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the centre. Then sew the petals, as seen in the picture, to the maroon-colored circle. Cover the stem with green zephyr.
them through the base of the flower, attach them to a wire nine inches long; then finish by twisting green zephyr round this wire to form the stem.
Blue or violet may be used instead of pink, if preferred, or the bouquet can contain one of each color.
The anemone is formed of four pink petals, exactly alike. These are made in the same way as the yellow ones of the pansy—that is, two inches long and two inches wide at the broadest part.
Fasten to a stem nine inches long three large green pistils. Put the four petals round these pistils, fastening them lightly together. Twist green worsted round the stem.
(See engraving, page 331.) Materials.-Crochet cotton, .No. 4; & coarse crochethook, a steel netting-needle, and flat mesh three-quarter inch wide.
This pretty and useful little article is an improvement--as far as ornament is concerned on some used in Germany and Switzerland for holding the sponge. It is to be suspended on a nail above the washstand. The foundation is round, in crochet, the size of a small or medium-sized plate ; and above it is worked a bag or net, in netting, done backwards and forwards so as to leave an opening to put in the sponge. It is gradually decreased, so that
few stitches only are at the top; and these are sewed to a strong band of tape, passed over the nail. A white china plate is slipped in, and rests on the crochet round. It is the most convenient and neatest repository for å sponge.
The Round.— Eight ch, close into a round, and work one sc on each stitch with one chain before it.
2d._* 1 sc under ch, 4 ch, * 8 times in the round.
3d._* 2 sc under ch of 4, 3 ch, 2 more so under same * 8 times.
4th _* 3 tc under ch of 3, 9 ch, * 8 times.
5th._* 6 sc, 7 ch, miss 6, * 8 times; eud with 1 slip-stitch on first of 6 sc.
6th.—* 7 sc, beginning on the second of 6, and doing two in one for the last, which comes on a chain, 7 ch, * 8 times; end with slipstitch,
7th, 8th, and 9th.—Like 6th, increasing one in the number of the chain in the 7th and 9th, and one in the sc in the 8th, always ending with a slip-stitch, and commencing the round on the 2d of the sc stitches. The pattern being repeated 8 times, there will be au increase of 8 in every round.
10th.-Sc, increasing 8 altogether.
11th.—* 4 sc under both sides of the stitch, 14 ch, miss 4, dc on 5th, 2 ch, miss 2, dc, 2 ch, miss 2, dc, 2 ch, miss 2, dc, 1 ch, miss 1 (of the 10th round), 4 more sc as before, * 16 times. This makes as many veins or centres of leaves, round which you work in the next round, thus:
12th._* 4 ch, sc under the first, 2 ch, 4 ch, sc under next, and so on all round the veining,
The heart of the flower is of a deep maroon color. Make a circle of wire, and pass the maroon worsted across it until it is entirely and smoothly covered; then on the edge of this make small bunches of loops of green worsted, and between these place small yellow pistils. Fasten, out of sight, a stem, by putting four wires at regular distances on the circle which forms the heart, and twisting them together in
taken up half the stitches; work backwards and forwards closely in sc for an inch and a half; then join to the remaining half of the stitches. This crochet band is used to suspend the net over a nail.
but working twice in the loop at the point; 2 slip on centre, 2 sc of the right in last round, between the veins, * 16 times. Fasten off.
13th.—2 sc under the loop at one point; then as many chain, before joining to the next point, as will make the work lie perfectly flat; probably about 15 will suffice. The 2 sc under the next point, and so on all round.
15th.—Dc, * 3 ch, dc in the same stitch, miss 2, dc in the next, * repeat all round; end with 3 ch, dc in same stitch as last dc, slipstitch on next dc, and 2 ch.
16th._* dc, under ch, 4 ch, dc under saine, * repeat this under every chain.
17th.-Sc under ch, * 3 ch, sc under next chain, * all round.
This mat supports the plate. Put a string in the centre, and tie it into a loop, long enough to go over your foot; then work the netted part, doing two stitches under every chain of 3. Work about four inches in honeycomb, going backwards and forwards; then plain netting, decreasing by taking two together every 8th stitch ; in the next row but one, every 7th ; in the next but one every 6th ; and so on, until only about 40 stitches are left, which are either sewed to a piece of broad tape (one-half to each end) or worked on a band of crochet, thus :
Do a row of sc, inserting the hook every time under one stitch of netting, till you have
This apron is composed of a rich gray chiné moire. It is gored, and has an elaborate velvet plastron down the centre, cut out in diamonds, and trimmed with black lace and buttons.
ALTHOUGH the little article we are giving is called a bonbon basket, yet it is equally suitable for all sorts of dried fruits, sweetmeats, etc. etc., serving also to decorate the table either for the after-dinner dessert, or for the refreshments of the evening party. The mode of making these baskets is as follows:
Take a white glazed paper and a colored glazed one-a pretty green, or a bright red, both look well ; cut them into strips, exactly double the 'width intended to be shown, and fold them so that the two edges may just meet at the back of each strip; cut a round in pasteboard the size of a supper plate, lay the folded paper upon it, the colored one way and the white the other, weave them in and out, so as to keep the squares regular, tack round the edge of the pasteboard with a needle and thread, cut off the superfluous parts of the paper, sew a wire all round, slightly raising up and contraeting the circle, carry each end of the wire over the top, and fasten so as to form a handle of the wire double ; twist white and colored paper round this handle, securing the ends with a little strong gum-water ; take strips of the white and strips of the colored paper, fold them down the middle, cut fine, open and curl, and carry these all round the edge of the basket; take a little silver paper, cut it very fine, crimp it, and fasten it on the centre of the handle, to hang down like a fringe or tassel.
LACE SPRIGS FOR SHAWLS, DRESSES,
(See engravings, page 395.) These sprigs may be worked either in applique on net and muslin, or they may be worked on net in chain-stitch, the latter way being the most effective, and involving the least amount of work. Chain-stitch on Brussels net is a style of work extremely suitable for lace dresses, which are at all times elegant for evening, or even ball-room dress. A Brussels net shawl, covered over with these sprigs, with a border or full flounce round it, is likewise an article of costume extremely becoming and elegant. These sprigs are also suitable for embroidering on muslin, the flowers being worked in satinstitch, and the leaves sewn round and filled in with point d'or. A net skirt, covered with these sprigs, has a very ornamental appear
THE MANAGEMENT OF THE HAIR, EYES, TEETH,
MANAGEMENT OF THE EYES.
When these organs are strong and naturally well formed, tbey may be left pretty nearly to themselves; but when the sight is naturally in any way defective, some little management is required. It should be known that the conditions called short-sight and long-sight are not absolute disease, but are dependent upon mere alterations of form in the front of the eye, which are almost always born with the individual possessing them. When, therefore, they exist, some little management is required in order to relieve the deficiency of sight, which in some cases is very annoying.
The eye being an optical machine intended to throw an image upon the fine expansion of nervous tissue at its back, it follows that it must be made of a definite shape, and with its parts at certain known angles, in order to fulfil its office. In order, however, to understand the nature of its action, the ordinary laws regulating the transmission of light must be understood.
These laws are as follows:
1. Light travels in straight lines so long as the medium through wbich it passes is of uniform density.
II. When the rays of light pass from a rarer medium into a denser one, they are refracted towards a line drawn perpendicularly to the surface they are entering.
III. When the rays of light pass from a denser medium into a rarer one, they are refracted from the perpendicular.
IV. When rays proceeding from the several points of a luminous object, at a distance, fall upon a double convex lens, they are brought to a focus upon the other hole of it in such a manner that an inverted picture of the object is formed upon a screen placed in the proper position to receive it.
V. The further the object is removed from the lens the nearer will the picture be brought to it, and the smaller will it be.
VI. If the screen be not held precisely in the focus of the lens, but a little nearer or further off, the picture will be indistinct; for the rays which form it will either not have met, or they will have crossed each other.
The eye itself, as exhibited in man, is a most wonderfal optical instrument, intended to form an exact image of surrounding objects upon the retina. For this purpose the rays of light, as they diverge from the several points of any object, and fail upon the front of the eye (cornea), are refracted by its convex surface whilst passing through it into the eye, and are made to converge slightly. They are brought more closely together by the crystalline leus, which they reach after passing through the pupil; and the refracting influence of this dense body, together with that of the vitreous humor, occupying the space behind it, is such as to cause the rays issuing from each point to unite at a focus on the retina. In this manner a complete inverted inage is formed, which represents a vertical section of the eye, and the general course of the rays in its interior. The retina is so thin as to be nearly transparent, and is spread over a layer of black pigment intended to absorb the rays of light and thus prevent a confusion of the image by a reflection of its points from one side to an
other of the receding surface. Such is the simple account of the eye as an optical instrument, beyond which it may be considered as consisting of certain parts intended to keep the machine in order, and also to correct its otherwise irremediable defects; but which need not be attended to by those who merely want to understand its management in health,
The variations in formation already alluded to are chiefly two; in the first of which the cornea is too convex, and the refractive power is thereby made so great that the image of an object at a moderate distance is formed in front of the reting instead of upon it. When this is the case, in order to produce a distinct image, the object must be brought nearer to the eye, the effect being to throw the picture upon the proper place. Such an eye is said to be myopic or short-sighted, and it can only be rendered efficient at average distances by the use of a concave lens in front of the cornea, the curvature of which is of such a form as to neutralize the superfluous convexity of the cornea. On the other hand, if this part is too flat, and the refractive power of the humors is thereby rendered too low, the rays from an object, also at a moderate distance, will not meet upon the retina, but would form an image behind it, if it were not for the impediment afforded by the black pigment. The picture is consequently indistinct, and can ouly be made clear by increasing the distance between the eye and the object, or, as in the case of the short-sighted person, by placing a glass lens in front of the eye, but with an opposite formation, its surfaces being required to be convex. Such a condition is very common in old persons, who are scientifically said to be presinyopic, or, in common language, long-sighted. Sometimes the short-sighted person can see nothing distinctly unless it touches his nose; and, on the other hand, many old persons cannot see at all distinctly, even at the greatest practicable distance, without the aid of glasses; but this extreme state of flatness is not common, except as a consequence of an operation for the removal of cataract, which is almost always followed by a great demand for the optician's assistance.
The accommodating power of the eye is a very remarkable property, and one which should never be lost sight of by those who have the management of young persons who are afflicted with short sight. We have not been able to ascertain with any certainty the exact nature of the contrivance by which this is effected, but that it exists is shown from the known powers of the eye, and from the nature of its mechanical structure. As previ. ously stated, the picture of a near object can only be distinct when formed at a greater distance behind the lens than the picture of a distant object. Consequently, when an eye can see both a near and a distant object equally clearly without moving its situation as regards them, and in a very short period of time, it follows that the instrument itself must have been altered in some one or more of its diameters or surfaces. It is considered highly probable that in the human eye the lens is brought backwards and forwards according to the distance of the object; but this is merely a theory, propounded as the most likely of the many which have been advanced, and not as being capable at present of distinct proof. It is upon the existence of the power of accommodation that any improvement in the short or long sight can be expected; but with a knowledge of the possibility of its being called into play, no one should give glasses to a young person until they had tried how far his sight might be improved by its education. All