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which yon have not in Modern Greece, for war and ehango have deprived her of them; you have that which is found not in Italy, a profusion everywhere of the most magnificent foliage, recalling the greenness of our own island—clustering plain and chestnut, growth abundant of forest oak and beech, and dark tracts of pine. You have majestic cliff-girt shores, castlecrowned heights, and gloomy fortresses: Turkish palaces glittering with gilding and paint; mountain-passes such as you encounter in the snowy regions of Switzerland; deep nays, and blue seas, with calm, bright isles resting on the horizon; meadows and grassy knolls, convents and villages, olive-clothed slopes, and snow-capped mountain peaks—and with all this a crowded variety of costume and pictorial incident, such as bewilders and delights an artist at each step he takes."

But it is to the classical scholar that the greatest share of interest in Greece belongs. In the language and manners of every Greek sailor and ]>casant he will constantly recognize phrases and customs familiar to him in the literature of ancient Hellas; and he will revel in the contemplation of tho noblo relics of Hellenic architecture, while the effect of classical association is but littlo spoiled by the admixture of post-Hellenic remains. In Italy the memory of the Koman empire is often swallowed up in the memory of the republics of the middle ages; the city of the Ciesars is often half forgotten in the city of the Popes. But it is not so in Greece. We lose sight of tho Venetians and tho Turks, of Dandolo and Mahommed II., and behold only the ruins of Sparta and Athens, only the country of Leonidas and Pericles. For Greece has no modern history of such a character as to obscure tho vividness of her classical features. A mixlem history she does indeed possess, various and eventful, but it has been (as was truly observed) of a dentructive, not of a amotructive character. It has left littlo behind it which can hide the immortal memorials of the greatness of Hellenic genius. At Rome the acquisition of a clear idea of the position and remains of the ancient city is, more or less, the result of study and labour; whereas, at Athens, the idea flashes at once on the mind, clear as the air of Attica, and quick and bright as the thoughts of the Athenians of old. After a walk of a few hours, every well-informed traveller may carry away in his mind a picture of the city of Pericles and Plato, which will never leave him till the day of his death. So recently as Dr. Wordsworth's visit in 1832, there was "scarcely any building at Athens in so perfect a state as the temple of Theseus."

In all parts of the country the traveller is, as it were, left alone with antiquity: Hellas tells her own ancient history with complete distinctiveness. "In whatever district the stranger may be wandering—whether cruising in shade and sunshine among the scattered Cycladcs, or tracing his difficult way among tho rocks and along the watercourses of the PcloponncsuB, or looking up to where the Acholous comes down from the mountains of Acarnania, or riding across the Boeotian plain, with Parnassus behind him and Kitharon before him—he feels that he is reading over again all the old stories of his school and college days—all the old stories, but with new and most brilliant illuminations. He feels in tho atmosphere, and sees in the coasts and in tho plains, and the mountains, the character of the ancient Greeks, and the national contrasts of their various tribes. Attica is still what it ever was—a country where tho rock is ever labouring to protrude itself from under the thin and scanty soil, like the bones under the skin of an old and emaciated man. No one con cross over from ' hollow Laccd«mon' to the sunny climato and rich plain of Messcnia, without sympathizing with the Spartans who fought so long for so rich a prize. No one can ride along the beach at Salamis, while the wind which threw the Persian ships into confusion is dashing tho spray about his horse's feet, without having before his eyes the image of that sea-fight where so great a struggle was condensed into the narrow strait between the island and the shore, with Aristides and Themistocles fighting for the liberties of Greece, and Xerxes looking on from his golden throne. No one can look down from the peak of Pentclieus upon tho crescent of pale level ground, which is tho field of Marathon, without feeling that it is the very sanctuary where that battle ought to have been fought which decided that Greece was never to be a Persian satrapy."— Quarterly Review.

The very mode of travelling will be felt by many to bo- an additional charm. Throughout Greece and European Turkey joumoys are mado only on horseback. "This is not a recreation suited to all men, and is trying even to those who are vigorous and indifferent to luxuries and comforts; yet there is none of that languor and foverishness that so generally result from travelling on wheels, but in their stead invigorated health, braced nerves, and elevated spirits. You are in immediate contact with Nature. Every circumstance of scenery and climate becomes of interest and value, and the minutest incident of country or of local habits canuot escape observation. A burning sun may sometimes exhaust, or a summer-storm may drench you, but what can be more exhilarating than tho sight of the lengthened troop of variegated and gay costumes dashing at full speed along—what more picturesque than to watch their career over upland of dale, or along the waving line of the landscape—bursting away on a dewy morn, or racing 'home' on a rosy eve?

"You are constantly in the full enjoyment of the open air of a heavenly climate; its lightness passes to the spirits—its serenity sinks into tho mind. You are prepared to be satisfied with little, to support the bad without repining, to enjoy the good as a gain, and to be pleased with all things. You are fit for work, and glad of rest; you are, above all things, ready for your food, which is always savoury when it can be got, and never unseasonable when forthcoming. But here it will be seen that no small portion of tho pleasures of Eastern travel arises from sheer hardship and privation, which increase so much our real enjoyments, by endowing us with a frame of mind and body at once to enjoy and to endure. It is also from such contingencies alone that those amongst us who have not to labour for their daily bread can obtain an insight into the real happiness enjoyed three times a day by the whole mass of mankind who labour for their bread and hunger for their meals."—Vrquhurt.

\s the Hellenic Kingdom obtained, in the course of the year 1870, so unhappy a celebrity on account of the capture at Pikermes, and as the question of safety is, after all, the one of primary importance to tho traveller, it is desirable to state, as clearly as may be possible, the present conditions in respect to it of travelling in Greece. The state of insecurity which for some years past has existed in that country may be traced to the measure of employing condemned criminals in aiding the insurrectionists in Crete in 1866, many hundreds of these having formed themselves into brigand bands on their return to Greece. In the fifteen months ending with March, 1870, no fewer than 109 acts of brigandage are officially recorded, but since that date tho efforts which, in deference to European opinion, have been made by tho Ottoman as well as by tho Hellenic authorities have already produced a state of comparative security. Extremely few acts of brigandage have been recorded since April, 1870; parties of English travellers have mado excursions in safety not only in the neighbourhood of Athens, but likewise in the Peloponnesus and othe^,/ parts of Greece; and in April, 1871, the British Vice-Consul at Mesolongh-* officially reported that .flStolia and Acarnania, formerly the chosen haun

of brigands, were now " safe," whilst Her Majesty's Consul at Patras gave a similar report in respect to the whole of the Peloponnesus. We should take upon ourselves gravo responsibility were we to advise travellers to undcr-rate the risks of journeying in Greece, but on the other hand it is equally our duty not to exaggerate them. Persons making tours in tho interior should carry with them revolvers; the Hellenic authorities are always ready to supply escorts when asked to do so; but they require that a traveller should, before setting out on any excursion, give, through the landlord of his hotel, twenty-four hours' notice to the police authorities, whose duty it is to provide escorts, or, if necessary, to give warning of danger. For the present, no traveller should undertake any excursion, however short, out of Athens without having duly taken this precaution.

6. Routes Fbom England To Greece.

N.B.—Tho days of sailing, &c., given in the following lists, or elsewhere throughout these pages, are those fixed at tho date of publication of tho present edition of tliis Handbook. But as changes frequentlyoccur in the arrangements of steam-companies, reference should be made, before starting, to the Continental Guide of Bradshaw or some similar monthly publication. The several lines of merchant steamers which have been established between various English and Levant ports give the traveller an extensive choice of conveyances by sea.

Many persons visit Greece on their return from the East, in which case they generally laud at Syra; that great centre of tho steam navigation of the Levant, whence there is frequent communication with Athens, Salonica, Constantinople, Smyrna, Syria, and Egypt. (For details see Section III., under head of Syra.) Again, many travellers proceed to Greece from Italy, in which ease they can meet the weekly steamers from Trieste at Ancoua or Brindisi.

The main routes from England to Greece direct are as follows:—

I. (1.) TAverpool to Gibraltar, Malta, and Syra (fourteen days) (about 16/. to Athens) by Burns and Mac Ivor's steamers (1, Rumford Street, Liverpool) several times a month; or (2.) Liverpool to Malta, Syra, Constantinople, and Salonica; every ten days; or (3.) Liverpool to Syra, Constantinople, and Smyrna. John Bibby, Sons, and Company's steamers, which sail at irregular intervals.

II. Across France to Marseille*, and thence to Tira xm by French Steamers (Messageries). For the present every alternate Saturday, at 4 p.m.

A variation of this route would be to go by steamer from Marseilles to Genoa, Leghorn, Civita Vecchia, or Naples, and then crossing Italy, to meet the steamers for Corfu at Ancona or Brindisi; or to go by Mont Cenis to Brindisi. A journey from London to Athens, direct, via Paris and Marseilles, costs about 21i.

IH. By the Austrian Lloyd's Steamers from Trieste. Perhaps the most agreeable route from England to the Ionian Islands and Greece is by railroad to Trieste; the traveller proceeding thence in the Austrian Lloyd's steamers to Corfu. The journey from London to Athens by this route can easily be accomplished in nine or ten days, and for about 252. {first-class fare, including living on the road, and all expenses). Corfu is reached by the same mode of conveyance in seven or eight days, and for about 207. Tho London agency of the Austrian Lloyd's Company is at 127, Leadenhall Street, where every requisito information may always be obtained. At present, tho steamers leave Trieste—

(1.) Every Saturday, at 2 P.m., for Constantinople direct, touching only at Corfu and Syra. From Syra there is a branch line to Athens.

From Corfu a pleasant variation of the above route, and one which we can especially recommend to thoso who may not be accompanied by ladies, and even to ladies who may not to disposed to find fault with the imperfect arrangements of Levant travel, is by the Greek steamer to the Isthmus of Corinth, which leaves Corfu in connection with the Brindisi and Trieste boats, every Tuesday afternoon or evening for Lutraki. For the short journey of six miles across the isthmus the Company provides carriages; and at Calamaki, on tho Gulf of Salamis, another steam-packet will bo found wherein to proceed to Athens (Pirajus).

(2.) Once a week, for Corfu, by the coasts of Dalmatia and Albania. This is a voyage of about a week, but a large portion of that period is spent in port, and the traveller is enabled to see on his way, Zara, Spalato, Kagusa, Cattaro, Durazzo, Avlona, and other highly interesting places.

N.B. Arrivals from the Levant, Greece, and tho Ionian Islands are admitted to free pratique at Trieste.

The Austrian Lloyd's steamers which leave Trieste for Alexandria direct, every Saturday night, call at Corfu both in going out and in returning.

e. Beqi-tsttes And Hints Before Starting; Luggage; Clothes; PreSents; Letters Op Introduction; Money; Passports, &c.

In Greece and the East generally, even more than in other countries, let the traveller bear in mind this important hint—he should never omit visiting any object of interest whenever it happens to be within his reach at the time, as he can never be certain whut impediments may occur to prevent him from carrying his intentions into effect at a subsequent period.

We strongly advise those going to Greece not to encumber themselves with a canteen, nor to purchase in England other similar requisites for journeys in the interior of Eastern countries. It is infinitely better to proceed in the first instance to Athens, and there enter into arrangements with one of the regular travelling servants, who provide all such necessaries. Luggage should be packed in two portmanteaus or boxes of moderate size, or in two stout leather bags of equal weight,—so as to balance easily on either side of the pack-saddlo of a baggage-horse. A sportsman, will, of course, take Ids gun and cartridges. A tent, though requisite in many parts of Asia, is unnecessary in Greece.

Protection from Vermin.—Greece and all parts of the East abound in vermin of every description, each annoying the wearied traveller, and some by their bite occasioning serious pain or illness. An apparatus for obviating this evil was invented by Mr. Levinge, and is thus described by Sir Charles Fellows, who used it in travelling in Asia Minor:—" The whole apparatus may be compressed into a hat-case. A pair of calico sheets, nine feet long, sewed together at the bottom and on both sides, are continued with muslin of the same form and size, sewed to them at their open end; and this muslin is drawn tightly together at the end of the tape. Within this knot are three or four looso tapes, about eighteen inches long, with nooses at their ends, through which, from within, a cane is threaded so as to form a circle, extending the muslin as a canopy, which in this form is suspended. These canes must be in three pieces, three feet long, each fitting into tho other with a socket or ferrule. The entrance' to the bed is by a neck from the calico, with a string to draw * tightly together when you are within. It is desirable that the trave'

should enter this bed as lie would a shower-bath, and having his nightshirt with him. When the end formed of muslin is suspended, the bed forms an airy canopy, in which the occupant may stand up and dress in privacy, no one being able to see him from without, while he can observe all around. To prevent accidents from tearing the apparatus, I have found that the best mode of entering it was to keep tho opening in the middle of tho mattrass, and, standing in it, draw tho bag entrance over my head."

During the day one may read and write within it free from the annoyance of flies; and in the evening, by placing a lamp near the curtain, pursue one's occupations undisturbed by gnats. It will even supply the place of a tent, as a protection from the dew, if a night be spent in the open air. The price of this apparatus is trifling. Messrs. Maynard and Harris, 12G, Leadenliall Street, liavo prepared it under Mr. Lcvinge's instructions, and furnish it eomplete, of the ljest materials, for 11. 5s. - Clothe* should be such as will stand hard and rough work. They must not be too light, even in summer; for a day of intense heat is often followed by a storm, or by a cold night. It would be ridiculous in an English traveller to assnmo the Greek or any other Oriental dress, unless he is a master of the local languages and manners; and even in that improbable, case he will still find an English rhooling-jucket and wide-awake tho most respectable and respected travelling costume throughout the Levant.

A comfortable English saddle and bridle will be found a great luxury.

A i>ortable india-rvhl>er bath, with a bellows to distend it, is an immense comfort, especially as it is next to impossible to procure any means of ablution in tho interior of Greece.

A large and stout cotton umbrella is required as a protection not only

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