzer' by oversetter,' or “traduc
three I have named in connexion with that teur' by “traducer' of German or French
toast—and of every one present who has conoriginals. This “Book of Bismarck,' with
'tributed, according to his power, to the results out claiming much notice as a literary com
now accomplished. position, contributes not a little to our per
The qualities which raised Freiherr Otto sonal acquaintance with the Prussian states- Von Bismarck-Mad Bismarck, as he was man, not only in the shape of public called in early manhood—from the obscure speeches and documents, but of private cor- activities, and equally obscure diversions and respondence, which, curiously enough, has dissipations of a land-improving, sporting, been frankly confided by the Bismarck fam- and deep-drinking Altmark Junker or ily to the book-making discretion or indis- | Squire* -to hold the helm of state during cretion of Herr George Hesekiel. It would eight last eventful years in Prussia, may be seem as if Mr. Carlyle's “awful Chancellor regarded as in good measure identical with of the North German Confederation' had those which have won for Prussia herself, no objection that less awful impressions of within half that period, ascendancy over him should go forth to the reading public. Germany and victory over France. The Accordingly we have a self-portraiture of final moral of the great international drama him swimming in the Rhine by moonlight must be left to the future. The end is not
with nothing but nose and eyes above yet, but the ends already compassed under water,' and looking up at the Mouse Tower, Count Bismarck's Ministry, and compassed where the bad Bishop came to a bad end,'
with the ultimate acquiescence and applause or, “throwing himself on the heaving bosom of his strongest popular opponents, suffice to of his old love,' the North Sea at Norderney, show that the audacious and pugnacious Minor luxuriating in the Atlantic weather' — ister has well understood the instruments he mixed rain and sunshine-in late October at had to use and the parties he had to deal Biarritz Elsewhere, writing to his sister, -with. Much of what has appeared the Frau von Arnim, with that hearty apprecia- astounding audacity of his action in politics tion of homely national viands, which Jef- has really resulted from his "abnormal-sapifrey made fun of long ago in reviewing ent' perception that windbags were wind
Wilhelm Meister' (provoking from the bags, and that a very slight prick might cause veteran Goethe an appeal to German judg- to collapse a very big bladder. The mistake ment, ' Das heisst in England recensiren'), apt to be made on this side the Channel he says he had seldom or never eat such about the political career of Bismarck is liver and black-puddings as she had sent that of unconsciously crediting Prussia with bim, and had breakfasted on them with the parliamentary precedents and traditions great content for the last three days. Then again we have him writing home for a
* We learn from the Book of Bismarck,' that French novel while accompanying the
when the Squire of Schoenhausen, having sown
his wild oats, bethought himself at length of campaign of Sadowa, and at another time
taking a wife, he found his character as a mar. he is converting a free-thinking friend on rying man did not stand much higher with pruan inn-balcony at Rüdesheim, between the dent parents than probably did that of Ritter whiffs of their cigars, from Rousseauism to
Blaubart, after his too frequent conjugal bereaveChristianity, and flatters himself he has at
ments. The pious and decorous parents of Fräu
lein von Putkammer were horrified at the anleast reduced him to silence.
nouncement of such a suitor; but the Fräulein At the soldierly banquet given by King herself liess sich nicht irre machen-stood firm to William I. to his principal officers, on the
her choice. It has never been said since that the brief rest-day which followed his crowning
lady of Mad Bismarck' has had to suffer any
8 | thing similar or analogous to what a French mercy' of the 2nd of September last, at Se- critic of Perrault has called 'les angoisses trop dan, champagne was served in honour of the I méritées de Madame Barbebleu.'
of England. But the most cherished Prus- | iron ”-that stammerer will be the foremost sian traditions and precedents have always political personage in Prussia, in Germany, been those of military monarchy and aristo- | in Europe ! cracy. These have been associated from Von Bismarck's first speech in the United first to last with all her modern advances in Diet of 1847 struck the keynote of all his the scale of nations.
subsequent utterances in the Second Prussian When Oliver Cromwell made his first ap- | Chamber, under the revolutionary and counpearance in the House of Commons, Lord ter-revolutionary order of things which folDigby, according to the rather apocryphal lowed in rapid succession the Berlin émeute parliamentary legend, asked Hampden • Who of March, 1848, to which the weakness of that sloven was and received for answer Frederick William IV. gave for the time all
– That sloven whom you see before you, the effects of a revolution. A military rehath no ornament in his speech : that sloven, treat before a metropolitan populace made I say, if we should ever come to a breach the days of March memorable-a military with the king (which God forbid !), in such rally in the face of the same populace rea case, I say, that sloven will be the greatest versed the situation by November. After man in England.'
the dissolution of the Chambers elected When Otto von Bismarck-to compare under the immediate effect of the events of a smaller, though still a very considerable, March, and the issue of the octroyée constiman with a greater-made his first appear- tution of December, Von Bismarck was ance as deputy from the Saxon Provincial elected as deputy for West Havelland to the Ritterschaft in the Prussian United Diet, new Second Chamber. convoked under the (soon repealed) provi- The rejected offer of the German Imperial sions of the late well-meaning Frederick Crown to Prussia by the Frankfort AssemWilliam IV.'s patent of February, 1847, he bly which had substituted itself by the grace presented the aspect of a man of powerful of the people, for the old Diet of the Conbuild of some three or four-and-thirty, thick federation in the Revolution year 1848, and head of hair short-cropped, ruddy and healthy the alternative propositions for German countenance, bright eyes rather prominent- Union which found a mouthpiece in Von à fleur de tête as the French say,—and Radowitz, were strenuously combated by strong reddish beard. The new speaker Von Bismarck with all the determined outstood bolt upright, looked his audience in spokenness of his Prussian . Junker-Politik' the face for a moment, and then addressed But there were hints in his language that he, them in a plain, unadorned, and occasionally too, had in petto an alternative policy, which hesitating manner, with a sharp, and not might possibly take a substantive shape at exactly agreeable, accent:-I feel myself some future day, when arguments more constrained to contradict what has so often cogent than parliamentary rhetoric should been asserted, as well in this assembly as out be available to support it:of doors, whenever the popular claims for a constitution have come under discussion, viz. 'I deny,' he said, 'that there exists anywhere that the national movement of 1813 was among the Prussian people any felt need for made for that object, or from any other mo
national regeneration after the Frankfort pattive than to deliver our country from the
tern. Much has been said here about Frederick
the Great; and his policy has even been identidisgrace of a foreign yoke.
fied with these projects for German union. I As might be anticipated, these few words
am rather disposed to believe that Frederick of truth, delivered against an assumption as the Great would have addressed himself, in unfounded in historical fact as unnecessary these circumstances, to the distinctive characto the practical objects of rational reformers, teristic of Prussian nationality-to the war. raised a storm of indignation in the impa like element which forms so marked a character tient Liberal majority of that day against
of it—and would have addressed that character the unlucky Deputy of the Saxon Provincial
not without effect. He would have known that, Ritterschaft. Amidst the hubbub of articu
in these days, as in those of our fathers, the
trumpet-sound summoning Prussians under the late and inarticulate protests which saluted banner of the Lord of their Land has not lost the new and unpractised speaker, if any one | its charm for their ear, whether the cause conhad asked, after the fashion of Lord Digby, tended for be the defence of our frontiers, or
Who is that stammerer ?' would there have the power and glory of Prussia. He would been a voice found to answer, as the story have felt tha
have felt that he had the choice either of allygoes Hampden did for Cromwell, That ling
| ing himself with our old comrade Austria, for
the annihilation of the common enemy, Revostammerer, who hath no ornament in his
lution, or of singly dictating to Germany what speech-if it ever comes in the course of
should be her future constitution, at the risk events (which God forbid !) to cement the lof having to throw his sword in the scale." future unity of Fatherland' by “blood and | Either of these courses might have furnished