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to promote real good-humour. Could “Temporibus triumviralibus Pollio cum we discover, amongst the ruins of Fesceoninus in eum Augastus scripsisset, Herculaneum or Pompeii, a collec- ait, at ego taceo ; non enim facile in eum tion of the bon-mots of Scipio and scribere, qui potest proscribere.” Lælius, how inestimable would be “ Intraverat Romam simillimus Cæ. the treasure. Rome is, notwithstand. sari, et in se omuium ora converteret ing, celebrated in anecdotal history; Augustus perduci hominem ad se jussit, ber chief joculator is Valerius Maxi- visumque hoc modo interrogat: Dic mihi, mus, who served in war under the adolescens, fuit aliquando, mater tua
Romiæ ? Negavit ille: nec contentus ad. younger Pompey, and afterwards collected an account of the most cele. jecit : sed pater meus sæpe." brated Apothegms and deeds of his The middle ages afford no colleccountrymen, divided into nine books, tions of this kind; for the antient and dedicated to the Emperor Tibe- jester or fool seems to have precluded rius. Some authors, in consequence
the idea of committing the jeux d’esof the inelegance of his writings, bave prits of the day to wriling : they were supposed that he flourished at a later to be obtained from the tongue at all period. To him succeeds Macrobius, hours, and no one felt the want of who is said to have been chamber. narration while he might listen to the lain to Theodosius II. wbich is highly jests as they were broached : we say in probable, for he was not converted jests, because, till a late period, every from paganism, and none were be- anecdote was expected to resemble friended by the Emperor, but what
the jelly-bag of the poet, and geneprofessed the Christian Religion : rally terminated in a pun or some he was born in some distant part of willy allusion. These fools were at the Roman empire, where the Latin one time necessary appendages to a language was not spoken, and conse. domestic establisbient; their licence quently is often noted for his " bad of speech was unbounded, and they Latinity.” To him our gratitude is were certainly a check upon vice and due, as the preserver of the table- folly. Sir Thomas More, who himtalk of his time; he is celebrated for self kept his fool' (Hevry Patenson), his Saturnalia," supposed to have has given us the following account been the result of a conversation of of one in his Utopia : some of the learned Romans” during “There chanced to stand by a certain that festival. He died in the year 415. jesting parasite or scoffer, which would
“ Dictum volo (says the author before seern to resemble and counterfeit the fool. us) hostis referre, sed victi, et cujus me
But he did in such wise counterfeit, that moria instaurat Romanorum triumphos. he was almost the very same indeed that Annibal Carthaginiensis apud regem An
he laboured to present: he so studied tiochum profugus, facetissimè cavillatus
with words and sayings, brought forth so est. Ea cavillatio hujusmodi fuit. Os
out of time and place, to make sport and tendebat Antiochus in campo copias in
more laughter, that he himself was ofgentes, quas bellum Populo Romano fac tener laughed at than his jests were. Yet turus comparaverat: convertebatque ex
the foolish fellow brought out now aud ercitum insignibus argenteis et aureis filo
then such indifferent and reasonable stuff, rentem. Ioducebat etiam currus cum fal that he made the proverb true, which cibus, et elephantos cum turtibus, equita. saith, 'He that shooteth oft, at the last tumque frænis et ephippiis, monilibus ac shall bit the mark”.” phaleris præfulgentem. Atque ibi rex, But it is time to gait the descripcontemplatione tauti et tam ornati exer.
tive character of the jester, and exacitûs gloriabundus, Annibalem aspicit. mine bim in his human capacity. Oue Et putasne, inquit, satis esse Romanis hæc
of the first that applies to our pur. omnia ? Tum Pænus eludeus ignaviam, imbelliamque militum ejus pretiosè ar
pose is John Scogun; he was educated matorum : Plane, satis * esse credo Ro
at Oriel College, Oxford, and being manis hæc, etsi avarissimi sunt.”
an excellent mimic, and of a convivial “ Cum multi Severo Capio accusante disposition, was poticed by King Edabsolverentur: et architectus fori Augusti ward iv. and became his favourite expectationem operis diu traheret, ita
buffoon : Bale calls him the joculator jocatus est : Vellem Capius et meum fo.
of King Edward, and mentions his rum accusasset.”
" Comedies, which certainly mean
nothing dramatic,” and perhaps are * This pun may be rendered into EngJish with equal force by the word enougit. * Translated by Raphe Robinsop.
1820.) Jesters-John Scogan.--Will. Sommers. 409 to be understood as his “ Jests,” at Pevensey in Sussex in 1500, and wbich were once in high repute, but brought up at Oxford, which he are a mere “collection of silly slo- quitted without a degree, and became ries," sixty in bumber. They were a Carthusian ; but, growing tired of collected by Andrew Borde, M.D. and a sedentary life, studied physic, and, published in 4to, black letter, with. after travelling over great part of out any date: but in an entry on the Europe and Africa, settled at WinStationers' books, 1565, appears “The chester. In 1541-2, he took his docGeystes of Skoggon, gathered toge- tor's ree at Montpelier, and was ther in this volume." An edition pre- incorporated ad eundem at Oxford served in the British Museum bears soon after *. At length he was (we this title : “ The First and best Part are not informed for what reason) of Scoggin's Jests: full of wilty mirth imprisoned, in the Fleet, where he and pleasant shifts, done by him in died in April 1549+, his will being France, and other places : being a dated the ilth, and proved the 25th Preservative against Melancholy. Ga- of that month. His character was thered by Andrew Boord, Doctor of attacked at various times by Poynet Physicke. London, printed for Fran- and others, whom he refuted; be cis Williams, 1626.” Pp. 92. Auo was eccentric, but learned and wilty, ther edition was published about the although he never arrived at any time of the Restoration, in 410. great opulence by his profession. A
Tasteless as this collection is, it full accouut of his life and works affords the Reader a tolerable insight may be seen in Warton's History of into the character of Scogan. At the English Poetry. He finds a place back of the title-page is the follow- here as the publisher of Scogan's ing brief notice of him; the only pas. Jests, and as the compiler of the sage in the work to which we Mery Tales of the Madmen of turo with pleasure :
Gotam,” which, as Wood
says, “ I have heard say, that Scogin did the reign of Henry VIII. and after, come of an honest stocke or kindred, and was accounted a book full of rare his friends did set him to schoole at Ox- mirth, by scholars and gentlemen.” forde, where he did continue untill the Warton supposes it to have been time he was made Master of Art."
printed by Wjukyn de Worde; there He seems to have been by no means is an edition in 12mo, printed by a fit inmate for a Court; but, as we Henry Wilkes, n. d. (but about 1568), find him frequently in France, it is entitled “ Merie Tals of the Madmen highly probable that he accompanied of Gotam, gathered together by A.B. his Sovereign thither during the wars, of physicke doctour;" and another, when his wit, disgusting as it was, Lond. 1630, 12mo; peither of which might have been relished in a Camp: appear in the Catalogue of the British he plays antics in the palace, cheats Museum. abbots of their palfreys, and becomes Enough of Wits of this description. rather a nuisance than an ornament It is now our business to pay a tribute to the King's establishment. If this to the memory of one whose feelings was the “ best part" of his jesis, we were far above those of the Courtiers cannot but applaud the judgment of whom he amused with his bumour,the Editor or Stationer who withheld Williani, familiarly called Will Somthe remainder.
niers. Of his family oothing is known; The following sample of his wit is their stry names are lost; but he was flat, but otherwise unexceptionable: originally a servant in the house of
“ How Scogin swept a Lord's chamber. Richard Farmer, of Eastop in Nor-Scogin on a time was desired to sweepe thamptonshire, Esq. ancestor to the a Lord's chamber; and when he had swept Earl of Pomfret . This gentleman, al the dust together, he threw it out against having humanely sent the sum of the wind, and the wind blew it agajue in his face. Then said Scogin to the wind, • Let ine cast out my dust, whorson, I say.'
* See in Warton several particulars of Every man laughed at Scogin, seeing him this man from Chaucer, Jonson, and to chide with the wind.” P. 45.
Shakspeare ; which we conceive to relate
to flenry Scogan, the Poet, who flourished Andrew Borde (or, as he styles him at an earlier period. self, Andreas Perforatus) was born + Bale tells is, by poison. Granger. Gert. Mag. November, 1820.
eight pence, and two shirts, to a priest When he died is not said. His porwho had been convicted of denying trait was engraved by Francis Delathe King's supremacy, and was in ram, and is expressive of playful sin. consequence confined in Buckingham cerity. Perbaps no other character Gaol, was found guilty of a præmu. of a jester comes so near to Will. nire. His estate was confiscated, and Sommers, as that of Wamba in the he was reduced to a state of depend- Novel of Ivanhoe. ance. Sommers, touched with com John Pace, who was educated at passion for his persecuted master, is Eton S, and elected in 1538 to King's said to have forgotten his character College, Cambridge, appears to have as a jester, and to have behaved in a succeeded Sommers. He quitted his manner in which he might have ex. College, being a Fellow, and became claimed with Quin,
jester|| to Henry VIII. and afterwards " Alas! I feel I am no actor here."
to the Duke of Norfolk. Mr. Cole
supposes that he retained the Catholic He breathed some strong expressions Religion throughout bis life, " and during the King's last illness, which that he had as much or more wit awakened his remorse, and caused than many of those who called bim the remains of his master's estale to fool.” Cardinal Allen, in his “ Apobe restored to him *.
logy" (p. 58), says, As jester to Henry VIII. few specimens of his wit have reached us, “ They promised, or at least wished for they do not appear to have been impunity-in writing books—yet aftercollected with a view to publication ;
wards they were driven to forbid the enthe following is preserved by Thomas tering, having, or reading of all our works. Wilson, in his Arte of Rhetoricke,
· Whereupon madde J. Pace, meeting
one day with M. Juel (Bishop of Salis. 1553:
bury), saluted his Lordship courtly, and " William Sommer seying much adoe said, . Now, my Lord, you may be at for accomples making, and that Henry rest with these felowes, for you are quit the Eight wanted money, such as was by proclamation’.” due to him ; ' And please your Grace,' quoth he, you may have so many
When he died, is not mentioned ; frauditors, so many conveighers, so many
but it should seem that he retained deceiverst, to get up your money, that his situation of jester till a short time thei get all to themselves'.”
before his death; for Heywood, one Froin this we may suppose him ra of the same profession, hearing that ther to have been “à plain blunt he“ being a Master of Arte, had disman,” who spoke his sentiments with graced himself with wearing a foole's out reserve and to the point, than coate,” said, “It is lesse hurtfull to one whose whole discourse was in the common weale, than when fooles tended to excite merriment. In the go in wise men's gowns 1.” Archæologia , in an account of the We may, perhaps date the decline wardrobe of King Henry, is an entry of fools from the æra wben bon-mots concerning the dress of Sommers, first issued from the press, and which from which an extract is here given : we would fix at about this period.
The principal object in publication “ It'm, for making of a dubblette of
seems to have been, not the collectwurstede lywed with canvas and cotton,
ing and arranging of witty sayings, for William Som'ar our foole." “ It'm, for making of a coote and a
but the raking up of every vile story cappe of green clothe, fringed with red that could be procured (or even incrule, and lyned with fryse, for our said vented) against the Mooks and Nups. foole," &c.
The confined state of Literature * Granger.
t “ Auditors, Surveyers, Receivers."-Warton. This explanation, however plau. sible, does not seem to have been the meaning of Sommers. Conceigher is frequently used in the sense of juggler, particularly in Shakspeare,
« Bolinbroke.-Go some of you, convey him to the Tower. K. Richard.--Oh good convey! conveyers are you all,
That rise thus uimbly by a true King's fall."-Richard II. I Vol. IX. p. 249.
S MSS. Cole, vol. XIII. li Myles Davies's Athenæ Britannicæ, vol. I. p. 55. Camden's Remaines, p. 300.
1820.] Etymology and History of Wine.
411 during that age precluded the lower glad the heart of man;" and this euclasses from an acquaintance with logium has never been contradicted, books; and allowing that many of as far as wine is drank with relative them could read, printed works were moderation; yet, when taken to exgenerally out of their reach. But cess, this gladness of heart suddenly tales were thus spread from one end turns into madness of mind. of the kingdom to the other ; that If from Holy Writ we turn our eyes they helped to forward the Reforma- towards the works of heathen writers, tion by increasing the dislike which it will appear doubtful whether the many had to Monachism, by unveil- Golden Age did ever know this ing its abuses, we dare not affirm ; “ heart-cheering” juice. They speak yet when we consider that one of the of streams of milk, of nectar, and principal reasons alleged for the dis even of wine, but not a word about solution of Religious Houses, was the cultivated grapes ; from which cir. scandalous life which many of their cumstance, and other inductions, we inmates were said to lead, the coin may fairly conclude that the birth of cidence is at least remarkable : whe- the god of wine was coetaneous with ther those allegations were true, is that of the god of war. pot now the question; many of them They also tell us that the vine-tree were false, and, for aught we know was brought from Persia to the Pheto the contrary, the first“ Jest Book” nicians, who took it to Greece, Sicily, might have been a tissue of untruths. and Italy; and Plutarch states, that To the “pert ruffianism” of these from Etruria it was carried to the compositions, the interlude of Lusty Gauls. Laying aside the records of Juventus is moderation itself; the fabulous ages, the expedition of BacBIBLIOMANIA which has seized on chus to the Ganges, the tragic death our Literati, has authorized their re of the abstemious Pentheus, and publication, but neither the preface other stories more amusing thau true, of a Singer, nor the type of Whitting we can safely assert, for we really ham, can recommend such trash, for believe, that in Greece, wine was such they are internally, to general known before the Trojan war, and perusal: such as have again seen the even more than 1500 years before the light, are limnited to fifty copies, and Christian æra. from so small a number little inde In the 9th Book of the Odyssey we cency or insult can be disseininated, find that long before Homer's time, a for of all persons the Collector is least distinction had already been establishlikely to diffuse the contents of his ed between good and bad wine ; since, Library.
J. T. M. when the crasty Ulysses presents the (To be conlinued.)
intoxicating cup to Polyphemus, the
gourmet-like Cyclop evinces directly HISTORICAL DISSERTATION
his discriminating sense of taste: he
says, as follows in the literal translaON Wine.
tion of this passage, by our Poet: (From " Tabella Ciberia,” reviewed in p. 343.)
“ Arripit ille scyplium, spumantemque impiger haurit,
[lus : [ T may be interesting previously to
Et captus gustu repetitos pustulat haus
Amplius, ah! vini, precor amplius adde Eng. ; wein, Germ. ; vin, Fr.; vinum, propinans
[amicum Lat. ; and oīvos, Gr.; claim their com Ut mihi tu qui sis narrantem promptus
Hospitjo excipiam. Sunt et Cyclopibus mon origin from ?", iin, Hebr. the first Jod being, on account of repeti
Arva racemiferas ultiò gignentia vites, tion, pronounced as v, ou, or w, Quas Jovis æstivus calefactas concoquit making vin, ouin, or win.
[manat*.” Wine is mentioned for the first
Ast id ab Ambrosiâ et cælesti Nectare time in the Bible, Geo. ix. 21. Noah makes too free with it, and is derided
Hesiod, in his 2d book of his by one of his sons. Soon after we
“ Works and Days,” shows that the find wine doing mischief again be
cultivation of the vine-tree was well tween Lot and his daughters, Gen.
known in his time ; for he gives dixix. 34. But, Psalm ciy. 5, the inspired Lyric declares that “it inaketh * See Pope's Translation.
rections about the vintage, and ad- lour. The juice contained in both vises Perse in the following words:
the white and red grape is nearly as and Sirius, adorn [morn colourless as water ; except in one The midnight sky
- now rosy-finger'd peculiar species, which is called the Spies bright Arcturus rising from the dyer,“raisin teinturier,"the liquor of deep:
[and keep which is of a purple hue, as deep as Cull them, bring home your ripen'd grapes, that of the mulberry. It is used as Them full expos'd teu long days to the an auxiliary to deepen the tint of red Sun.
wine. If the juice of the grapes Wine was deservedly praised by all which have been gently pressed by nations, Virgil made the cultivation the feet of men in the tub at the vineof the grape the subject of part of yard, is drawn off in casks, and alhis Georgics, B. II. and, from Ana- lowed to ferment without the skin creon to our contemporaries, it be- the seeds and the stalks which contain came the theme of the Poet's song, the colouring elements, the wine will and the shrub which produces it, the certainly be white. On the contrary, object of the cares and protection of if the liquor is left to ferment with Princes and Monarchs*. “ Domic them, the wine must be red. If the tian, that monster who," says a Gas- fermentation of the white liquid is trographer, " ought to have been im- slopt in proper time, the wine bemolated, on the altar of Bacchus, or comes brisk and sparkling, on acdered all the vineyards in Gallia to count of the quantity of fixed air be rooted up; but the Emperor Pro. which is confined within it; if this bus, much deserving of that name, air, a sort of gas, is permitted to evaordered them to be re-planted.” In porate, the wine becomes still and 1175, the Duke of Acquitaine (after- quiet ; in this, with a few practical wards Richard I.) prohibited in Guy: exceptions, consists the whole mysepne the stealing of a single bunch of tery. Wines require more or less grapes in a vineyard, under the pe. time to ripen in the casks, in order nalty of five solidi, or the loss of one to let the lees settle at the bottom; ear, if the “ fellow had any left.” and the art principally lies in the - Cowel's Interp.)
knowledge of the proper time to Before, and even since, the intro- bottle the wine. A thick crust does duction of “ Gascoyne" wine into not always show that the wine is this island, vineyards were well-culti- good, but often that it has been botvated and thriving in several parts of lled 100 soun. White wines produce the kingdom ; for we find that a cer. no crust; a proof that the grossest tain quantity of wine is ordered to be parts are lodged in the skin, seeds, be paid instead of rent to the chief and stalks, of the grapes. Lord of a vineyard -Vinagium, i. e. The practice of clarifying wine beTributum à vino. Moo. Angl. 2 Tom. fore it is bottled off, by means of 980. But, in course of time, Bacchus whites 'of eggs, was known to the courteously gave room for the pur- ancients. But Horace, though a pracsuits of Ceres, and the golden harvest tical gourmet, was not well acquaintof corn superseded the purple pro- ed with the theory of the art, for he duce of the vintage.
mistakes, Sat. 2. 4. the yolk for the Enotechny; or, the art of making white, as used for this purpose. wine. It is an erroneous idea to sup Nomenclature. Several authors of pose that white wine is exclusively tried knowledge bave, in other counihe produce of white grapes. Fera tries as well as in this, written scienmentation alone determines the co tific and interesting dissertations upon
* The presence of the Roman matrons does not seem to have ever been much courted to festival entertainments in republican ages. The severity of their looks, the austerity of their habits, their domestic avocations, unfitted them for scenes of jollity and merriment. In private, they hardly dared to sip a drop of wine; and Cato the Ancient advised his friends to give a kiss to their wives, when they came home, in order to ascertain whether they had not in their absence tasted the temetum or strong wine.-- Pliny xiv. 13. Yet, the Censor himself was not averse to a cheerful bumper. Hor. Car. III. Od, xxi. says:
“Narratur et prisci Catonis