صور الصفحة

These ore nothing but the bending and unbending of tho two ends of tbo semicircle, with some very slow steps, and an occasional hop.

The handkerchief-dance, which they accompany with a song, is very violent. The leader opens tho song, footing it quietly from side to side; then hops forward, quickly dragging the whole circle after him ; then twirls round, frequently falling on his knees, and rebounding from the ground with a shout; every one repeats the song, and follows the examplo of the leader, w ho, after repeating these movements several times, resigns his place to the man next to him. Thus the sport continues for hours, with very short intervals. In the account given of the armed dances of tho Laeonians may bo recognized the contortions and whirling of the Albanians, whose sudden inflexions of the body into every posturo seem as if they were made to ward and give blows. For a graphic description of Albanian dances seo 'Childc Harold,' Canto II., 71, 72.

9. Directions Fob Travelling; Accommodation, Etc.

There ore no inns in the interior of Albania, Thessaly, and Macedonia. Foreigners provided with letters of recommendation from tho authorities, or private friends, are hospitably entertained in the houses of the Mohommedan Beys, or principal Christian inhabitants. In such eases, no money remuneration is of course given, except a present to the servants; but one may leave a token of remembrance with his host, such as an English knife, a pencil-case, a pair of pistols, or the like. The only places of public accommodation are khant, erected by the Government for the use of travellers, and which aro frequent on the main roads. They aro entirely unfurnished; iu some there ore mauy rooms, and the building is surrounded by a wall enclosing a courtyard, into which horses are turned for the night. The ldianji, as the keeper of the khan is called, generally sells wine, and Indian com cake or bread. The khans in the towns are frequently tenanted by the rabble, and are very dirty. Those in the country are cleaner.

A traveller should bring with him an English saddle; also a thick quilt to sleep on, as he will seldom be able to obtain more than bare boards or a mat on his journey. An unfurnished room can be hired for a few days in any of the large towns. Travellers should always arrive at the end of their (lay's journey by sunset, or a little after, in order to make sure of getting a room in the khan. A servant who can speak Albanian and Greek is indispensable. Albanians are faithful, hardy, and resolute. Travellers should avoid sleeping out of doors, as malaria fevers aro very common. It is best, also, not to rest near marshy ground. The months for travelling in Albania, Thessaly, and Macedonia, are April, May, and June.

Horses are to be procured in abundance in the large towns and villages from the carrier*, called in Turkish Katerjit, and in Greek A-ya^iiiTai. The pivemmcnt or menzil horses are stationed only along the principal lines of road. They should be used when possible, as they are better than those of the Katerjit in general. Travellers provided with the proper Turkish passports have a right to be supplied with the menzil horses, and to pay for them the same price as a Turkish government officer, i. e., so many piastres an hour for the horses, with a gratuity to the turvdji, or postilion, who takes tho horses back. Should the traveller, on arriving at a town or khan, find tho Kates closed, the word hatehith will make them open; while the same term will smooth all difficulties about custom-houses, passports, horses, &c. In making a bargain in these countries, it is expedient to leave a part of tho sum covenanted as bakihith to bo paid or not, according to pvictuality and civility. The general rales for Greek travelling apply to jou' - i:i the Greek provinces of Turkey. (See General Introduction, a '■ ••/, '■)

The process gone through on arriving at the village which is to be the resting-place for the night is in all cases similar. The servant, or dragoman. finds the Khoiljalmshi, ouroul (in Greek, IIpofffTifs, primate), who, on bein^ shown the stranger's firman or baydi (Turkish passport), assigns him a lodgiu tr in a Christian house. The peasant is obliged by law to receive the guest thiiji quartered upon him; but he performs his duty in a hospitable and agreeable way. Of course he should be remunerated for his trouble, and for any articlt s of food which the traveller and his attendants may consume. A trifling present is usually sufficient. The better village houses in the Greek provinces of Turkey are nearly all of a like description. "The ground-floor is a stable, appropriated to the horses, cattle, pigs, and fowls of the owner. Too enter into this menagerie by the same door which admits all the other animals, and ascend to the upper floor by a ladder, giving access to a trap-door closed at night. Here you find yourself trader an open shed, where the inmates sleep in summer for the sake of the coolness. Off this verandah open two, or at the most three, rooms, the walls and floors of which are made of rough planks i>r baked mud. They possess no other furniture except (and that only in the richer cottages) a mat or two, and a few rude cooking utensils. Half the space is generally occupied by heaps of Indian corn, the winter provision of the family, or by implements of husbandry." On a stranger's arrival, the woman of the house hastens to prepare one of these rooms for his reception, turning out her children, removing as much of the lumber as she can lift, spreading her best mat for him, and lighting a fire to cook his supper on the hearth. Then there is a cliame after a couple of the fattest fowls, which are soon caught, killed, plucked, boiled, and served up to the traveller; who, if he has had the precaution to bring coffee, bread, salt, a knife and fork, a drinking cup, one or two tin plates, and a few other necessaries,—and if he does not object to this fare,—gets on wonderfully well. Of course, he must have brought his bed, or else ho must lie on the floor, wrapped up in las cloak. His ride during the day will generally procure him some sleep, but between noise and vermin he will pretty surely suffer, and will hail with joy the light of morning. The mid-day halt in the open air, "beneath the planetree fair, whence flows the glittering stream," will be found more refreshing.

10. Skeleton Toi Bs.

1. Corfu to Constantinople, by Sayddee, Jonnnina, Metzovo, Meieora, Laritra. Tempe, Salonica, Mount Athos, and back to Salonica, and thence by steamer to Constantinople. This tour will occupy from a month to six weeks.

2. Salonica, to Scutari, by Vodena, Monastir, Akhrida, and Elbastan—a fortnight's tour, or rather less.

3. From Scutari to Prevesa, by Alessio, Durazzo, Berat, AvUna, Ttmteni, Zilza, Jodnnina, and Aria—from a fortnight to 3 weeks. From Avium a week's excursion should be made into Khimdra, or the Acroceraunian Mmiutain* (Route 52). Suli and Parga should be visited from Joannina (Route 45); and Nicopolis from Prevesa (Route 43). The above three tours will enable the traveller to see what is most interesting in Albania, Thessaly, and Macedonia.

4. A large portion of Epirus may bo visited in a ten days' trip from Corfu, proceeding to Joannina by Delvino and Zitza (Route 41); and returning from Joannina by Sayada (Route 40), by Paramythia (Route 42), by Suli and Parga (Route 45), or by Arta and Prevesa (Route 44).



Corfu to— Hrs.

Farada (13 m.) 2 or 3

Philates 3

Praveni 7

Jodnnina 10

The most frequented route from Corfu to Joannina is to cross to Sayuda, a little port on the shore of Albania, nearly opposite the citadel. Here there is an English Vice-Consul, who will assist with advice, &c. With a fair wind the passage to Saydda (about 13 m.) occupies only 2 or 3 hrs. From Sayada to

Joannina it is about 20 hrs. The journey had better be divided between sleeping at Raveni, a village about half-way between the coast and the capital.

On leaving the scaii, the road passes under the Greek village of -'.. • and the Mahommedan village of Lio'pesi, on the slope of the bare hills to the 1. Thence it ascends to

Philates, 3 hrs., a scattered Mahommedan town of 2000 inhabitants. Englishmen, with recommendations from Corfu, are hospitably entertained by an Albanian chieftain, whose house affords a good specimen of the manners and stylo of living of modern Epirus. Placed near that remarkablyformed cliff, which from Corfu is so effective a feature in the view of Albania, Philates abounds in rich and beautiful landscapes. The next considerable village on the road is Raveni. Hence it is 10 hrs. to Joannina. Tho road is very pretty in parts, but there is no place or object of particular interest. Trout fishing is to be had on the way in the river Kalamas, the ancient Thyamis.

Jodnnina (see next Bte.)

[merged small][ocr errors]

Those who wish to shorten their journey by land to Delvino, should disembark not at Butrinto, but at tho Forty Saints, or Santi Quaranta, a small port 17 m. from the harbour of Corfu, and whence it is a ride or walk of only ii hrs. to Delvino.

Tho Bay of Butrinto is the Partus Pelodes of antiquity, and its muddy waters still justify the name, which seems to have been applied also to the larger of the two lakes. A bar of sand at its mouth prevents the entrance of vessels other than boats of light draft, into the river that unites the sea and the lake, and which runs for nearly 3 m. through a marshy plain, once, perhaps, the property of Attieus, the friend of Cicero {Cicero ad Att. iv. 1). The fisheries here are valuable, and supply the market of Corfu. The fish are caught by means of a strong dam across the river, near where it issues from the lake, made of large beams, crowned with a palisading of reeds. The fish are taken in chambers in tho dam during the scaBon, which usually lasts from September to March.

Tho Castle of Butrinto is situated on the S. bank of the river, at the fishery. There is a sort of khan, or wine-shop, adjacent, and a few huts inhabited by the fishermen. Here horses should have been ordered previously for tho journey to Delvino. Tho old Venetian fort is little more than a ruinous enclosure, inhabited, rather than garrisoned, by a dozen ragged Albanians, under a petty officer. It is the only relic—with another ruined fort near the mouth of the river—of the station which the Venetians maintained here for so many centuries. This now last outpost of Islam is barely 10 ni. from the civilized town of Corfu; yet the contrast is greater than between Europe and America. The ruins of Buthwjtum occupy a rocky hill on the opposite bank of the river from the modem Castle; "celtam Buthnoti accedimus urbem," in Virgil's phrase. The ancient Greek city was succeeded by a lioman colony, and that by a meduBval fortress; and its history may be traced in its masonry. In some parts, especially at the N.E. corner, near the lake, there are some fine Hellenic fragments and foundations, composed of large blocks of stone without cement, and in regular layers, but surmounted by Roman, Byzantine, or Venetian stonework,—the whole crowned with luxuriant ivy and creepers.

The plain or valley of Butrinto is marshy, but in parts well wooded. It contains the small villages of Murtia and Zara. It abounds in woodcocks, snipes, and wild-fowl, and is the paradise and great resort of English shooting-pprties from Corfu. Nothing can exceed the beauty of the two lakes. The smaller (that of Riza) communicating with the larger by a narrow winding stream, is of a circular form, about 4 m. in circumference, and embosomed in wood. Nearer the mill, on its W. bank, is a salt spring, which issues in copious volumes from the rocks, and turns the wheels. The larger lake, or Livari (a corruption of the Latin "vivarium," or fish-po7id), is 6 m. long, and 2 across. It is separated from the sea only by a rooky isthmus. Its scenery is very beautiful, and the mountain rango above Devino towers grandly beyond its N. extremity.

Butrinto to Delvino is 8 hours. The road passes through the woods so well known to English sportsmen from Corfu, and then sweeping round the S. and E. sides of Lake Iliza, threads a leafy glen, and then emerges on the plain of Delvino, which is well wooded, uud watered by two rivers, the Paela and Vielrioza, both of which fall into

the upper extremity of the Lake of Butrinto. At alwut 2 hrs. from Delvino, wc pass on the left an insulated hill, the summit of which is surrounded by Hellenic foundations, the remains of the ancient Phcenike, which name is preserved in that of the small village of Phinilci, lying directly under the former citadel to the S.W. Phoenike is described by Polybius, in B.C. 230, as being " the strongest, most powerful, and richest of the cities of Epirus;" and it maintained its importance to the times of the Byzantine Empire.

Delvino is a decayed town of about 400 houses, or 2000 inhabitants, half Christian and half Mahommedan. The houses are scattered over a space of nearly 2 m., being situated, as usual in Albanian towns, at some distance from each other, in consequence of the frequent feuds between the clans and family allies, into which all Albanian communities were formerly divided. Delvino is beautifully situated on sloping hills, and chietly in an opening of the lower ranges ■ if the high ridge of Eryenik, which rises immediately above the town. Ravines, spanned by old picturesque bridges of a single arch, groves of oliveB and oranges, vineyards, ainl scattered planes nnd poplars, are interspersed among the houses. There are soveral hospitable Beys, or Mahommedan landed gentlemen, who willingly entertain English travellers recommended to them from Corfu. A conical rock, above the principal ravine, is crowned by a small ruined castle, beneath which is a bazaar. There are several small mosques and one Christian church. Delvino is the residence of a Mudir, or petty local governor of a district, who is under the orders of the Kaimakan of Argyrokastro. It is 3 hrs. distant from its port at Santi Quaranla (Rte. 52). It is 6 hrs. from Gardiki (Rte. 40); 8 from Port Palermo (Rte. 52); 6 from Argyrdkaslro, by the direct route over the ridge of Eryenik, which is not, however, jwissable when the snow lies deep; and in the winter months the traveller must go round either by

Murgina to the E., or by Gardiki, to the W. of that ridge. Either of these journeys occupies about 10 hrs. That by Gardiki presents far the finest scenery.

From Delvino to Delvinaki is usually a ride of nearly 12 hrs., though with good horses much less time is required. The road first ascends the mountain at the back of Delvino, among vineyards producing a pleataut red wine, and then passes over rugged and barren hills for 2 hrs.. as far as to the village of Kendikaki. Further on, a hollow country is on our right, surrounded by an amphitheatre of mountains, and broken by ravines. At Marzina, 4 hrs. from Delvino, the road to Argynikastro, Tepeleni, &c, turns off to the left; our route lies over an alternation of hills and valleys to

Delcinaki, a village of about 300 houses, situated on the slopes of a hill, in a high and healthy position. Thence it is not more than 8 or 9 hrs. to Jodnnina by the most direct route; but every traveller should divergo to see Zitza.

Delvinaki to Zitza is 8 hrs.—2 m. beyond Delvinaki a steep ascent commences, and after winding through woody hills, the mule-path descends through oak-forests into a plain. Leaving the ricer Kalamas to tho left, it reaches a hamlet, which is pleasantly situated on the ascent of the hills, and surrounded by wood.

Thence the road passes by the monastery of Sosino, which stands on the siunniit of an insulated conical hill, rising 500 feet above the valley.

4 m. before reaching Zitza is the waterfall of Glizani, where the Kalamas is precipitated over a rock 60 or 70 feet in height. The scenery round the cascade is pretty; and the Kalamas, which is about as wide hero as the Clyde at Cora Lynn, flows in a placid stream to tho edge of tho precipice, whence it falls in one unbroken sheet. The Kalamas is the ancient Thyamit.

It has been supposed by some that Zitza is on the site of Dodona, which is placed by Leake on the lake of

Jodnnina. The fact Ib, that to ascertain tho site of Dodona, would Beem now to require a responso from the Oracle itself; for the former dwelling of the spirit, which once guided half the world, has lost its name and local habitation. An important datum for determining the site of Dodona is, that it was 4 days' journey from Buthrotum, and 2 days from Ambracia. According to the present computation, Zitza is about 28 hrs. from the former, and 16 from tho latter. This meets the cose very well. We must recollect that the latter journey is with, and the former against, the grain of the hard mountain ranges which stretch from N. to S., between Findus and the Ionian Sea. But Leake ('Northern Greece,' vol. iv.) satisfactorily proves that the city of Dodona stood at Kastritza, at the southern end of the lake of Jodnnina, where there are still remains of an ancient town, while the temple and grove probably occupied the peninsula on which the modern fortress has been built.

Monastic Zitza! from tby shady brow,
Thou small but favour'd spot of holy ground,
Where'er we gaze, around, above, below.
What rainbow tints, what magic charms are

Rock, river, forest, mountain, all abound; And bluest skies that harmonise the whole; lieneath the distant torrent's rushing Bound Tells where the volumed catarart doth roll Between those hanging rocks, that shock yc please the souL

Amidst the grove that crowns yon tufted hill, Which, were it not for many a mountain nigh Rising in lofty ranks, and loftier still. Might well itself be deeiu'd of dignity, The con vent's white walls glisten fair on high; Here dwells the caloyer, nor rude is he. Nor niggard of his cheer; the passer by Is welcome still; nor heedless will he flee From bence, if he delight kind Nature's sheen to sec.

Here in the sultriest season let him rest; Fresh is the green beneath those aged trees; Here winds of gentlest wing will fan his breast.

From heaven itself he may inhale'the breeze i The plain Is far beneath—oh! let him seize Pure pleasure while he can; the scorching ray Here pierceth not. Impregnate with disease; There let his length the loitering pilgrim lay, And gaze, nnured, the morn, the noon, the eve away.

« السابقةمتابعة »