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410 *Serapion de Simplic. Medicam. Historia Libri VII., Nicol. Mutozo Glossar. Med. et Inf. Latin., ed. Paris, 1840; Hofmann, 'Lex. Univ.;' interprete. It has been often printed in the same volume with the Sprengel, Hist. de la Med.,' tom. ii., p. 147; C. Steph. 'Dict. Hist., work of the elder Serapion, as for a long time they were supposed to &c., p. 8, edit. N. Lloyd; Ger. Jo. Voss., 'Op.,' t. 5, p. 24. be written by the same person.

The first edition of the Poem of Serenus, according to Choulant SERE'NUS, AULUS SEPTIMIUS, a Roman poet. Some of the (Handbuch,' &c.), was printed, sine loco et anno, in 4to, or large Svo, ancients call him merely Serenus, and others merely Septimius; and at Milan, in black letter, before the year 1484. This edition is very from this circumstance it has been inferred by some modern scholars scarce, and is said by Panzer ('Annal. Typogr.,' vol. ii., p. 555) to that these two names belong to two individuals (Wernsdorf, ' Poet. bave been printed at Rome. The next edition (containing also Lat. Min.,' ii., p. 247, &c.); but Marius Victorinus, Terentianus Maurus, Rhemnius Fannius, ' De Ponderibus et Mensuris') is that of Leipzig, and Sidonius Apollinaris, frequently call him by his two names, Sep- 4to, 1515; the two best are that by Keuchenius, 8vo, Amstel., 1662 timius Serenus, and therefore decide the question. He was a contem. (reprinted 1706, 8vo); and that by Ackermann, 8vo, Lips., 1786. The porary of Terentianus Maurus and of Martial (* Epigr.,' i. 87), and must poem has also been frequently printed with Ceisus, and is contained consequently have lived in or shortly after the reign of Vespasian. Of in several collections of medical works, 6. 8. the Aldine, fol., the circumstances of his life nothing is known with certainty. Some Venet., 1547; that of H. Stephens, fol., Paris, 1567; and that of modern scholars have supposed that the fifth poem in the fourth book Rivinus, 8vo, Lips., 1754: it is also inserted with copious notes in P. of the 'Sylvæ' of Statius is addressed to Septimius Serenus, as all Burmann's • Poëtæ Latini Minores,' 4to, Leid., 1731. Much historical that is mentioned of the person addressed in that poem appears to be and critical information is to be found in J. Bapt. Morgagui Epistolæ just what

might be expected in a poet like Serenus : but the manuscript in Serenum Samonicum,' 8vo, Patav., 1721, which are reprinted in reading in Statius is not Serenus, but Severus ; and consequently the several editions of Celsus, and also in ‘Morgagoi Opuscula Miscellanea, whole biography of Serenus, which has been made up out of that poem, fol., Venet., 1763. See also C. G. Gruner, Variæ Lectiones in Q. is uncertain in the highest degree. The only thing we know of bim Serenum Samodicum, e Codice Vratislaviensi decerptæ, 4to, pp. 32, is

, that he was an extreme admirer of country life; for it is the country Jenæ, 1782; C. G. Gruner, 'Var. Lect. in Q. Ser. Sam., ex Nicol, with all its charms that forms the subject of his poems, which he Marescalci Enchiridio excerptæ,' 4to, Jenæ, 1803; and Reuss,“ Lectiones published under the title of Opuscula Ruralia' of these poems only Sammonicæ,' 4to, Wirceb., 1837. a few fragments have been preserved by the ancient grammarians, SERGELL, JOHANN TOBIAS, a Swedish sculptor of great merit, They are however sufficient to show that Serenus was a lyric poet of was born at Stockholm, on the 8th of September 1740, and was the very great talents. The poem called . Moretum,' which has frequently son of a gold-lace maker and embroiderer. He himself was at first been printed together with the works of Virgil, is ascribed by Werns apprenticed to a stone-mason, and worked as such at the royal palace dorf to Serenus; and “Copa,' another work of the same kind, has at Stockholm, which was then in progress; but his quickness and likewise been attributed to Serenus by some modern scholars. cleverness attracting the notice of the sculptor Larchevêque, he was Terentianus Maurus (* De Metris,' p. 2423, Putsch.) mentions another taken by him as a pupil. After assisting him in modelling the two poem of Serenus, which is called Falisca,' and which probably con- statues of Gustava Wasa and Gustavus Adolphus, Sergell obtained a tained a description of the country life in the district of the Faliscans. travelling pension in 1767, and went to Rome, where he remained In this poem he used a peculiar kind of verse, consisting of three nearly twelve years, and produced many works that excited general dactyls and one pyrrbic; and this metre is by Terentianus called admiration among the professors and patrons of art. On quitting 'metrum Faliscum, and the poet himself Faliscus.

Italy he visited Paris, where his Othryades,' a figure of a wounded Compare the 'Essay' of Wernsdorf on Serenus, in his 'Poet. Lat. Greek soldier, half life size (afterwards placed in the Luxembourg) Minores,'ii. p. 247, &c.; and the collection of fragments, including the gained him his admission into the Academy of Fine Arts. From Paris Moretum' and the Copa,' in the same vol., pp. 264-298.

he proceeded to London, whence he was almost immediately sumSERENUS SAMOʻNICUS (QUINTUS), sometimes called SAMMO- moned by Gustavus III., who conferred upon him the appointment of NICUS Serenus, the name of two persons, father and son, who lived in court sculptor. In 1784 he accompanied that monarch in his visit to the 3rd century of the Christian era. The father wrote a number of Rome, and it was by his advice that Gustavus there purcbased, among works in verse, which Geta and Alexander Severus read with pleasure many other valuable works of art, the celebrated 'Endymion,' for the (Spartian., Vit. Ant. Get.,' 4to, p. 136, ed. Paris, 1603; Lamprid., royal museum at Stockholm.

Vita Sever.,' p. 186); but he was put to death by order of Caracalla. Catherine II. was afterwards desirous of securing his talents in her (Spartian., ' Vit. Caracall., p. 128. Compare Casaub., in 'Script. Hist. service, and made him the most flattering offers; but though wealth Aug., pp. 290, 428.) The son was tutor to the younger Gordian, to as well as distinction awaited him at St. Petersburg, Sergell's attachwhom he left in legacy his father's rich library, consisting of 62,000 ment to his sovereign and his native land, and his indifference to volumes. (Jul. Capitolin., · Vit. Gordian II.,' p. 235.). We have no riches, induced him to remain in Sweden with the comparatively means of deciding which of the two is the author of the Latin poem trifling pension of 600 rix-dollars. The untimely end of Gustavus, that we possess under this dame, entitled 'De Medicina Præcepta whom he regarded rather as his friend than his master and patron, so Saluberrima;' for while the more ancient writers ascribe it to the affected him that he fell into a deep melancholy, and was for a length father, the more modern (e.g., Morgagni and Ackermann) consider it of time wholly incapable of doing anything in his profession. It was to be the work of the son. It consists of 1115 hexameter lines, divided not till a few years before his death that he regained something like into 65 chapters, which treat of various diseases, with their remedies. bis wonted composure of mind, but it was then almost too late for Now and then, but very rarely (says Sprengel), does Serenus show that him to think of retrieving the time that had been lost to art. He he had reflected on the nature and more remote causes of diseases, as died at Stockholm, on the 26th of February 1814, in his seventyfor example when he attributes dropsy to obstructions of the spleen fourth year. and liver (cap. 27, v. 498). He sometimes gives sound advice upon Sergell's works are distinguished by vigour of conception, by energy the treatment of diseases, and even gives his opinion against the and grace of style, and by perfect freedom from that mannerism aud incantations employed in the cure of fevers (cap. 51, v. 938). Not sickly affectation into which sculpture had fallen in the bands of his withstanding this, he everywhere shows himself a zealous defender of immediate predecessors and contemporarios. Among his principal the prejudices of his time; he affects a particular veneration for the statues are the group of "Cupid and Venus,' 'Diomedes carrying off numbers three, seven, and nine, and recommends the use of magical the Palladium, Othryades, a Faun, Gustavus III., Oxenstierna characters. For the cure of the species of intermittent fever called dictating to the Muse of History the Deeds of Gustavus Adolphus,' Mutpetalos, or double tertian, he recommends the use of the famous Mars and Venus,' a Venus Callipyge, most of which are in the * Abracadabra,' of which he gives the following description (cap. 52 royal museum. One of his finest productions, 'The Resurrection,' a v. 944, et seq.) :

composition in alto-rilievo for the Adolph-Frederick Church at Stock“ Inscribis chartæ, quod dicitur ABRACADABRA,

holm, exists only in the model, baving never been executed in marble; Sæpius : et subter repetis, sed detrahe summw,

as was the case with a number of other subjects. His busts and Et magis atque magis desint elementa figuris

portrait medallions were highly esteemed, both for fidelity of likeness Singula, quæ semper rapies, et cetera figes,

and for artistic merit. Donec in angustuin redigatur litera conum.

SEʻRGIUS I., a Syrian by birth, succeeded Conon in the see of His lino nexis collum redimire memento."

Rome, A.D. 607. Two candidates for the see, a priest called Theodore Thus forming an equilateral triangle in this manner :

and also the Archdeacon Paschal, each of whom had numerous partiABRACADABRA

sans, were on the point of coming to blows, when the principal citizens A BRAC AD ABR

and officers of the garrison, in order to avoid a tumult, proposed to A BRACA DA B

elect Sergius, who had acquired a reputation for piety and learning.

The proposal being adopted by many of the clergy, Sergius, escorted A BRA O ADA

by a numerous retinue, was taken to the Lateran church, the doors of A BRAOAD

which were broken open, and those of the opposite or Theodore's A BRACA

faction, who had fortified themselves in it, being driven out, Sergius A BRAC

was chaired, and Theodore was one of the first to salute him as ABRA

pontiff. Paschal did the same afterwards, being forced to it by the A BR

multitude. Before Conon's death Paschal had promised a sum of A B

money to the Exarch of Ravenna, who, as the representative of the

Byzantine emperor in Italy, had the right of giving or withholding his For further information respecting this magical word, see Du Cange, sanction to the election, and the money had been given for the purpose




of securing his consent. The Exarch John came to Rome, and finding are introduced as illustrations, but certainly not as embellishments, in that Sergius bad been elected by the majority, requested him to pay his work on architecture, they being there represented in most coarsely him what Paschal had promised, and upon Sergius demurring, the drawn and executed woodcuts. It was while he was at Rome that he Exarch took several valuables from the church of St. Peter. Paschal composed his treatise on the five orders, for a copy of which he was was accused of sorcery, tried, and sentenced to be degraded and con complimented by Francis I. with three hundred gold crowns. Invited fined in a monastery, where he died. One of the first transactions of to France by that monarch in 1541, he was there appointed architect Sergius was to baptise Cedwalla, king of the West Saxons, who had at the palace of Fontaivebleau, and was also commissioned to under: come to Rome for that purpose. He also contributed to the diffusion take the court of the Louvre, but generously declined in favour of of Christianity in Saxony and other countries by means of missionaries. Lescot, whose designs he recommended to be adopted as being superior In 691 the Emperor Justinian II. assembled a general council at Con to his own. After the death of his royal patron he retired to Lyon, stantinople, which being held in a hall of the palace which was sür: where he remained for some time in exceedingly straiteped if not in mounted by a dome (“trulleum'), has been styled Concilium in Trullo.' indigent circumstances ; but he returned again to Fontainebleau, and It has also been called Quini-sextum, as being supplementary to the died there in 1552. His reputation rests chiefly upon his writings, fifth and sixth ecumenic councils, which had published no capons of Opere di Architettura, Libri Sei,' which display more study and discipline or religious ceremonies. The council 'in trullo' was pur learnivg thau taste; and which, highly as they were at one time posely assembled to supply this deficiency; one hundred and tifty esteemed, possess little real value at the present day. bishops were present at it, and it passed more than one hundred SEKTOʻRIUS, QUINTUS, was a native of Nursia, in the country canons on matters of discipline and ceremonies, six of which being in of the Sabines. He lost his father very early, but his mother bestowed opposition to the practice of the Western or Roman Church, the great care upon his education, and the son in return for her kindness council was not approved of by Sergius, although his legate who entertained for her through life the most t-nder affection. After his attended the council bad concurred in it. One of these canons education was completed, he tried his fortune at Rome as an orator, enacted that married candidates for the priesthood right retain their and thereby acquired considerable influence. (Plut., Sert.,' 2; Cic., wives after their ordination. There were also some points of dogma 'Brut.,' 48.) But he soon turned his attention to military affairs, and concerning the two natures of Christ and the Virgin Mary, in which the first time that he distinguished himself was during the campaign the couneil and the pope did not agree. Justinian, irritated at the of Marius against the Cimbri and Teutones. At the end of this opposition of Sergius, sent Zacharias, his protospatarius, or general-in campaign he was sent to Spain as tribune under the prætor Didius, chief, to Rome with orders to arrest Sergius and bring him prisoner to and spent the winter in the Celtiberian town of Castalo. Here again Constantinople. But the garrison of the Exarch at Rome took the he attracted much attention by his courage and prudence. After his pope's part, and Zacharias was obliged to take refuge in the pope's return to Rome, when the Marsic war was breaking out, he was made apartments, whence he was sent back safely to Greece. A revolution, quæstor of Gallia Circumpadana and commissioned to levy troops, beaded by Leontius, one of his generals, took place at Constantinople which he (Plut., 'Sert.,' 4) accomplished with the greatest success, soon after, when Justinian was seized, mutilated, and banished to the but his exertions caused him the loss of one of his eyes. (Plut. and Crimea, in 695. Leontius did not long enjoy the fruits of his crime, Sallust., ap. Gell.,' il. 27.) On his return to Rome he was a candidate for he was seized bimself, and mutilated by Tiberius Apsimerus, who for the tribuneship of the people, but was defeated by the party of became emperor, and allowed the Church of Rome and the pope to Sulla. Sertorius now joined the party of Cinna and Marius, not reinain undisturbed. Sergius occupied bimself in restoring the church because he approved of their proceedings, but because he detested the of St. Peter, which had been greatly dilapidated. He died in 701, and ruling aristocrats. After the Marian party was defeated and Marius was succeeded by John VI.

himself driven from Italy, Cinpa and Sertorius raised fresh troops in SERGIUS II., a native of Rome, was elected to succeed Gregory IV., Italy and held out against their opponents. When Marius returned in 844, and was consecrated without waiting for the approbation of from Africa (B. C. 87) and took bloody vengeance upon his enemies, the Emperor Lotharius, who sent his son and colleague Louis into Sertorius was the only one of the party who showed moderation ; how Italy with an army. Louis came to Rome, where he was received by much he was in earnest in this matter is evident from the fact that the pope and clergy in a friendly manner, and was crowned king of after the death of Marius he put to death 4000 slaves who had been Italy. "The soldiers of Louis however committed great devastation in the body-guard of Marius and had perpetrated every possible crime the surrounding country and in the suburbs of the city, but the pope against the citizens. (Plut., 'Sert.,' 5.) When Sulla returned to Italy at last induced Louis to withdraw his troops to the north. Soon after in B.O. 83, and Sertorius saw that all would be lost, and that the the Saracens from Africa came up the Tiber and ravaged the country, consuls Scipio and Norbanus paid no regard to his advice, he contrived plundering the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul, which were outside to be made proconsul of Spain, and went to his province, where he of the walls, but they could not enter Rome. They then proceeded hoped to prepare a refuge for his friends if they should be defeated in by the Via Appia to Fondi, which they sacked. Sergius died in 847. Italy. (Plut, 'Sert.,' 6; Appian, Civil.,' i. 108.)

SERGIUS III. was elected in 904, by the Tuscan party, as it was In Spain he began his new career, in which he displayed prudence called, because it was headed by Adelbert, marquis of Tuscany, and of and courage tempered with humanity. Spain had bitherto, with few which two Roman ladies of licentious character, Marozia and her exceptious, been preyed upon by avaricious governors. Sertorius mother Theodora, were the most influential leaders. They had deposed listened to the just complaints of the natives, whom he attempted to and imprisoned Christopher, who had imprisoned the preceding pope blend with the Romans as much as possible. The great among the Leo V., and had forced him to resign his see to him. Sergius had had Spaniards were gained by his affability, and the poor by his reduction a son by Marozia, who was afterwards pope by the name of John X. of taxes. At the same time be carried on his preparations for the Sergius seems to have been a man of some abilities; his character approaching war with the utmost energy, and kept both Romans and has been variously represented by different writers. The history of Spaniards in constant exercise. When he heard that Sulla was in Rome, during the 10th century, is extremely obscure, though it is evi- possession of Rome, and that his own party was defeated, he sent dent by all concurrent testimonies that it was a most profligate age, Julius Salinator with 6000 heavy-armed troops to take possession of and Sergius was certainly not free from the prevalent profligacy. He the passes in the Pyrenees. About the same time C. Anvius, a Sullanian died in 911, and was succeeded by Anastasius III.

general, arrived at the Pyrenees, but tried in vain to effect a pa:Bage. SERGIUS IV., a native of Rome, succeeded John XVIII. in 1009. Salinator was treacherously slain and his army dispersed, and Anvius He encouraged the princes of Italy to unite in order to drive away the vow crossed the Pyrenees. Sertorius, who was too much weakened Saracens, who had occupied several parts of the peninsula. It was by this event to offer any resistance, retreated to New Carthage, and, in his time that the Normans began to muster in South Italy. Sergius accompanied by a few faithful followers, he cruised for a time in the died in 1012, and was succeeded by Benedict VIII.

Mediterranean. He made a landing in Africa, where he aided one of SE'RLIO, SEBASTIA'NO, an Italian architect, whose writings were the native princes, and defeated Pacciapus, one of the generals of lovg considered of authority in matters of art, was born at Bologna in Sulla. After having bad an encounter with a large fleet of Anpius, 1475. The study of Vitruvius ivspired bim with an eager desire of and after having escaped from a heavy storm, he again landed in Spain obtaining greater insight into the practice of the ancients, by examin- near the mouth of the river Baetis. Here he heard an account of the ing and making drawings of what remained of their structures,—at delightful climate of the Insulæ Fortunatæ (the Canary Islands), and that time the only method by which any knowledge of them could be was greatly inclined to withdraw thither and to spend the remainder acquired; there being no accurate delineations published for the in- of his life in quiet. (Plut., Sert.,' 8, 9.) His men however involved struction of those who could not visit the edifices themselves. After him in another military undertaking in Africa, and his great succesa staying some time at Pesaro, Serlio proceeded to the Venetian States, induced the Lusitanians, who were oppressed by cruel and rapacious where he employed himself in examining and measuring the amphi- governors of the Sullanian party to invite Sertorius to the supreme theatre and bridges at Verona. He subsequently visited Vicenza, where command among them. This invitation came just at the moment he erected a theatre, and Venice, where he made designs for the church when he was considering whither he should retire. (Plut., 'Sert.,' 10.) of San Francesco delle Vigne. During his residence in Venice, he Sulla was now dead, and Sertorius, being at such a distance from became acquainted with Sanmicheli, Sansovino, and other architects Rome and little acquainted with the real state of affairs there, conof note; and he bimself would doubtless have found employment ceived new hopes of ultimate success, and gladly accepted the invitathere, being noticed by the Doge Andrea Gritti, if his passion for tion. On his appearance in Lusitania, the Romans as well as the exploring antiquities had not induced bim to pass over to Pola, of Spaniards immediately declared for him. He now began to mak! whose amphitheatre and other Roman remains he was the first to war upon four Roman generals who were in possession of the greater publish aby architectural account. On his return he examined those part of Spain, and had great armies at their command. Sertorius of Ancona, Spoleto, &c., and afterwards those of Rome, many of which defeated Cotta near Mellaria in a sea-fight, and Aufidius in Baetica,




while his legate conquered Domitius and L. Manlius. Thoranius, a conspiracy of some Romans who served under Sertorius, and in order legate of Metellus, was likewise defeated. About this time Sertorius to gain associates among the Spaniards, and provoke them still more was joined by Perperna with the numerous remains of the Marian against Sertorius, the conspirators inflicted severe punishments for party, and Metellus Pius, who had the command in Baetica, was slight offences, and exacted heavy taxes, pretending that they were gradually driven to such extremities (METELLUS)

, that L. Lollius came only executing the commands of Sertorius. Desertion and insurrecto his assistance from Gaul, and the senate at Rome thought it tion among the Spaniards were the natural results. According to necessary to send Pompey with a large force to support Metellus. Appian, several of the conspirators were discovered and put to death, [POMPEIUS.]

but Plutarch does not mention this circumstance. Perperna at last, As soon as Sertorius bad firmly established himself in Spain, he seeing no possibility of attacking Sertorius, as he never appeared formed the design of uniting the Romans and Spaniards in such a without an armed body-guard, invited him to a repast, ostensibly manner that the Spaniards should have all the advantages of Roman given on account of some victory gained by one of his lieutenants. At civilisation without losing their national character. At Osca, the this repast he was treacherously murdered by the conspirators (B.c. 72), modern Huesca in Catalonia, he established a kind of academy, into and Perperna placed himself at the head of his army. which he received the sons of distinguished Spaniards, and had them Such was the end of one of the noblest characters that appear in instructed in Greek and Roman literature. The admirable discipline the pages of Roman history during the last century of the republic. of this establishment, the manner in which the youths were dressed, The war which he had carried on in Spain was not directed against for he gave them the Roman 'bulla' and the ‘prætexta' (which only his country, but only against a party who wished to annihilate him. the sons of noble Romans vsed to wear), the prizes which were distri. How little he was actuated by any hostile feeling towards the republic buted among them, and the promise that these young men should one itself may be seen from the statement of Plutarch ("Sert.,' 22), that day be Roman citizens and be invested with high honours--all these after every victory which Sertorius gained, he sent to Metellus and things were in the highest degree fattering to the parents of the Pompey, offering to lay down his arms, if they would but allow him youths, and could not fail to gain for Sertorius the affections of the to return to Rome, and to live there in peace and retirement, declaring nation. It was a custom of the young warriors among the Spaniards that he would rather be the obscurest person at home than a monarch to gather around a favourite general, to accompany him everywhere, in exile. As long as his mother lived, it was principally in order to and to row not to survive him. The dumber of men who became in comfort her old age that he wished to return to Italy; but she died a this manner attached to Sertorius was greater than had ever been few years before her son, to his great grief

. If we regard Sertorius as known before. (Plut., 'Sert,' 14.) Sertorius also worked upon the a general, it was surely no vulgar flattery that his contemporaries imagination of the Spaniards : be had a tame white fawn which accom. compared him with Hannibal. The details of his wars in Spain are panied bim everywhere, and which he said was the gift of Diana. very little known, for the account of Appian (Civil,' i. 108-114) is The Spaniards thus looked up to him almost as a being of a higher excessively meagre and incoherent; and Plutarch, in writing the life order, who had intercourse with the gods. It may be that this was, of Sertorius, had other objects in view than to present to his readers a as Plutarch thinks, a piece of imposition upon the credulous Spaniards, clear description of his military operations. Appian says that the but we have no reason to suppose that Sertorius himself did not share war in Spain lasted eight years, which is incorrect, whether we date the belief of the Spaniards on this subjecte (Comp. Gellius,' xv, 22.) the commencement of the war from the time when Sertorius left His object was to establish an independent power, or to raise a new Italy in the consulsbip of Scipio and Norbanus (B.C. 83), or from the Roman republic in Spain. For this purpose he formed a senate of time that he was invited by the Lusitanians to take the command 300 members, consisting partly of exiled Romans, and partly of distin- (B.C. 78). guished Spaniards (Appian, Civ.,' i. 108; Plut, 'Sert. 22), and also SERVANDOʻNI, JEAN JEʻRÔME, was born at Florence in 1695, appointed several officers analogous to those of Rome. Sertorius was but he may be reckoned among the artists and architects of France, with the Romans and Spaniards the object of love and admiration. as he established himself in that country, where he signalised bimself Perperna had observed this state of things, ever since his arrival in by his extraordinary talents. His first instructor in painting was Spain, with secret jealousy and envy. He would have liked to carry Panini, under whom he became an expert artist in landscape and on the war against Metellus in his own name; but when the news architectural scenery, and many of his productions of that period are came that Pompey was advancing, his own soldiers compelled him to preserved in various collections. He afterwards applied himself to join Sertorius, and to submit to him.

architecture under De Rossi. After passing some time at Lisbon, On the arrival of Pompey in Spain, many towns declared for him, where he was employed as scene-painter and in getting up the perand among others Lauron, though it was at the time besieged by Ser formances of the Italian opera, he proceeded to Paris in 1724, and torius. Pompey hastened to its assistance, but could do nothing, and was engaged in a similar capacity. He bad now opportunities of was obliged to look on while Sertorius razed the town to the ground. exercising his talents on the most extensive and even prodigal scale, (Plut, 'Šert.,'18; Appian, 'Civil.,' i. 109.) The first great battle with and he not merely improved the former system of theatrical decora. Pompey was near Sucro. Metellus here defeated that part of the tion, but produced an entirely new species of it, in which the scenic army which was commanded by Perperpa, and put him to flight; but illusion and effect were aided by machinery, and heightened by every Sertorius, who commanded another division of the army, wounded possible artifice. The fame of his achievements of this class is now Pompey, and compelled him to retreat. A second battle was fought of course merely traditional, but if we may believe the testimony of in the plaids of Saguntum, in which Pompey was again defeated, and contemporaries, they must have been most extraordinary. Among compelled to withdraw to the Pyrenees. It was in the summer of the the most celebrated of them was the representation of the fable of year B.c. 74 that Mithridates sent ambassadors to Sertorius, to propose Pandora (at the Tuileries in 1738), and of the Descent of Æneas into an alliance, and to offer money and ships, on condition that all the the Infernal Regions.' These and other scenic exhibitions, as they may countries of Asia which he had been obliged to surrender should be properly be dedominated, were received with enthusiasm by the restored to him. Sertorius concluded the alliance, and encouraged public, nor were they least of all admired by those who were capable the king again to take up arms against Rome, but he scrupulously of appreciating the poetical invention, the just taste, and the profound avoided doing his own country more harm than his own safety classical study displayed by the artist. required. (Plut., 'Sert.,' 23; Appian, De Bell. Mithrid.,' 68.) This As may be supposed, his talents were greatly in request upon all alliance, owing to the events wbich followed it, bad few or no results. extraordinary public festivities, and he directed those which took

Pompey, in the meanwhile, was reinforced by two legions from place at Paris, in 1739, in honour of the marriage of Philip V. of Italy; and he and Metellus again advanced from the Pyrenees towards Spain with the Princess Elizabeth. Unfortunately such triumphs are the Iberus. In this campaign, though many of the soldiers of Ser- so exceedingly fugitive and ephemeral, that however much they may torius began to desert, no great advantages were gained by Pompey or contribute to an artist's fame, they are attended with no benefit to Metellus, and the former was no more successful in the siege of art itself. It would have been more to the advantage of art, if Pallantia, than both together in that of Calaguris. Metellus, despairing Servandoni had been afforded the opportunity of realising some of victory over Sertorius in an honourable way, offered to any Roman of his projects for the improvement or embellishment of various citizen who should kill Sertorius one hundred talents and 20,000 acres parts of the capital, including one for an extensive place or amphiof land. If the murderer should be an exile, Metellus promised that theatre for public festivals, surrounded with arcades and galleries he sbould be allowed to return to Rome. The whole summer of the capable of containing twenty-five thousand persons. The chief year B.C. 73 passed without any great battle, though the Roman party structure executed by him is the façade which he added to the church seems to have gained some advantages,

of St. Sulpice at Paris, erected by Oppenord. Although not altogether The dishonourable conduct on the part of the Romans, and the unexceptionable, this work, begun about 1732, is superior to almost increasing desertion in the army of Sertorius, as well as the manifest every other of its kind of the same period. The arrangement of the envy of others about his own person,

produced a change in the conduct loggia formed by the Doric order below, where the columns are of Sertorius also; he lost his confidence in those who surrounded him, coupled, not in front, but one behind the other, is good, and combines and punished severely wherever he found reason for suspicion. While lightness with solidity; but this merit is in a great measure counterhe was in this state of mind, he committed one act which will ever be acted by the inter-columns of the second order being filled in with a stain on his otherwise blameless character: the young Spaniards arcades and piers, whereby that portion is rendered more solid and assembled at Osca, who were in some measure his hostages, were one heavier in appearance than the one below. day partly put to death, and partly sold as slaves. The immediate Servandoni died at Paris in 1766, leaving, instead of a splendid cause of this is unknown, but the effect produced on the Spaniards fortune, as was expected, scarcely any property at all behind him; may easily be conceived. In addition to all this, Perperpa now found for though he might easily bave amassed wealth, he was too great á an opportunity of giving vent to his hostile feelings. He formed a yotary of pleasure to put any restraint upon his habits of profusion.

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SERVE’TUS, MICHAEL (whose family name was Reves), was born in all probability have been acquitted for want of evidence against him, at Villanueva in Aragon, in the year 1509. He was the son of a had not Calvin, through the medium of Trie, forwarded to the Inqui. notary, who sent him while young to the university of Toulouse in sition at Vienne a portion of manuscript and several private letters order to study the law, instead of which however he appears to bave which he had received from Servetus. By some writers, who would devoted his attention principally to theology during the three years extenuate the guilt of the reformer, it has been doubted or denied that which he spent in that city.

these letters were produced on the trial; but in the condemnation of In his twenty-first year he quitted Toulouse, and journeying into Servetus by the Inquisition of Vienne, “letters and writings addressed Italy in the suite of Quintana, confessor to the Emperor Charles V., to Mr. J. Calvin" are especially mentioned. was present at the coronation of that monarch at Bologna, in Febru Servetus escaped from prison, where he had not been strictly ary 1530. The death of Quintana soon left him at liberty to travel guarded, but was burnt in effigy at Vienne on June 17, 1553. He into Switzerland and Germany, where he became acquainted with fled to Geneva, in which town he kept himself closely concealed, but many of the reformers. In the course of 1530 he took up his resi- was arrested, through Calvin's influence, on the day before that on dence at Basel, and there he first broached those opinions which after which he was about to start for Zürich on his way to Italy. He was wards drew down upon him the persecution of Calvin. He probably arrested contrary to law, the city of Geneva having no authority over met with few persons who were disposed to embrace bis notions, for, him, who was merely journeying through it: when in prison he was in the course of the same year, or early in 1531, he left Basel and treated with the greatest cruelty, and he was denied the assistance of went to Strasbourg. His stay in Strasbourg however was short, since counsel. His private papers, and a volume of Calvin's 'Institutes,' in he lived at Haguenau in Alsace during the printing of his treatise on which he had made some notes with his own hand, were brought in the doctrine of the Trinity. This, his first work, was published by evidence against him. Calvin's own servant, one La Fontaine, appeared a bookseller of Basel in 1531, but the opinions which it contained as the accuser, Calvin not caring to submit to the lex talionis' of were so contrary to those usually received, that the man feared to Geneva, which imprisoned the accuser as well as the accused; though, print it at Basel, and procured its publication at Haguenau, the name in direct opposition to this law, La Fontaine was released after being of which place appears on the title-page. In the following year Ser. only one day in prison. Servetus was brought to trial on August 14, vetus wrote a second treatise, in the form of dialogues, on the same 1553; and on that day, and on several days following, he was examined subject; in which he corrected some errors in his former work, but publicly before his judges. Calvin drew up the articles of accusation, without retracting any of the opinions.

in which the calumpies against himself are alleged as part of the crime We are unacquainted with the exact time when Servetus quitted of Servetus; and further, he reserved to himself the office of disputant Haguenau, but we next find him at Lyon, where he remained three upon theological subjects with the prisoner. Many of the charges years, occupying himself principally with the study of medicine. It against him were frivolous and vexatious in the extreme, but it is is probable that during this time he supported himself by correcting certain that he did not anticipate so severe a sentence as was passed the press, and by other literary labours, among which was the publi- upon him; for when, on August 26, the vice-bailiff of Vienne, having cation of an improved edition of Pirkheimer's translation of Ptolemy's come to Geneva, requested that Servetus might be given up to him in Geography, which appeared in the year 1535. On leaving Lyon he order to undergo the sentence passed upon him by the Inquisition, visited Paris, where he took the degree of M.A., and afterwards of he threw himself at the feet of his judges, begging that they would Doctor of Medicine. He was likewise admitted a professor of the rather try him, and pass on him whatever sentence they might university, and delivered lectures on the mathematics. He was in think fit. Paris in 1537, in which year he published an essay on syrups, the only On September 1 Servetus was called before his judges, and ordered medical work that he wrote, but his ungovernable temper involved to be ready to reply in writing to a set of written charges which Calvin him in disputes with the medical faculty, wbich compelled him to was instructed to draw up. On September 15 he wrote a touching leave the city. It is most likely that he again returned to Lyon, for letter, complaining of the harsh treatment he had undergone, begging in 1540 we find mention of him as practising medicine, in the imme- that his case might speedily be decided, since he had been already diate neighbourhood, at the village of Charlieu. His attempt to detained five weeks in prison, and appealing from the private hatred obtain practice there seems to have been unsuccessful, and taking up of Calvin to the decision of the council of two hundred. This appeal his abode once more in Lyon, he supported himself by correcting the however was rejected, and Servetus was furnished with a copy of the press for the Frellons, the printers. He likewise superintended a new charges against him drawn up by Calvin. To these he sent in a brief edition of the Bible, wbich was published in 1542, and the notes which written answer, and it does not appear that after September 15 he he added afforded materials to strengthen the charge of heresy after defended himself in open court, where he was much inferior to Calvin wards brought against him.

as a disputant. Calvin's refutation of Servetus's reply greatly exaspeIn the year 1543 Pierre Palmier, archbishop of Vienne in Dauphiné, rated him; he did not attempt any regular answer to it, but contented meeting with Servetus at Lyon, induced him to return with him to his bimself with adding a few notes in the margin grossly abusive of see. Servetus devoted himself to the practice of medicine in this place, Calvin. where he remained until bis trial for heresy ten years afterwards. It was now secretly determined in the council of Geneva to put Theology however was still a favourite pursuit with him, and for many Servetus to death: but the matter being one of great importance, and years he carried on a controversial correspondence with Calvin, in the Servetus having appealed to the judgment of others, it was thought course of which he sent him a portion of a manuscript containing many advisable to send copies of his works and of the evidence

against him of the opinions which subsequently appeared in his Christianismi to the clergy of the four Protestant cantons of Zürich, Basel, Berne, Restitutio.' Their private correspondence, never very friendly, dege- and Schaffhausen, and to ask their opinion concerning bis guilt. These nerated by degrees into quarrelling, and at length into scurrility; and ( letters were despatched about the end of September: the reply from Servetus having replied to a violent letter of Calvin concerning his Zürich was received on October 2; that from Basel and from Schaffown opinions, by sending a list of what be called errors and absurdities hausen on October 18; and the date of the arrival of the answer from in Calvin's Institutes,' the latter angrily broke off all communication Berne is not stated. They all concurred in condemning the writings with him. In the same year, 1546, Calvin wrote to Farel and Viret, of Servetus, but did not recommend that the author should be put to saying that, if ever Servetus came to Geneva, he would take care that death, though Calvin chose to put that construction on their replies. he should not escape in safety. He is stated by Bolsec even to have As soon as these answers had arrived the council was once more condenounced Servetus to Cardinal Tournon as a heretic, and the same vened, and sentenced Servetus to be burned to death by a slow fire. authority adds that the cardinal laughed heartily at one heretic accusing Servetus had one friend in the council, Amadæus Gorrius by name, another.

who in vain endeavoured to obtain a pardon for him, or at least that Servetus, in a letter to one of his friends, had expressed the pre- his case should be brought before the council of two hundred; but sentiment that he should suffer death for his opinions; and he did not the violence of Calvin and his party prevailed. Calvin however did publish the Christianismi Restitutio' without taking every precaution attempt to obtain for him the favour of a less painful death, though to conceal the fact of his being the author. He had endeavoured to without success. Accordingly, on October 27, 1553, Servetus was get the work published at Basel, but no bookseller would undertake brought to the stake, and his sufferings are stated' to have been the dangerous engagement; and he eventually had it printed at Vienne unusually severe and protracted. No act of barbarity perpetrated by in 1553, but without his own name or that of the priuter, or even the the Roman Catholics ever surpassed the burning of Servetus, in which date or name of the place.

Calvin appears to have been actuated by private hatred almost as much The work caused a great sensation ; but the author would have as by religious fanaticism, and in which he filled all the parts of remained unknown, had not Calvin recognised in the style, and in the informer, prosecutor, and judge. abuse of himself, the hand of Servetus. He immediately procured one The works of Servetus have had an adventitious value imparted to William Trie, a citizen of Lyon, but a recent convert to the reformed them by their extreme rarity. With the exception of the short essay religion, and then resident at Geneva, to write letters to the authorities on 'Syrups,' published while Servetus was at Paris, they are theoloof the former city, containing many serious imputations against gical and metaphysical treatises on the most abstruse subjects, such Servetus, and charging him with having written the Christianismi as the doctrine of the Trinity. Mr. Hallam is of opinion that the Restitutio.' The Archbishop of Lyon, Cardinal Tournon, whose notions of Servetus concerning the Trinity were not Arian, but rather diocese, from its proximity to Geneva, was peculiarly exposed to the what are called Sabellian. The Christianismi Restitutio' contains a influence of heresy, 10 sooner received this intelligence than he wrote passage which has led some to say that Servetus well nigh discovered to the governor-general of Dauphiné, acquainting him with what he the circulation of the blood, and that consequently the

merits of our had heard conceruing Servetus. In consequence of the suspicion thus illustrious countryman Harvey are small. Such however is by no thrown upon him, Servetus was arrested and imprisoned; but he would means the case. Servetus knew that the septum of the heart is not



418 perforated, but that the blood in the right ventricle communicates the populus; but, according to Cicero and Dionysius (iv., p. 218), he with that in the left through the medium of the pulmonary artery, and found his chief support in the populus, who gave him the imperium the circulation through the lungs. But though he formed a perfectly by a lex curiata. The sons of Ancus Marcius, seeing their hopes fruscorrect conception of the pulmonary circulation, he was quite ignorant trated, went into exile, and Servius Tullius, to prevent any hostile of the greater circulation, or of the existence of any means by which feeling on the part of Lucius and Aruns Tarquinius, the sons of his blood from the left ventricle is returned to the right; nor does he predecessor, gave them his two daughters in Inarriage. The inconappear to have seen the necessity for any such provision.

sistency of this part of the legend with chronology has been pointed SEʻRVIUS, MAU'RUS HONORA'TUS, a Roman grammarian. out by Niebuhr. The time at which he lived is not quite certain, for some writers place After Servius had thus established himself on the throne, he made him in the reign of Valentinian, and others in that of Hadrian; but a successful war against the Veientines and some other Etruscan it is almost beyond doubt that he lived towards the close of the 4th towns, which Dionysius represents as a war with all Etruria. This is century, perhaps in the reign of Theodosius I. (Macrob., 'Sat.,' i. 2.) the only war which is said to have occurred during his reign, which,

The principal works of Servius are his Commentaries on the Æneid, like that of Numa Pompilius, was a reign of peace. The most memothe Georgics, and the Eclogues of Virgil. These commentaries are rable events of the reiga of Servius Tullius are his fortification and not only useful for a correct understanding of the poems of Virgil, extension of the city, and the new constitution which he is said to but they are rendered still more valuable to us by the vast stores of have given to the Roman state. Several of the Latin towns already learning which their author possessed; they contain information on a belonged to Rome, and bad grown up with it into one nation, and variety of subjects connected with the history, antiquities, and religion this nation was leagued with the other independent Latins. Servius of the Romans, and of which we should otherwise be totally ignorant. effected a federal union among these nations, and induced the Latins, Many valuable fragments of other writings, whose works are now lost, who had hitherto held their general meetings at the fountain of Ferenare preserved in the commentaries of Servius. It is however to be tina, to build at Rome, on the Aventine, a temple of Diana, as the lamented that these commentaries have come down to us in a very common property of the Latins and Romans. The Latins agreed, and interpolated condition, so that they cannot be used without great this was on their part a tacit acknowledgment of the supremacy of caution. Besides these commentaries, we possess of Servius threo Rome... (Liv., i. 45; Dionys., iv., p. 230.) The Sabines appear to smaller grammatical works : 'In Secundam Donati Editionem Inter- have likewise been included in this confederacy, and to have joined pretatio, De Ratione Ultimarum Syllabarum Liber ad Aquilinum,' the Latins and Romans in the worship at the common sanctuary of and 'Ars de Pedibus Versuum, sive de Centum Metris.'

Diana; for the story is, that a Sabine attempted to gain the supre. The commentaries on Virgil aro printed in several of the early macy for his own nation : he possessed among his cattle a cow of editions of this poet; but the best modern editions

are that of Bur- extraordinary size, and the soothsayers declared that the government mann, in his edition of Virgil, and a separate one by H. A. Lion, under should belong to that nation whose citizen should sacrifice this cow to the title 'Servii Mauri Commentarii in Virgilium; ad fidem cod. Diana on the Aventine. He therefore took the animal at an opportune guelferbyt. aliorumque recens. et potior. var. lect. indicibusque copio- time to Rome. But the Roman priest, who had been informed of the siss. instruxit, &c.;' 2 vols. 8vo, Göttingen, 1825-26. Compare Bur prophecy, reprimanded the Sabine for attempting to sacrifice with mann, Præfat. ad Virg.,' p. ******; Heyne, 'De Antiquis Virg. Inter- unclean hands, and bade him go down to the Tiber and wash them. pret.,' p. 536, &c.; Fabricius, 'Biblioth. Lat.,' i. p. 319. The three The Sabine obeyed, and the Roman in the meanwhile sacrificed the smaller works of Servius are printed in Putschii Grammatici Latini.' cow to Diana. According to Livy it was not until this time that the SEÄRVIUS SULPICIUS RUFUS. [SULPICIUS.)

populus unanimously declared Servius their king. SEÄRVIUS TU'LLIUS, the sixth king of Rome, reigned from But although Servius was a favourite of the people, a storm was B.O. 578 to 534. The history of his birth was handed down by gathering over his head, which ultimately terminated his life in the tradition in three different ways. The most marvellous and probably tragic manner so inimitably described by Livy (i. 47). Lucius Tarthe most ancient legend represents him as the son of Ocrisia, a slave quinius, the son of Tarquinius Priscus, had never given up the hope of Queen Tanaquil, and of a god, who according to some was Vulcan, of occupying the throne of his father; and stimulated by Tullia, the but according to others, one of the household gods of the royal wife of his brother Aruns, he agreed with her to murder his wife and family. (Ovid, 'Fast.,' vi. 625, &c.; Dionys., iv. p. 207; Sylburg.) his brother, and to unite himself with her, that thus they might be A second legend describes his mother as a slave of the Etruscan town able the more energetically to prosecute their ambitious and criminal of Tarquinii, and his father as a client of Tarquinius Priscus; and designs. Lucius, now urged on by his unnatural wife, one day apServius himself, according to the same account, was in his youth a peared in the senate with the badges of royalty. As soon as the slave. (Cic., 'De Republ., ii. 21.) The third account, which however aged king heard of the rebellious act, he hastened to the curia, and seems to be merely an arbitrary interpretation of the second, made rebuked the traitor, but he was thrown down the stone steps of the with the intention of giving to the story a somewhat more probable curia, and on his way home he was murdered by the servants of his appearance, represents Servius Tullius as the son of a man of the son-in-law. His body was left lying in its blood. Tullia, the wife of same name, who was of royal descent, lived at Corniculum, one of the Lucius, anxious to learn the issue of his undertaking, rode in her Latin towns, and was slain when his native place was taken by the chariot to the curia ; but her more than brutal joy at his success Romans. His wife Ocrisia, then in a state of pregnancy, was conveyed induced even Tarquin to send her home. On her way thither she to Rome and assigned to Queen Tanaquil, who, considering her rank, found the corpse of her father, and ordered her servant to drive over soon restored her to liberty and treated her with great regard. (Liv. it. The place where this took place was ever after termed the Vicus i. 39; Dionys., iv. p. 206.) Ocrisia was delivered of a son, whom she Sceleratus. (Ovid., Faster' vi. 598 ; Dionys., iv. p. 242; Varro, 'De called Servius Tullius, after the name of her husband. One day, con- Ling. Lat.,' iv., p. 44.) tinues the story, when the boy was asleep, his head was seen sur Such are the legends which were current among the Romans about rounded with dames. The queen, being informed of the wondrous Servius Tullius ; and although they may be based on some historical sight, said that the child was destined to do great things, and forbade groundwork, yet in the form in which they are handed down they are the flames to be extinguished; when the child awoke the flame disap- little more than fiction. The existence of a king, Servius Tullius, peared. He was henceforth brought up and educated as the king's cannot however be denied. The Etruscan traditions, as we learn from own child. If in the course of bis education he became, as Cicero an ancient inscription (ap. Gruter, p. DII.) which contained a speech supposes, acquainted with the affairs of Greece, this would in some of the Emperor Claudius, stated that Servius, originally called by the measure account for the analogy between the constitution of Solon Etruscan name of Mastarna, was a follower of Cæles Vivenna; and and that which Servius afterwards gave to the Romans. Fortune, who that after being overwhelmed by disasters, he quitted Etruria with had so signally favoured Servius in his childhood, continued her par- the remains of the army of Cæles, and went to Rome, where he tiality for him, raised him to the highest honours that man can attain, occupied the Calian hill, and afterwards obtained the kingly power, and even made him the object of her love. (Ovid., 'Fast.,' vi. 570, (See Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome,' i. p. 381, &c.) But it is not im. &c.). He made a grateful return by dedicating to her a temple outside probable that this version of the story merely arose from the circumof the city. (Varro, 'De Ling. Lat.,' v., p. 56, ed Bipont.)

stance of Servius being received at Rome among the Luceres or When Servius Tullius had grown up to manhood, he distinguished Etruscans (Göttling, Gesch. d. Röm. Staats,' p. 231), for two other himself in several battles against the Etruscans and Sabines, and he legends describe him as a Latin; and the whole spirit of his legislawas also a useful counsellor in the affairs of the administration. The tion seems to warrant the conclusion that the man who devised the king not only rewarded his services with the hand of one of his constitution ascribed to him could not have been an Entruscan, but daughters, but in his old age frequently entrusted him with the must have been a Latin. How much of the tragic story of his death management of his private as well as public affairs, and in the dis- may be historical cannot be decided, nor is it of great importance. charge of these duties Servius evinced such wisdom and justice that This however seems to be clear, that at the end of the career of he soon became the favourite of the people. When the king was Servius a counter-revolution took place, which frustrated all the benemurdered by the sons of Ancus Marcius, and Tanaquil concealed his ficial workings of his new constitution, and showed its fruits in the death from the people, they willingly submitted to the regency of tyrannical rule of his successor. Servius, whom the king was said to have appointed to govern in his The constitution of Servius Tullius was always looked upon by the stead until his recovery, which probably means that he was appointed Romans as the basis of their civil and political institutions, and there custos urbis (præfectus urbi), in which capacity he had a right to hold is no doubt that in subsequent ages much more was attributed to him the comitia for a new election,

as he afterwards did (populum consuluit than he actually did, and that the plebeians in particular considered de se). When the death of the king became known, Servius was, as him as the great protector of their order, who had granted them Livy (i. 41) says, made king by the senate, but without a decree of almost all the rights which they afterwards regained one by one in


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