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else is somewhat different. Though in Latin documents of the middle ages the term barants for libcri domini was used, it was not until the 1710 century that the word Baron, perhaps under the influence of the court of Versailles, began to be used as the equivalent of the old German Freiherr, or free lord of the Empire. The style Freihcrr (liber dmtinus) implied originally a dynastic status, and many FreHerren held countships without taking the title of count. When the more important of them styled themselves counts, the Frtikerren sank into an inferior class of nobility. The practice of conferring the title Freilterr by imperial letters was begun in the |6U> century by Charles V., was assumed on the ground of special imperial concessions by many of the princes of the Empire, and is now exercised by all the German sovereigns. Though the practice of all the children taking the title of their father has tended to make that of Baron comparatively very common, and has dissociated it from all idea of territorial possession, it still implies considerable social status and privilege in countries where a sharp line is drawn between the caste of " nobles " and the common herd, whom no wealth or intellectual eminence can place on the same social level with the poorest Adfligcf. In Japan the title baron (Dan) is the lowest of the five titles of nobility introduced in 1885, on the European model. It was given to the least important class of territorial nobles, bu I is also bestowed as a title of honour without reference to territorial possession.

See du CanRO, Ghssariun, «. "Baro" (cd. Niort, 1883); John Scldeti, Titlei <ij llcmar, p. 353 ted. 1672); Achille Luchaire, Matiutl det trttlitiitiotis fronfanes (Paris, 1892); Maurice Prou, art. " Baron " in La Craiide Encyclopedic. (W. A. P.)

BARONET. Although the origin of this title has been the subject of learned speculation, it is not known for certain why it was selected as that of "a new Dignitie between Barons and Knights " created by James I. The object of its institution was to raise money for the crown, as was also done by the sale of peerage dignities under this sovereign. But the money was professedly devoted to the support of troops in Ulster, that is, each grantee was to be liable for the pay of thirty men, at Sd. a day for three years. This amounted to £1005, which was the sum paid for the honour. When it was instituted, in May 1611, die king, to keep the baronetage select, covenanted that be would not create more than two hundred, and that only those who had £1000 a year in landed estate and whose paternal grandfalhera had borne nrms should receive the honour. But these qualifications were before long abandoned. As an inducement to apply for it, it was made to confer the prefix of " Sir " and "Lady" (or "Dame "), and was assigned precedence above knights, though below the younger sons of barons. Eight yean later Cjolh of September 1619), the baronetage of Ireland was instituted, the king pledging himself not to create more than a hundred baronets. Meanwhile, questions had arisen as to the exact precedence of the baronets, and James by royal decree (28th of May 1612) had announced that it was his intention to rank them below the younger sons of barons. As this had the effect of stopping applications for the honour, James issued a fresh commission (iSth of November 1614) to encourage them, and finally, as " the Kinges wants might be much reUeved out of the vanities and ambition of the gentrie " (in Chamberlain's words), he granted, in 1616, the further privilege that the heirs apparent of baronets should be knighted on coming of age.

The baronetage of Nova Scotia was devised in 1634 as a means of promoting the "plantation " of that province, and Jamei announced his intention of creating a hundred baronets, each of whom was to support six colonists for two yean (or pay 2000 marks in lieu thereof) and also to pay 1000 marks to Sir William Alexander (afterwards earl of Stirling), to whom the province had been granted by charter in 1621. For this he was to receive a " free barony " of 16,000 acres in Nova Scotia, and to become a baronet of " his Hicncs Kingdom of Scotland." James dying at this point, Charles I. carried out the scheme, creating the first Scottish baronet on the aSth of May 1695, covenanting in the creation charter that the baronets "of Scotland or of Nova Scotia " should never exceed a hundred and fifty in number, that

their heirs apparent should be knighted on coming of cge, and that no one should receive the honour who had not fulfilled the conditions, viz. paid 3000 marks (£166, rjs. 4d.) towards the plantation of the colony. Fouryears later (i 7th of November 1629) the king wrote to " the contractors for baronets,"' recognizing that they had advanced large sums to Sir William Alexander for the plantation on the security of the payments to be made by future baronets, and empowering them to offer a further inducement to applicants; and on the same day he granted to all Nova Scotia baronets the right to wear about their necks, suspended by an orange tawny ribbon, a badge bearing an azure sal tire with a crowned inescutcheon of the arms of Scotland and the motto "Fax mentis bonestae gloria." As the required number, however, could not be completed, Charles announced in 1633 that English and Irish gentlemen might receive the honour, and in 1634 they began to do so. Yet even so, he was only able to create a few more than a hundred and twenty in all. In 1638 the creation ceased to carry with it the grant of lands in Nova Scotia, and on the union with England ''1707) the Scottish creations ceased, English and Scotsmen alike receiving thenceforth baronetcies of Great Britain. "•

It is a matter of dispute whether James I. had" kept faith with the baronets of England as to limiting their number; but his son soon rejected the restriction freely. Creations became one of his devices for raising money; blank patents were hawked about, and in 1641 Nicholas wrote that baronetcies were to be had for £400 or even for £3 50; a patent was offered about this time to Mr Wrottcslcy of Wrottcslcy for £300. On the othefjand, the honour appears to have been bestowed for nothing on some ardent royalists when the great struggle began.

Cromwell created a few baronets, but at the Restoration the honour was bestowed so lavishly that a letter to Sir Richard Leveson (3rd of June 1660) describes it as " too common," and offers to procure it for any one in return for £300 or £400. Sir William Wiseman, however, is said to have given £500.

The history of the baronetage was uneventful till 1783, when in consequence of the wrongful assumption of baronetcies, an old and then increasing evil, a royal warrant was issued (6th of December) directing that no one should be recognized as a baronet in official documents till he had proved his right to the dignity, and ako that those created in future must register their arms and pedigree at the Heralds' College. In consequence of the opposition of the baronets themselves, the first of these two regulations was rescinded and the evil remained unabated. Since the union with Ireland (r8oo) baronets have been created, not as of Great Britain or of Ireland, but as of the United Kingdom.

In 1834 a movement was initiated by Mr Richard Broun (whose father had assumed a Nova Scotia baronetcy some years before), to obtain certain privileges for the order, but on the advice of the Heralds' College, the request was refused. A further petition, for permission to all baronets to wear a badge, as did those of Nova Scotia, met with the same fate in 1836. Meanwhile George IV. had revoked (i9th of December 1827), as to all future creations the right of baronets' eldest sons to claim knighthood. Mr Broun claimed it as an heir apparent in 1836, and on finally meeting with refusal, publicly assumed the honour in 1842, a foolish and futile act. In 1854 Sir J. Kingston James was knighted as a baronet's son, and Sir Ludlow Cotter similarly in 1874, on his conring of age; but when Sir Claude dc Crespigny's sou applied for the honour (<7th of May 1805), his application was refused, en the ground that the lord chancellor did not consider the clause in the patent (1805) valid. The reason for this decision appears to be unknown.

Mr Broun's subsequent connexion with a scheme for reviving the territorial claims of the Nova Scotia baronets as part of a colonizing scheme need not be discussed here. A fresh agitation was aroused in 1897 by an order giving the sons of life peers precedence over baronets, some of whom formed themselves, in 1898, into " the Honourable Society of the Baronetage " for the maintenance of its privileges. But a royal warrant was issued on the 15th of August 1808, confirming the precedence complained of as an infringement of their rights. The above body, however. lias continued In existence as the "Standing Council of the Baronetage," and succeeded in obtaining invitations for some representatives of the order to the coronation of King Edward VII. Jt has been sought to obtain badges or other distinctions for baronets and also to purge the order of wrongful assumptions, an evil to which the baronetage of Nova Scotia is peculiarly exposed, owing to the dignity being descendible to collateral heirs mole of the grantee as well as to those of his body. A departmental committee at the home office was appointed in 1906 to consider the question of such assumptions and the best means of stopping them.

All baronets are entitled to display in their coat of arms, either on a canton or on an incscutcheon, the red hand of Ulster, save those of Nova Scotia, who display, instead of it, the saltire of that province. The precedency of baronets of Nova Scotia and of Ireland in relation to those of England was left undetermined by the Acts of Union, and appears to be still a moot point with heralds. The premier baronet of England is Sir Hickman Bacon, whose ancestor was the first to receive the honour in 1611.

See Pixley's History of the Baronetage; Playfair's " Baronetage" (in British Fffitly Antiquity, vols. vi.-ix.); Foster's Baronetage'. G. E. CokaynFs Complete Baronetage; Nichols, "The Dignity of Baronet" (in Herald and Genealogist, vol. iii.) (]• H. R.)

BARONIUS. CAESAR (1538-1607), Italian cardinal and ecclesiastical historian, was born at Sora, and was educated at Veroli and Naples. At Rome he joined the Oratory in 1557 under St Philip Neri (</.fl.) and succeeded him as superior in 1593. ClementfA^III., whose confessor he was, made him cardinal in 1596 ancTtibrarian of the Vatican. At subsequent conclaves he was twice nearly elected pope, but on each occasion was opposed by Spain on account of his work On the Monarcky oj Sicily, in which he supported the papal claims against those of the Spanish government. Baronius is best known by his A nnales Ecclesiaslici, undertaken by the order of St Philip as an answer to the Magdeburg Centuries. After nearly thirty years of lecturing on the history of the Church at the Vallicella and being trained by St Philip as a great man for a great work, he began to write, and produced twelve folios (1588^1607). In the Annala he treats history in, strict chronological order and keeps theology in the background. In spite of many errors, especially in Greek history, in which he had to depend upon secondhand information, the work of Baronius stands as an honest attempt to write history, marked with a sincere love of truth. Sarpi, in urging Casaubon to write against Baronius, warns him never to charge or suspect him of bad faith, for no one who knew him could accuse him of disloyalty to truth. Baronius makes use of the words of St Augustine: " I shall .love with a special love the man who most rigidly and severely corrects my errors." He also undertook a new edition to the Roman martyrology (1586), which he purified of many inaccuracies.

His A nnales, which end in 1198, were continued by Rinaldi (q vols.,

page. (E. Tn.)

BARONY, the domain of a baron (}.».). In Ireland counties are divided .into "baronies," which are equivalent to the "hundreds " (q.t.) in England, and seem to have been formed out of the territories of the Irish chiefs, as each submitted to English rule (General Report of the Census of England, iv. 181, 1873). In Scotland the' term is applied to any large freehold estate even when held by a commoner. Barony also denotes the rank or dignity of a baron, and the feudal tenure " by barony." BAROQUE, a technical term, chiefly applicable to architecture, furniture and household decoration. Apparently of Spanish origin—a borrueco is a large, irregularly-shaped pearl—the word was for a time confined to the craft of the jeweUef. It indicates the more extravagant fashions of design that were common in the first half of the iSth century, chiefly in Italy and France, in which everything is fantastic, grotesque, florid or incongruous— irregular shapes, meaningless forms, an utter lack of restraint and simplicity. The word suggests much the same order of ideas as rococo.

B A ROSS, 0 ABOR (1848-1803), Hungarian statesman, was born at Trcncsen on the 6th of July 1848, and educated at Eutergom. He was for a time one of the professors there under Cardinal Kolos Vaszary. After acquiring considerable local reputation as chief notary of his county, he entered parliament in 1875. He at once attached himself to Kulman Tisza and remained faithful to his chief even after the Bosnian occupation had alienated so many of the supporters of the prime minister. It was he who drew up the reply to the malcontents on this occasion, for the first time demonstrating his many-sided ability and his genius for sustained hard work. But it was in the field of economics that he principally achieved his fame. In 1883 he was appointed secretary to the ministry of ways and communications. Baross, who had prepared himself for quite another career, and had only become acquainted with the civilized West at the time of the Composition of 1867, mastered, in an incredibly short time, the details of this difficult department. His zeal, conscientiousness and energy were so universally recognized, that on the retirement of Gabor KemSny, in 1886, he was appointed minister of ways and communications. He devoted himself especially to the development of the national railways, and the gigantic network of the AustroHungarian railway system and its unification is mainly his work. But his most original creation in this respect was the zone system, which immensely facilitated and cheapened the circulation of all wares and produce, and brought the remotest districts into direct communication with the central point at Budapest. The amalgamation of the ministry of commcfcc with the ministry of ways in 1889 further enabled Baross to realize his great idea of making the trade of Hungary independent of foreign influences, of increasing the commercial productiveness of the kingdom and of gaining every possible advantage for her export trade by a revision of tolls. This patriotic policy provoked loud protests both from Austria and Germany at the conference of Vienna in zSoo, and Baross was obliged somewhat to modify his system. This was by no means the only instance in which his commercial policy was attacked and even hampered by foreign courts. But wherever he was allowed a free hand he introduced epoch-making reforms in all the branches of his department, including posts, telegraphs, &c. A man of such strength of character was not to be turned from his course by any amount of opposition, and he rather enjoyed to be alluded to as " the iron-handed minister." The crowning point of his railway policy was the regulation of the Danube at the hitherto impassable Iran-Gates Rapids by the con* struction of canals, which opened up the eastern trade to Hungary and was an event of international importance. It was while inspecting his work there in March 189} that he caught a chill, from which he died on the 8th of May. The day of hi* burial wu a day of national mourning, and rightly so, for Baross had dedicated his whole time and genius to the. promotion of his country's prosperity.

See Liszlo Petrovics, Biography of Gabriel Baross (Hung. Entries, 1892). (R. N. B.)

BAROTAC NUEVO, a town of the province of Hollo, Panay, Philippine Islands, near the Jalaur river, above its mouth on the S.E. coast, and about 15 m. N.E. of Iloflo, the capital. Pop. (1003) 9004; in 1903 after the census had been taken the neighbouring town of Dumangas (pop. 13,438) was annexed to Barotac Nucvo. The town lies in a fertile plain and deals in rice, trcpang and pina. Here, in what was formerly Dumangas, arc a fine church and convent, built of iron, pressed brick and marble. Dumangas was destroyed by fire in June 1000, during a fight with insurgents, but its rebuilding was begun in May Iqci.

BAROTSE, BAROTSELAND, a people and country of South Central Africa. The greater part of the country is a British protectorate, forming part of Rhodesia. The Barotsc are the paramount tribe in the region of the Upper Zambezi basin, but by popular usage the name is also applied to contiguous subject tribes, Barotseland being the country over which the Barolse paramount chief exercises authority. The present article treats (i) of the people, (?) of the country, (3) of the establishment of the British protectorate and of subsequent developments.

I. Hi. Barolu.—These people, originally known as Allui, have occupied the extensive plain through which the Zambezi passes from 14° 35' S. to 16° 15' S. throughout the reigns of twenty-two successive paramount chiefs and therefore approximately since the commencement of the i7thcentury. Previously, for an indefinite period, they dwelt on the Kabompo river, 200 m. to Lhe N.E. of their present country, and here the descendants of a section of the tribe which did not migrate still remain, under llic name Balokwakwa (men of the ambuscade), formerly known as Aalukolui. That the Barotse at a still more remote period emigrated from the far north-east is indicated by vague tradition as well as by a certain similarity in type and language to some tribes living in that direction, though the fact that natives from Mashonaland can understand those at LJalui (the Barotse capital) has led to the assumption by some writers that the Barotse arc an offshoot of the Mashona. The variety in type among the Mishona and the homogeneity of the Barotse would rather point to an opposite conclusion.

Early in the iQth century a section of the Basuto tribe known as Makololo trekked from the south of what is now the Orange River Colony and fought their way through Bechuanaland and the Kalahari to the land of the Barotse, whom they ultimately subdued. Their chief, Sebituane, who as an administrator and general was far in advance of his compeers, established the rule of his house for some forty yean, until about 1865 an organized rebellion of the Barotse led to the almost complete extinction of this Makololo oligarchy and the reinstatement of the original dynasty. It was the Makololo who gave Lhe Barotse their present name (Rotse, plain—Burotse, country of the plain—Jfurotse, man of the plain—Aforotse, pfople of the plain, the hitter being inaccurately rendered Barotse, Ba being the equivalent of If a in certain other languages).

The Barotse proper are comparatively few in number, but as is inferred from the fact that for many generations they have held in sway a country two and a half times the size of Great Britain, they are the intellectual and physical superiors of the vast majority of the negro races of Africa. Very black, tall in stature, deep in chest and comparatively speaking refined in feature, a Barotse is readily distinguishable amidst a mixed group of natives. Being numerically small they form an oligarchy in which, with few exceptions, each man holds rank in a chieftainship of which there are three grades. Next to the chiefs rank their descendants who have not themselves acquired chief's rank and hold an intcnnMiate position as freeborn; all others, whether members of the subject-tribes or prisoners of war, being, up to 1006, mere slaves. This class was also graded. Slaves might own slaves who in their turn might own slaves, the highest grade always being directly responsible to some Barotse chief. As a reward of gallantry or ability the paramount chief occasionally conferred chief's rank on individuals not of Barotse birth, and these if so facto assumed the name and privileges of the Barotse. It was a counterpart of the feudal system of Europe in which every grade from king to serf found a place. In 1006 the paramount chief, by proclamation, abolished the state of shivery, an act which, however, left untouched the predominant position of the Barotse and their rights to chieftainship. The paramount chief shares with a queen (WoAteai) his authority and prerogatives. The Mokwai is not the wife but the eldest sister of the ruling chief. With his death her privileges lapse. Theoretically, these co-rulers are equal, neither may promulgate a national decree without the assent of the other, but each has a capital town, councillors and'absolute authority in a province, the two having joint authority over all other provinces. In their code of laws the Barotse show an advance on the standard of probably any other African negro state. By right, an accused chief is tried by his peers, each of whom in rotation from junior to senior gives his verdict, after which the president reports the finding of the court to the paramount chief, who passes sentence. As to their religious beliefs the Barotse imagine the sun to be the embodiment of a great god whose sole care is for the amelioration of man. Him they worship, though more pains are taken to appease evil spirits, in whose existence they also believe, to whom every evil to which man is heir is attributed.

The spirits of ancestors—especially of deceased chiefs—arc also objects of worship. Christianity, of a Protestant evangelical type, was first introduced into the country in 1884 by Francois Coillard and has made some progress among the people, among the converts being Letia, eldest son and heir of Lcwanika, the paramount chief.

2. Barotscland.—This term includes, in the sense of the country in which the authority of the paramount Barotse chief is acknowledged, not only the lands of the Barotse proper, but the territory of fifteen contiguous and subject tribes. This vast territory extends approximately from the Kwito river in the west to the Kafue river in the east, and from the CongoZambezi watershed in the north to the Linyante or Kwando river and Zambezi in the south, and may be divided into three groups:—

(a) Central provinces directly administered by the paramount chief from the capital Lialui (a town on the Zambezi), by the Mokwai from Nalolo, and by two chiefs of the blood from Sesheke;

(t) Outlying provinces over which, in the absence of a central local system of government, Barotse chiefs administer districts under the direction of the paramount chief; and

(c) Tribes over which the local chiefs are permitted to retain their position subject to the payment of annual tribute and to theirMoing homage in person at Lialui when called upon to do so.

With the publication of the king of July's award in 1005 iQ the Anglo-Portuguese Barotse Boundary dispute (see below), the term Barotseland may be said to have acquired a second meaning. By this award the western and part of the northern section of Barotseland as described above were declared to be outside the dominion of the paramount chief and therefore not in the British sphere of influence, while tribal boundaries were complicated by the introduction of a longitudinal and latitudinal frontier. Though this award altered the political boundaries, cthnologically Barotseland remains much as above described. The area of the country under British protection is about 182,000 sq. m.

Excluding the ridge of high ground running east and west which, culminating at a height of 5000 ft., forms the CongoZambezi water-parting, the extreme east (Batoka) and the district in the immediate vicinity of the Victoria Falls (q.v.) throughout which, with local variations, a red laterite clay predominates, the main physical features of Barotseland may be described as a series of heavy white sand undulations covered with subtropical forest vegetation. These are intersected by alluviumcharged valleys through which streams and rivers flow inwards towards the central basin of the Upper Zambezi. There is evidence that this has at one time been the site of a large hike. These valleys, which towards the close of the wet season become inundated, afford rich cattle pasture, the succulence of which prevents cattle losing condition towards the end of the dry season, as is the case in outny parts of Africa. There seems to be little or no indication of mineral wealth in the white sand area, but in the north and cast there is not only every prospect of a great agricultural and pastoral future but also of considerable mining development. Though basalt predominates in the neighbourhood of the Victoria Falls and large fields of granite crop up on the Batoka plateau and elsewhere, there is every indication of the existence of useful minerals in these districts. Gold, copper, tin, lead, zinc and iron have been discovered.

Much of the area of Barotseland is within the healthy zone, the healthiest districts being the Batoka and Mashikolumbwe plateaus in the east with extreme altitudes of 4400 and 4150 ft. respectively, and the line of the Congo-Zambezi watershed which rises to 5000 ft. in many places. The Zambezi valley from the Victoria Falls (3000 ft.) to the Kabompo confluence (3500 ft.), though involving little or no risk to health to the traveller, cannot be considered suitable for white settlement. Taking into consideration the relative value of altitude to latitude, the ].I.it. .ml.mil of Barotscland compares very favourably with existing conditions elsewhere, being several degrees more temperate than would be expected. Approximately the mean maximum and minimum temperatures stand at 80° and 55° F. respectively, with an extreme range of 100° to 35° and a mean annual temperature of 68° to 70°. The rainfall varies according to district from 22 to 32 in. a year and has shown extraordinary stability. Since 1884, the first year in which a record was taken by Francois Coillard, Barolseland has known no droughts, though South Africa has suffered periodically in this respect.

The Zambezi, as would be expected, forms a definite boundary line in the distribution of many species of fauna and flora. In these respects, as well as from an ethnological standpoint, Barotseland essentially belongs not to South but to Central Africa. The great river has also served to prevent the spread from South Africa into Barotseland of such disastrous cat lie diseases as tick fever and lung sickness.

3. The Establishment of British Suzerainty.—By the charter granted to the British South Africa Company in October 1889, the company was allowed to establish its rule in the regions north of the Middle Zambezi not included in the Portuguese dominions, and by a treaty of the nth of June 1891 between Great Britain and Portugal it was declared that the Barotsc kingdom was within the British sphere of influence. The dispute bctwccD the contracting powers as to what were the western limits of Barotseland was eventually referred to the arbitration of the king of luly, who by his award of the 3oth of May 1005, fixed the frontier at the Kwando river as far north as 22° E., then that meridian up to the 13° S., which parallel it follows as far east as 24° E., and then that meridian to the Belgian Congo frontier. In the meantime the British South Africa Company had entered into friendly relations with Lewanika (<7.r.), the paramount chief of the Barotsc, and an administrator was appointed on behalf of the company to reside in the country. A native police force under the command of a British officer was raised and magistrates and district commissioners appointed. In the internal affairs of the Barotsc the company did not interfere, and the relations between the British and Barotse have been uniformly friendly. The pioneers of Western civilization were not, however, the agents of the Chartered Company, but missionaries. F. S. Arnot, an Englishman, spent two years in the country (1882-1884.) and in 1884 a mission, fruitful of good results, was established by the Society dcs Missions Kvangeliqucs dc Paris. Its first agent was Francois Coillard (1834-1004), who had previously been engaged in mission work in Basuloland and who devoted the rest of lus life to the Barotse. Though always an admirer of British institutions and anxious that the country should ultimately fall under British jurisdiction, Coillard in the interests of his mission was in the first instance anxious to delay the advent of white men into the country. It was contrary to his advice that Lewanika petitioned the "Great White Queen" to assume a protectorate over his dominions, but from the moment Great Britain assumed responsibility and the advance of European civilization became inevitable, all the influence acquired by Coillard's exceptional personal magnetism and singleness of purpose was used to prepare the way for the extension of British rule. Only those few pioneers who knew the Barotse under the old conditions can fully realise what civilization and England owe to the co-operation of this high-minded Frenchman.

Under the Chartered Company's rule considerable progress has been made in the development of the resources of the country, especially in opening up the mining districts in the north. The scat of die administration, Kalomo, is on the " Cape to Cairo" railway, about midway between the Zambezi and Kafuc rivers. The railway reached the Broken Hill copper mines, no m. N. of the Kafuc hi 1006, and the Belgian Congo frontier in 1010. From Lobito Bay in Portuguese West Africa a railway was being built in 1909 which would connect with the main line near the Congo frontier. This would not only supply Barotscland with a route to the sea alternative to the Beira and Cape Town lines, but while reducing the land route by many hundred miles would also supply a seaport outlet 1700 m. nearer England than Cape Town and thus create a new and more rapid mail route to southern Rhodesia and the Transvaal. The Zambezi also, with &ebraba*a

as its one bar to navigation between Barotseland and (he sea,

will supply a cheap line of communication. (See Rhodesia.)

See David Livingston*. Afmionnry Travclt and Retfarcjus in

South Africa (Lomkm. J8$7). Mujor Sorpa f'inlo, Uoto I croitfd

Africa (London. iBSi); !• Coillard, On the Tkrtshotd of Central

Africa (London, IK<>7)* Major A. St H. (".il'U.n*,, Exploration and

Hunting in Central Africa (London" i&j*). Africa South to ffortk

""

through Afarolseland (London, Hum), "Journeys m .

Geographical Journal, 1897. " Travels in the Upper Zamlwzi Basin," Geographical Journal, 1901, A IfcrtramJ, Aux f>&ys dc: Jicrotsg, Itaut Zambhf (Paris, iSoH), Col Colin Harding, In Remotest Barotstland (London, 1905): C- VV Mackintosh, Coillard of the Zambesi (London, 1907), with a bibliography; L. Dcclc, '1 h'ce Yfart in Sawgt Africa (London, 1 898) . Consult at»o the annual reports of the British South Africa Company, published in London. (A. St H. G.)'

BAROUCHE (Gcr. laruLicht, Span, barrotho, Itul. baroccio. from Lat. bi-rutus, double-wheeled), the name of a sort of carriage, with four wheels and a hood, arranged for two couples to &il inside facing one another.

BARQUISIMETO, a city of western Venezuela, capital of the state of Lara, on the Jlarquisimeto river, 101 ra. by rail S.W ol Tucacas, itsporton the Caribbean coast. Pop. (est. i8oy) 40,000. It is built in a small, fertile valley of the Mcrida Cordilleras, 1985 ft. above sea-level, has a temperate, healthy climate with a mean annual temperature of 78° F., and is surrounded by a highly productive country from which arc exported coQce, sugar, cacao and rum. It is also an important distributing centre tor neighbouring districts. The city is the seat of a bishopric, is regularly laid out and well built, and is well provided with educational and charitable institutions. Barqui&imeto was founded in 1522 by Juan de VUlcgas, who was exploring the neighbourhood (or gold, and it was first called Nucva Segovia after his native city. In 1807 its imputation had risen to 15.000, principally through its commercial importance, but on the 30th of March 1812 it was totally destroyed by an earthquake, and with it 1500 lives, including a part of the revolutionary forces occupying the town. It was soon rebuilt and is one of the few cities of Venezuela which have recovered from the ravages of the war of independence and subsequent disorders.

BARRt a town of Germany, in the imperial province of AlsaceLorraine, on the Kirneck, 13 m. N. from Schlcttstadt by rail. It has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church and considerable tanneries. There is an active trade in wine and limber. Pop. (iqoo) 5243.

BARRA, or Barb Ay (Seand, Boraty, isle of the ocean), an island of the outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 2362. It ljes about 5 m, S.W. of South Ui&t, is 8 m. in length and from 2 to 4 m. in breadth, save at the sandy isthmus 2 m. below Scurrival Point, where it is only a few hundred yards broad. The rock formation is gneiss. The highest hit! is Heaval (1260 ft.) and there are several small lochs. The chief village is Casllebay, at which the Glasgow steamer calls once a week. This place derives its name from the castle of Kishmul standing on a rock in the bay, which" was once the stronghold of the M'Neills of Barra, one of the oldest of Highland dans. There arc remains of ancient chapels, Danish duns and Druidical circles on the island. There is communication by ferry with South Uist. The parish comprises a number of smaller islands and islets — among them Frida, Gighay, Hellisay, Flodda to the N.E., and Vatersay, Pabbay, Alingalay (pop. :$s) and Bcrncray to the S.K. — and contains 4000 acres of arable land and 18,000 acres of meadow and hill pasture. The cod, ling and herring fisheries are important, and the coasts abound with shell-fish, especially cockles, for which it has always been famous. On Barra Head, the highest point of Bcrncray, and also the most southerly point of the outer Hebrides chain, is a lighthouse 680 ft. above high water.

BARRACKPUR* a town and magisterial subdivision of British India, in the district of Twenty-four Pargonas, Bengal. The town is the largest cantonment in Lower Bengal, having accommodation for two batteries of artillery, the wing of a European regiment and two native battalions. Its name is said to be derived from the fact of troops having been stationed bun since 1772. It is a station on the Eastern Bengal railway. Job Charnock, the founder of Calcutta, erected a bungalow and established a small bazaar here in 1689. The cantonment is (ituatcti on the left bank of the Hugli; it has also a large bazaar and several large tanks, and also a parade ground. To the south of the cantonment is situated the park, created by the taste and public spirit of Lord Wellcslcy. Within the park is situated the Government House, a noble building begun by Lord Minto, and enlarged into its present state by the marqucssof Hastings. The park is beautifully laid out, and contains a small menagerie. Its most interesting feature is now Lady Canning's tomb. Barrackpur played an important part in the two Sepoy mutinies of 1824 and 1857, but the details of these belong to the general history of British rule in India. North Barrackpur had a population in 1901 of 12,600 and south Barrackpur of 19,307.

Barrackpur subdivision was formed in 1904. It contains an area of igosq. m., which, at the census of 1901, had a population of 206,311, n large proportion being workers in the mills on the left bank of the Hugli.

BARRACKS (derived through the French from the Late Lat. borra, n bar), the buildings used for the accommodation of military or naval forces, including the quarters for officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men, with their messes and recreation establishments, regimental offices, shops, •tores, stables, vehicle sheds and other accessory buildings for military or domestic purposes. The term is usually applied to permanent structures of brick or stone used for the peace occupation of troops; but many hut barracks of corrugated iron lined with wood have been built, generally in connexion with a training ground for troops, and in these the accommodation given is somewhat less than In permanent barracks, and conditions more nearly approach those of a military encampment.

British System.—The accommodation to be given in British military barracks is scheduled in the Barrack Synopsis, which contains" statementsof particulars, based upon decisions which have, from time to time, been laid down by authority, as regards the military buildings authorized for various units, and the accommodation and fittings to be provided in connexion therewith" Each item of ordinary' accommodation is described in the synopsis, and the areas and cubic contents of rooms therein bid down form the basis of the designs for any new barrack buildings. Supplementary to the synopsis is a scries of "Standard Plans," which illustrate how the accommodation may be conveniently arranged, the object of the issue of these plans is to put in convenient form the best points of previous designs, and to avoid the necessity of making an entirely fresh design for each building that is to be erected, by using the standard type modified to suit local conditions. External appearance is considered with regard to the materials to be used, and the position the buildings arc to occupy, convenience of plan and sound sanitary construction being the principal objects rather than external effect, designs are usually simple and depend for architectural effect more on the grouping and balance of the parts than on ornamentation such as would add to expense The synopsis and standard plans are from time to time revised, and brought up to date as improvements suggest themselves, and increases in scale of accommodation arc authorized, after due consideration of the financial effect, so that systematic evolution of barrack design Is carried on.

Atorterit British Barracks — A description of a modern barrack for a battalion ol Infantry will give an idea of the standard of accommodation which is now authorized, and to which older barracks arc gradually remodelled as funds permit The unmarried soldiers are quartered in barrack rooms usually planned to contain twelve men in each, this number forms a convenient division to suit the organization of the company, and is more popular with the men than the larger numbers which were formerly the rule in each barrack room, there is a greater privacy, whilst the number is not too small to keep up the feeling of barrack room comradeship which plays an important part in the soldier's training. The rooms give 600 cub. ft of air per man, and have windows on each iidc: the beds are spaced between the windows so that only one bed comes in a corner, and

not more than two between any two windows: inlet ventilators are filed high up in the side walls, and an extract shaft wanned by the chimney flue keeps up a circulation of air through the room: the door is usually at one end of the room and the fireplace at the opposite end: over each man's bed is a locker and shelf where he keeps his kit, and his rifle stands near the head of his bed. Convenient of access from the door to the barrack-room is the ablution-room with basins and foot-bath, also disconnected by a lobby is a water-closet and urinal for night use, others for day use being provided in separate external blocks. Baths are usually grouped in a central bath-house adjacent to the cook-bouse, and have hot water laid on. For every two or four barrack-rooms, a small single room is provided for the occupation of the sergeant in charge, who is responsible for the safety of a small store, where men may leave their rifle and kit when going on furlough. Adjacent to the barrack blocks and next to the cook-house are arranged the dining-rooms where the men assemble for their meals; no food is now served in the barrack-rooms, and the air in them is thus kept much purer and fresher than under the old

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system The dining-rooms arc lofty and well ventilated, and are warmed by hot water, tables and forms arc arranged so as to make the most of the space, and room is provided for all the men to dine simultaneously

Next to the dining-room is the cook-house where the meals for a half battalion are cooked, and served direct to the dining rooms on each side. Wash-up rooms are arranged off the serving-lobby with plate-racks and shelves for the storage of the crockery after It has been washed. The cooking apparatus is designed for economical use of coal fuel, and, if carefully used, consumes little more than J lb of coal per man per day The cook-house is well lighted and ventilated by a top lantern, tables, dressers, and pastry slab are provided for preparing and serving the meals, and a sink for washing kitchen utensils. I'nder the kitchen block is a basement containing the boiler for heating the dining-rooms and another for the supply of hot water to baths and sinks, with in some cases also a hot-air furnace for heating drying-rooms, for drying the men's clothing when, they come in wet from a routemarch or field day Not far from the barrack blocks is placed the recreation establishment or soldiers' club, where the rank and file may go for relaxation and amusement when off duty, this establishment has, on the ground floor', a large and lofty room with a stage at one end for lecturesor entertainments, and at the other

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