« السابقةمتابعة »
with the law in any inferior capacity or who is a chartered or professional accountant, can enter an Inn of Court as a student until he has entirely and bona fide ceased to act or practise in such capacity. Some of the Inns also make a restriction that iheir members shall not be engaged in trade. A form of admission has to be filled up, containing a declaration to this effect, and mentioning inter alia the age, nationality, condition in life and occupation of the applicant. Previous to the student's call this declaration must be repeated, and he must further declare that he is not in holy orders, has not held any clerical preferment and has not performed any clerical functions during the year preceding. Subject to the above, practising solicitors of not less than five years' standing may be called to the bar without keeping any terms, upon passing the necessary examinations, and, P<t contra, a barrister of the same standing may, without any period of apprenticeship, become a solicitor upon passing the final examination for solicitors. Irish barristers of three years' standing may be called to the English bar without passing any examination upon keeping three terms, and so also may barristers of those colonies where the professions of barrister and solicitor are still kept distinct. No one can become a barrister till he is twenty-one years old.
The benchers of the different Inns of Court have the right of rejecting any applicant for membership with or without cause assigned; and for sufficient reasons, subject to an appeal to the common-law judges as visitors of the Inns, they may refuse to call a student to the bar, or may expel from their society or from the profession ('* dis-bar " or " dis-bench ") even barristers or benchers. The benchers appear to take cognizance of any kind of misconduct, whether professional or not, which they may deem unworthy of the rank of barrister. The grade of barrister comprehends the attorney-general and solid tor-general (appointed by and holding office solely at the will of the government of the day), who rank as the heads of the profession, king's counsel and ordinary practitioners, sometimes technically known as " utter barristers."
The peculiar business of barristers is the advocacy of causes in open court, but in England a great deal of other business falls into their hands. They arc the chief conveyancers, and the pleadings (i.e. the counter statements of parties previous to joining issue) are in all but the simplest cases drafted by them. There was formerly, indeed, a separate class of conveyancers and special pleaders, being persons who kept the necessary number of terms qualifying for a call but who, instead of being called, took out licences, granted for one year only, but renewable, to practise under the bar, but now conveyancing and special pleading form part of the ordinary work of a junior barrister. The higher rank among barristers is that of king's or queen's counsel. They lead in court, and give opinions on cases submilted to them, but they do not accept conveyancing or pleading, nor do they admit pupils to their chambers. Precedence among king's counsel, as well as among outer barristers, is determined by seniority.1 The old order of serjeants-at-law (</.r.) who ranked after king's counsel, is now extinct. Although every barrister has a right to practise in any court in England, each
1 A king's counsel is appointed by letters patent to be " one of His Majesty's counsel learned in the law." The appointment rest* with the lord chancellor, to whom the barrister desiring a silk gown make* application. There is no definite time required to elapse between call " and application for a seat within the bar, but it is generally understood that a barrister must be of at least ten years standing before be is appointed a king's counsel. The first king's counsel was Sir Francis Bacon, who was appointed by Queen Elizabeth " queen'scounset extraordinary," and received a payment. by way of ' pledge and fee," of £40 a year, payable half-yearly. Succeeding king's counsel received a similar payment, until its abolition in 1831. There was not another appointment of a king's counsel until 1668, when Lord Chancellor Francis North was so honoured. From 1775 king's counsel may be said to have become a regular order. Their number was very small so late as the middle af the iQth century (20 in 1789; 50 in 1810; 28 in 1850). but at the beginning of the ?Oth century there were over 250. A king's counsel may not, unless by special licence, take a brief against the Town, but such a licence is never refused unless the crown desires
i service* in the case.
special class of business has its own practitioners, so that the bar may almost be said to be divided into several professions. The most marked distinction is that between barristers practising in chancery and barristers practising in the courts of common law The fusion of law and equity brought about by the Judicature Acts 1873 and 1875 was expected in course of lime to break down this distinction; but to a large extent the separation between these two great branches of the profession remains. There are also subordinate distinctions in each branch. Counsel at common law attach themselves to one or other of the circuits into which England is divided, and may not practise elsewhere unless under special conditions. In chancery the king's counsel for the most part restrict themselves to one or other of the courts of the chancery division. Business before the court of probate, divorce and admiralty, the privy council and parliamentary committees, exhibits, though in a less degree, the same tendency to specialization. In some of the larger provincial towns there arc also local bars of considerable strength. The bar of Ireland exhibits in its general arrangements the same features as the bar of England. For the Scottish bar, sec under Advocates, Faculty Of There is no connexion whatever between the Scottish and English bars. A distinctive dress is worn by barristers when attending the courts, consisting of a stuff gown, exchanged for one of silk (whence the expression " to take silk ") when the wearer has attained the rank of king's counsel, botb classes also having wigs dating in pattern and material from the i8th century
Counsel is not answerable for anything spoken by him relative to the cause in hand and suggested in the client's instructions, even though it should reflect on the character of another and prove absolutely groundless, but if he mention an untruth of his own invention, or even upon instructions if it be impertinent to the matter in hand, he is then liable to an action from the party injured. Counsel may also be punished by the summary power of the court or judge asfor a contempt, and by the benchers of the inn to which he may belong on cause shown.
The rank of barrister is a necessary qualification for nearly all offices of a judicial character, and a very usual qualification for other important appointments. Not only the judges hip* in the superior courts of law and equity in England and in her colonies, but nearly all the magistracies of minor rank—recorderships, county court judgcships, &c.—are restricted to the bar. The result is a unique feature in the English system of justice, viz. the perfect harmony of opinion and interest between the bar as a profession and all degrees of the judicial bench. Barristers have the rank of esquires, and are privileged from arrest whilst in attendance on the superior courts and on circuit, and aUo from serving on juries whilst in active practice.
Revising Barristers are counsel of not less than seven years' standing appointed to revise the lists of parliamentary voters.
Barristers cannot maintain an action for their fees, which are regarded as gratuities,nor can they, by the usage of the profession, undertake a case without the intervention of a solicitor, except in criminal cases, where a barrister may be engaged directly, by having a fee given him in open court, nor is it competent for them to enter into any contract for payment by their client* with respect to litigation.
Sec J. R. V. Marchant. Bmster-atAuo: Cm Essay on Ou If gal position of Counsel in England (1905).
BARROIS, CHARLES (1851- ), French geologist, was born at Lille on the .• i,' of April 1851, and educated at the college in that town, where he studied geology under Prof. Jules Go&sclet and qualilied as D. es Sc. To this master he dedicated his first comprehensive work, Reclurckcs tw U terrain crttaci suptrieur de I'Anglctcrre ct dt I'/riandt, published in the Mimoircs dt la soci&l gtologiquc du Nord in 1876. In this essay the palarontological zones in the Chalk and Upper Greenland of Britain were for the first time marked out in detail, and the results o( Or Barrois's original researches have formed the basis of subsequent work, and have in all leading features been confirmed. In 1876 Dr Barrois was appointed a colUborateur to the French Geological Survey, and to 1877 professor of geology in the university of Lille. In other memoirs, among which may be mentioned those on the Cretaceous rocks of the Ardennes and of the Basin of Oviedo, Spun; on the (Devonian) Calcaire d'Erbray; on the Palaeozoic rocks of Brittany and of northern Spain; and on the granitic anJ metamorphic rocks of Brittany, Dr Barrois has proved himself an accomplished petrologist as well as palaeontologist and field-geologist. In 1881 he was awarded the Bigsby medal, and in Iqoi the Wollaston medal by the Geological Society of London. He was chosen member of the Institute (Academy of Sciences) in 1904.
BARROS. JOAO DE (1406-1570), called the Portuguese Livy, may be said to have been the first great historian of his country. Educated in the palace of King Manocl, he earlyconceived the idea of writing history, and, to prove his powers, composed, at the age of twenty, a romance of chivalry, the Chronicle of the Emperor Ctarimuttif, in which he is said to have had the assistance of Prince John, afterwards King John III. The latter, on ascending the throne, gave Barros the captaincy of the fortress of St George of Elminj. whither he proceeded in 1531, and he obtained in 1525 the pott of treasurer of the India House, which he held until 1538 The pest of 1530 drove him from Lisbon to his country house near Pombal, and there he finished a moral dialogue, Rkopica Pncvma, B hit h met with the applause of the learned Juan Luis Vives. On bis return to Lisbon in 1533 the king appointed Barros factor of the India and Mina House—positions of great responsibility and importance at a time when Lisbon was the European emporium for the trade of the East. Barros proved a good administrator, displaying great industry and a disinterestedness rare in that age, with the result that he made but little money where his predecessors had amassed fortunes. At this time, John HI., wishful to attract settlers to Brazil, divided it up into captaincies and gave that of MaranhSo to Barros, who, associating two partners in the enterprise with himself, prepared an armftda of ten vessels, carrying nine hundred men, which set sail in 1539. Owing to the ignorance of the pilots, the whole fleet suffered shipwreck, which entailed serious financial loss on Barros, yet not content with meeting his own obligations, he paid the debts of those who had perished in the expedition. During all these busy years he had continued his studies in his leisure hours, and shortly after the Brazilian disaster he offered to write a history of the Portuguese to India, which the king accepted. lie began work forthwith, but, before printing the first part, he again proved his pen by publishing a Portuguese grammar (1540) and some more moral Dialogues. The first of the Decades of his Asia appeared in ISJJ, and its reception was such that the king straightway charged Barros to write a chronicle of King Manocl. His many occupations, however, prevented him from undertaking this book, which was finally composed by Damiao dc Goes (q.t.). The Second Decade came out in 1153 and the Third in 1563, but the Fourth and final one was not published until 1615, long after the author's death. In January 1568 Barros retired from his remunerative1 appointment at the India House, receiving the rank olfijalgo together with a pension and other pecuniary emoluments from King Sebastian, and died on the zolh of October 1570. A man of lofty character, he preferred leaving his children an example of good morals and learning to bequeathing them a large pecuniary inheritance, and, though he received many royal benefactions, they were volunteered, never asked for. As an historian and a stylist Barros deserves the high fame he has always enjoyed. His Decades contain the early history of the Portuguese in Asia and reveal careful study of Eastern historians and geographers, as well as of the records of his own country. They arc distinguished by clearness of exposition and orderly arrangement. His style has all the simplicity and grandeur of the masters of historical writing, and the purity of his diction is incontestable. Though, on the whole, impartial, Barros is the narrator and apologist of the grfat deeds of his countrymen, and lacks the crilicalspiritandinlcuYclualacumenof D.imiio dc Goes. Diogo do Couto continued the Decades, adding nine more, and a modern edition of the whole appeared in Lisbon in 14 vols. in 1778-1788. The title of Barros's work is Da Alia dc Joao dc Barros, dot feitoi gut os Portugueses fizeram no dtscubrimcnlo e
fon/fuista dos marts e terras do Orunte, and the edition is accompanied by a volume containing a life of Barros by the historian Manoel Scverim de Faria and a copious index of all the Decades. An Italian version in 2 vols. appeared in Venice in 1561-1562 and a German in 5 vols. in 1821. Clarimundo has gone through the following editions: 1522, 1555, 1601, 1742, 1791 and 1843, all published in Lisbon. It influenced Francisco de Moraes (•//), cf. Purser, Palmerin of England, Dublin, 1004, pp. 440 et seq.
The minor works of Barros are described by Innocencio da Silva: Diccionario Bibliographifo Porlugucz, vol. Hi. pp. 320-323 and vol. x. pp. 187-189, and in Severim de Faria's Life, cited above. A com* pilation of Barros't Varia was published by the vtsconde de Azevedo (Porto, 1869). (E. Pa.)
BARROT. CAMILLB HYACINTHS ODILON (1791-1873), French politician, was born at Villefort (Lozere) on the I9th of September 1791. He belonged to a legal family, his father, an advocate of Toulouse, having been a member of the Convention who had voted against the death of Louis XVI. Odilon Barrel's earliest recollections were of the October insurrection of 1795. He was sent to the military school of Saint-Cyr, but presently removed to the Lycee Napoleon to study law and was called fa> the Parisian bar in 1811. He was placed in the office of the comxnlionel Jean Mailhe, who was advocate before the council of state and the court of cassation and was proscribed at the second restoration. Barrot eventually succeeded him in both positions. His dissatisfaction wjth the government of the restoration was shown in his conduct of some political trials. For his opposition in 1820 to a law by which any person might be arrested and detained on a warrant signed by three ministers, he was summoned before a court of assize, but acquitted. Although intimate with Lafayette and others, he took no actual share in their schemes for the overthrow of the government, but in 1827 he joined the association known as A idc-toi, le cicl I'aidera. He presided over the banquet given by the society to the 321 deputies who had signed the address of March 1830 to Charles X., and threatened to reply to force by force. After the ordinances of the 26th of July 1830, he joined the National Guard and took an active part in the revolution. As secretary of the municipal commission, which sat at the botel-de-villc and formed itself into a provisional government, he was charged to convey to the chamber of deputies a protest embodying the terms which the advanced Liberals wished to impose on the king to be elected. He supported the idea of a constitutional monarchy against the extreme Republicans, and he was appointed one of the three commissioners chosen to escort Charles X. out of France. On his return he was nominated prefect of the department of the Seine. His concessions to the Parisian mob and his extreme gentleness towards those who demanded the prosecution of the ministers of Charles X. led to an unflattering comparison with Jerome Petion under similar circumstances. Louis Philippe's government was far from satisfying his desires for reform, and he persistently urged the " broadening of the bases of the monarchy," while he protested his loyalty to the dynasty. He was returned to the chamber of deputies for the department of Eure in 1831. The day after the demonstration of June 1832 on the occasion of the funeral of General Lamarquc, he made himself indirectly the mouthpiece of the Democrats in an interview with Louis Philippe, which is given at length in his Memoira. Subsequently, in pleading before the court of cassation on behalf of one of the rioters, he secured the annulling of the judgments given by the council of war. The death of the duke of Orleans in 1842 was a blow to Barrel's party, which sought to substitute the regency of the duchess of Orleans for that of the duke of Nemours in the event of the succession of the count of Paris. In 1846 Barrot made a tour in the Near East, returning in time to take parl a second time in Ihe preliminaries of revolution. He organized banquets of the disaffected in the various cities of France, and demanded electoral reform to avoid revolution. He did nol foresee the strength of the outbreak for which his eloquence had prepared the way, and clung to the programme of 1830. He tried to support the regency of the duchess in the chamber on the 24th of February, only to find that the time was past for half-measures. He acquiesced in the republic and gave bis adhesion to General Cavaignac. He became the chief of Louis Napoleon's first ministry in the hope of extracting Liberal measures, but was dismissed in 1849 as soon as he had served the president's purpose of avoiding open conflict. After the •'.••/' I1'''!-' of December 1851 he was one of those who sought to accuse Napoleon of high treason. He was imprisoned for a short time and retired from active politics for some ten years. He was drawn once more into affairs by the hope* of reform held out by £mile Ollivicr, accepting in 1869 the presidency of an extraparliamentary committee on decentralization. After the fall of thr empire he was nominated by Thiers, whom he had supported under Louis Philippe, president of the council of state. But his powers were now failing, and he had only filled his new office for about a year when he died at Bougival on the 6th of August 1873. He had been sufficiently an optimist to believe in the triumph of the liberal but non-republican institutions dear to him under the restoration, under Louis Philippe and Louis Napoleon successively. He was unable to foresee and unwilling to accept the consequences of his political agitation in 1830 and 1848, and in spite of his talents and acknowledged influence he thus failed to secure the honours won by more uncompromising politicians. He was described by Thureau-Dangin as " le plus solenncl des indecis, le plus m€ditatif dcs irreflcchts, le plus heureux dcs ambitieux, le plus austere des courtisans de la foule.1'
His personal relations with Louis Philippe and Napoleon, with his >"•••.',- on the events in which he was concerned, are described in the- four volumes of his Memoires, edited by Duvergier de Hauranne in 1875-1876. Sec also Thureau-Dangin, Hist, de la monarchic de
BARROW, ISAAC (1630-1677), English mathematician and divine, was the son of Thomas Darrow, a linen-draper in London, belonging to an old Suffolk and Cambridgeshire family. His uncle was Bishop Isaac Barrow of St Asaph (1614-1680). He was at first placed for two or three years at the Charterhouse school. There, however, his conduct gave but little hopes of his ever succeeding as a scholar. But after his removal from this establishment to Felsted school in Essex, where Martin Holbeach was master, his disposition took a happier turn; and having soon made considerable progress in learning, he was in 1643 entered at St Peter's College, and afterwards at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he applied himself to the study of literature and science, especially of natural philosophy. He at first intended to adopt the medical profession, and made some progress in anatomy, botany and chemistry, after which he studied chronology, geometry and astronomy. He then travelled in France and Italy, and in a voyage from Leghorn to Smyrna gave proofs of great personal bravery during an attack made by an Algcrinc pirate. At Smyrna he met with a kind reception from the English consul, Mr Bretton, upon whose death he afterwards wrote a Latin elegy. From this place he proceeded to Constantinople, where he received similar civilities from Sir Thomas Bcndish, the English ambassador, and Sir Jonathan Dawes, with whom he afterwards contracted an intimate friendship. While at Constantinople he read and studied the works of St Chrysostom, whom he preferred to all the other Fathers. He resided in Turkey somewhat more than a year, after which he proceeded to Venice, and thence returned home through Germany and Holland in 1659.
Immediately on his reaching England he received ordination from Bishop Brownrig, and in 1660 he was appointed to the Greek professorship at Cambridge. When he entered upon this office he intended to have prelected upon the tragedies of Sophocles; but he altered his intention and made choice of Aristotle's rhetoric His lectures on this subject, having been lent to a friend who never returned them, are irrecoverably lost. In July 1667 he was elected professor of geometry in Gresham College, on the recommendation of Dr John Wilkins, master of Trinity College and afterwards bishop of Chester; and in May 1663 he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society, at the first election made by the council after obtaining their charter. The vunr year the executors of Henry Lucas, who, according to the
termsof his will, had founded a mathematical chair at Cambridge, fixed upon Barrow as the first professor, and although his two professorships were not inconsistent with each other, be chose to resign that of Gresham College, which he did on the joih of May 1664. In 1660 he resigned his mathematical chair to his pupil, Isaac Newton, having now determined to renounce the study of mathematics for that of divinity. Upon quitting his professorship Barrow was only a fellow of Trinity College; but his uncle gave him a small sinecure in Wales, and Dr Scth Ward, bishop of Salisbury, conferred upon him a prebend in that churchIn ihc year 1670 he was created doctor in divinity by mandate; and, upon the promotion of Dr Pearson to the see of Chester, be was appointed to succeed him as master of Trinity College by the king's patent, bearing the date of the ijth of February 1672In 1675 Dr Barrow was chosen vice-chancellor of the university. He died on the 4th of May 1677, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, where a monument, surmounted by his bust, was soon after erected by the contributions of his friends.
By his English contemporaries Barrow was considered a mathematician second only to Newton. Continental writers do not place him so high, and their judgment is probably the more correct one. He was undoubtedly a clear-sighted and able mathematician, who handled admirably the severe geometrical method, and who in his Mtlhod of Tangents approximated to the course of reasoning by which Newton was afterwards led to the doctrine of ultimate ratios; but his substantial contributions to the science are of no great importance, and his lectures upon elementary principles do not throw much light on the difficulties surrounding the border-land between mathematics and philosophy. (Sec Infinitesimal Calculus.) His Sermons have long enjoyed a high reputation; they are weighty pieces of reasoning, elaborate in construction and ponderous in style.
Hisscientific work$ara very numerous. The most important are:— Euclid's Elements; Euclid's Data; Optuat Lettures, read in the public school of Cambridge; Thirteen (Jcamctncat Lectures; Tks Works of Archimedes, Ike Four Books of Apotloniui's Conic Section, and Tkeodotitts't Sphertcs. explained i« a New Method: A Lecture. in which Archimedes* Theorems of the Sphere and Cylinder are Investigated and briefly demonstrated; Mathematical Lectures, rvad in the public schools of the university of Cambridge. The above were all written in Latin. His English works have been collected and published in four volumes folio.
See Ward, Lives of the Greskam Profeison. and Whewell's biography prefixed to the 9th volume of Napier's edition of Barrow** Sermons,
BARROW, SIR JOHN (1764-1848), English statesman, was born in the village of Draglcy Beck in the parish of Ulverston in Lancashire, on the igth of June 1764. He started in life as superintending clerk of an iron foundry at Liverpool and afterwards taught mathematics at a school in Greenwich. Through the interest of Sir George Siaunlon. to whose son he taught mathematics, he was attached on the first British embassy to China as comptroller of the household to Lord Macartney. He soon acquired a good knowledge of the Chinese language, on which he subsequently contributed interesting articles to the Quarterly Review, and the account of the embassy published by Sir Ceorge Staunton records many of Barrow's valuable contributions to literature and science connected with China.
Although Barrow ccat>ed to be officially connected with Chinese affairs after the return of the embassy in 1794. he always took much Interest in them, and on critical occasions was frequently consulted by the British government. In 1797 he accompanied Lord Macartney, as private secretary, in his important and delicate mission to settle the government of the newly acquired colony of the Cape of Good Hope. Barrow was entrusted with the task of reconciling the Boers and Kaffirs and of reporting on the country in the interior On his return from hb journey, in the course of which he visited all parts of the colony, he wa» appointed auditor-general of public accounts. He now 3ccidc«i to settle in South Africa, married Anne Maria Triiltr. and in t8oo bought a house in Cape Town, But the surrender ol Ihc colony at the" peace of Amiens (1802) upset this plan. He returned to England in 1804. was appointed by Lord Melville second secretary to the admiralty, a post which he held fur forty yean. Re enjoyed the esteem and confidence of all the eleven chief lords who successively presided at the admiralty board during that period, and more especially of King William IV. while lord high admiral, who honoured him with tokens of his personal regard. Barrow was a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1821 received the degree of LL.D. from Edinburgh University. A baronetcy was conferred on him by Sir Robert Peel in 183$. He retired from public life in 1845 and devoted himself to writing a history of the modem Arctic voyages of discovery (1846), of which he was a great promoter, as well as his autobiography, published in 184'. He died suddenlv on the ajrd of November 1848.
Besides the numerous articles in the Quarterly Review already mentioned, Barrow published among other works, Travels in China (1804); Travels into the Interior of South Africa (1806); and lives of Lord Macartney (1807), Lord Anson (1839), Lord Howe (1838). He was also the author of several valuable contributions to the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. • Sectfemoir of John Barlow, by C. F. Staunton (1852).
BARROV, a river of south-eastern Ireland. It rises in the Slicve Bloom mountains, and flows at first easterly and then almost due south, until, on joining the Suir, it forms the estuary of the south coast known as Watcrford Harbour. Including the 13 m. of the estuary, the length of its valley is rather more than too m., without counting the lesser windings of the river. The total area of drainage to Waterford Harbour (including the basin of the Suir) is 3500 sq. m., and covers the whole of the county Kilkenny, with parts of Waterford, Cork and Limerick, Tippcrary, Carlow, Ring's and Queen's counties. The chief towns on the banks of the Barrow are Athy (where it becomes navigable and has a junction with the Grand Canal), Carlow, Bagenalstown and New Ross. The chief affluent is the Norc, which it receives from the north-west a little above New Ross. The scenery on its banks is in parts very beautiful.
BARROW (from A.S. leorli, a mount or hillock), a word found' occasionally among place-names in England applied to natural eminences, but generally restricted in its modern application to denote an ancient grave-mound. The custom of constructing barrows or mounds of stone or earth over the remains of the dead.was a characteristic feature of the sepulchral systems of primitive times. Originating in the common sentiment of humanity, which desires by some visible memorial to honour and perpetuate the memory of the dead, it was practised alike by peoples of high and of low development, and continued through all the stages of culture that preceded the introduction of Christianity. The primary idea of sepulture appears to have been the provision of a habitation for the dead; antf thus, in its perfect form, the barrow included a chamber or chambers where the tenant was surrounded with the prized possessions of his previous life. A common feature of the earlier barrows is the enclosing fence, which marked off the site from the surrounding ground. When the barrow was of earth, this was effected by an encircling trench or a low vallum. When the barrow was a stone structure, the enclosure was usually a circle of standing stones. Sometimes, instead of a chamber formed above ground, the barrow covered a pit excavated for the interment under the original surface. In later times the mound Itself was frequently dispensed with, and tic interments made within the enclosure of a trench, a tallum or a circle of standing stones. Usually the great barrows occupy conspicuous sites; but in general the external form is no indcz to the internal construction and gives no definite indication of the nature of the sepulchral usages. Thus, while the long barrow is characteristic of the Stone Age, it is impossible to tell without direct examination whether it may be chambered or uochambercd, or whether the burials within it may be those of burnt or of unburat bodies.
la England the long barrow usually contains a single chamber, entering by a passage underneath the higher and wider end of the mound. In Denmark the chambers are at irregular intervals along the body of the mound, and have no passages leading into them. The long barrowi of Great Britain are often from 200 to
400 ft. in length by 60 to So ft. wide. Their chambers are rudely but strongly built, with dome-shaped roofs, formed by overlapping the successive courses of the upper part of the side walls. In Scandinavia, on the other hand, such dome-roofed chambers are unknown, and the construction of the chambers as a rule is megalithic, five or six monoliths supporting one or more capstones of enormous size. Such chambers, denuded of the covering mound, or over which no covering mound has been raised, are popularly known in England as " cromlechs " and in France as " dolmens" (see Stone Monuments). The prevailing mode of sepulture in all the different varieties of these structures is by the deposit of the body in a contracted position, accompanied by weapons and implements of stone, occasionally by ornaments of gold, jet or amber. Vessels of day, more or less ornate in character, which occur with these early interments of unburnt bodies, have been regarded as food-vessels and drinking-cups, differing in character And purpose from the cinerary urns of larger size in which the ashes of the dead were deposited after cremation.
The custom of burning the body commenced in the Stone Age, before the long barrow or the dolmen had passed out of use. While cremation is rare in the long barrows of the south of England, it is the rule in those of Yorkshire and the north of Scotland. In Ireland, where the long barrow form is all but unknown, the round barrow or chambered cairn prevailed from the earliest Pagan period till the introduction of Christianity. The Irish barrows occur in groups in certain localities, some of which seem to have been the royal cemeteries of the tribal confederacies, whereof eight are enumerated in an ancient Irish manuscript, the Leabliaf na h~Uidhfit compiled c. A.d. xico. The best-known of these is situated on the banks of the Boyne above Drogheda, and consists of a group of the largest calms in Ireland. One, at New Grange, is a huge mound of stones and earth, over 300 ft. in diameter and 70 ft. in height Around its base are the remains of a circle of large standing stones. The chamber, which is 20 ft. high in the centre, is reached by a passage about 70 ft. in length. In the Loughcrew Hills, Co. Mcath, there is a group of about thirty stone barrows or cairns, mostly chambered, their bases measuring from 5 or 6 to 60 yds. in diameter. They are unusually interesting from the fact that many of the exposed slabs in the walls of the chambers are ornamented with spirals and other devices, rudely incised. As in the case of the long barrows, the traditional form of the circular, chambered barrow was retained through various changes in the sepulchral customs of the people. It was the natural result of the practice of cremation, however, that it should induce a modification of the barrow structure. The chamber, no longer regarded as a habitation to be tenanted by the deceased, became simply a cist for the reception of the urn which held his ashes. The degradation of the chamber naturally produced a correspondingdegradation of the mound which covered it, and the barrows of the Bronze Age, in which cremation was common, are smaller and less imposing than those of the Stone Age, but often surprisingly rich in the relics of the life and of the art workmanship of the time. In addition to the varied and beautiful forms of implements and weapons—frequently ornamented with a high degree of artistic taste—armlets and other personal ornaments in gold, amber, jet and bronze are not uncommon. The barrows of the bronze period, like some of those of the Stone Age, appear to have been used as tribal or family cemeteries. In Denmark as many as seventy deposits of burnt interments have been observed in a single mound, indicating its use as a burying-placc throughout a lonp succession of years.
In the Iron Age there was less uniformity in tne ouna. customs. In some of the barrows in central France, and in the wolds of Yorkshire, the interments include the arms and accoutrements of a charioteer, with his chariot, harness and horses. In Scandinavia a custom, alluded to in the sagas, of burying the viking in his ship, drawn up on land, and raising a barrow over it, is exemplified by the ship-burials discovered in Norway. The ship found in the Gokstad mound was 78 ft. long, and had a mast and sixteen pairs of oars. In a chamber abaft* the mast the viking bad been laid, with bit weapons, and together with him wen buried twelve horses, six dogs and a peacock. An interesting example of ,thc great timber-chambered barrow is that at Jelling in Jutland, known as the barrow of Thyrc Danebod, queen of King Gorm the Old, who died about the middle of the loth century. It is a mound about 200 ft in diameter, and over 50 ft. in height, containing a chamber 23 ft. long, 8 ft. wide and 5 ft. high, formed of massive slabs of oak. Though it had been entered and plundered in the middle ages, a few relics were found when it was reopened, among which were a silver cup,ornamented with the interlacing work characteristic of the time and some personal ornaments. It is highly illustrative of the tenacity with which the ancient sepulchral usages were retained even after the introduction of Christianity that King Harold, son and successor of Gorm the Old, who is said to have christianized all Denmark and Norway, followed the pagan custom of erecting a chambered tumulus over the remains of his father, on the summit of which was placed a rude pillar-stone, bearing on one side the memorial inscription in runes, and on the other a representation of the Saviour of mankind distinguished by the crossed nimbus surrounding the head. The so-called Kings' Hows at Upsala in Sweden rival those of Jelling in size and height. In the chamber of one, opened in 1829, there was found an urn full of calcined bones; and along with it were ornaments of gold showing the characteristic workmanship of the $th and 6th centuries of the Christian era. Along with the calcined human bones were bones of animals, among which those of the horse and the dog were distinguished.
Comparing the results of the researches in European barrows with such notices of barrow-burial as may be gleaned from early writings, we find them mutually illustrative.
The Homeric account of the building of the barrow of Hector '/•'. xxiv.) brings vividly before us the scene so often suggested by the examination of the tumuli of prehistoric times. During nine days wood was collected and brought, in carts drawn by oxen, to the site of the funeral pyre. Then the pyre was built and the body laid upon it. After burning for twenty-four hours the smouldering embers were extinguished with libations of wine. The white and calcined bones were then picked out of the ashes by the friends and placed in a metallic urn, which was deposited in a hollow grave or cist and covered over with large well-fitting stones. Finally, a barrow of great magnitude was heaped over the remains and the funeral feast was celebrated. The obsequies of Achilles, as described in the Odyssey, were also celebrated with details which are strikingly similar to those observed in tumuli both of the Bronze and Iron Ages. The body was brought to the pile in an embroidered robe and jars of unguents and honey were placed beside it. Sheep and oxen were slaughtered at the pile. The incinerated bones were collected from the ashes and placed in a golden urn along with those of Patroclus, Achillcs's dearest friend. Over the remains a great and shapely mound was raised on the high headland, so that it might be seen from afar by future generations of men.
Herodotus, describing the funeral customs of the Scythians, states that, on the death of a chief, the body was placed upon a couch in a chamber sunk in the earth and covered with timber, in which were deposited all things needful for the comfort of the deceased in the other world. One of his wives was strangled and laid beside him, his cup-bearer and other attendants, his charioteer and his horses were killed and placed in the tomb, which was then filled up with earth and an enormous mound raised high over all. The barrows which cover the plains of ancient Scythia attest the truth of this description. A Siberian barrow, described by Demidov, contained three contiguous chambers of unhewn stone. In the central chamber lay the skeleton of the ancient chief, with his sword, his spear, his bow and a quiver full of arrows. The skeleton reclined upon a sheet of pure gold, extending the whole length of the body, which had been wrapped in a mantle broidered with go'.d and studded with precious stones. Over it was extended another sheet of pure gold. In a smaller chamber at the chief's head lay the skeleton of a female, richly attired, extended upon a sheet of pure gold and similarly covered with a sheet of the same metal. A golden chain adorned her neck and her arms were
encircled with bracelets of pure gold. In a third chamber, at th* chief's feet, lay the skeleton of his favourite horse with saddle, bridle and stirrups.
So curiously alike in their general features were the sepulchral usages connected with barrow-burial over the whole of Europe," that we find the Anglo-Saxon Saga of Beowulf describing ibe chambered tumulus with its gigantic masonry "held fast on props, with vaults of stone," and the passage under the mound haunted by a dragon, the guardian of the treasures of heathen gold which it contained. Beowulf's own burial is minutely described in term* which have a strong resemblance to the parallel passages in the Iliad and Odyssey. There i* first the preparation of the pile, which is hung round with helmets, shields and coats of mail Then the corpse is brought and laid in the midst; the pile Is kindled and the roaring llamc rises, mingled with weeping, till all is consumed. Then, for ten long days, the warriors labour at the rearing of his mighty.mound on the headland, high and broad, to be seen afar by the passers-by on land and sea.
The pyramids of Egypt, the mausolca of the Lydian kings, the circular, chambered sepulchres of Mycenae, and the Etruscan tombs at Caere and Void, arc lineally descended from the chambered barrows of prehistoric times, modified in construction according to the advancement of architectural art at the period of their erection. There is no country in Europe destitute of more or less abundant proofs of the almost universal prevalence of barrow-burial in early times. It can also be traced on both &ido& of the basin of the Mediterranean, and from Asia Minor across, the continent to India, China and Japan.
In the new world as v.-. 11 as in the old, similar cttstoms prevailed from a very remote period. In the great plains of North America the dead were buried in barrows of enormous magnitude, which occasionally present a remarkable similarity to the burro u» of Great Britain. In these mounds cremation appears more frequently than inhumation; and both are accompanied by implements, weapons and ornaments of stone and bone. The pottery accompanying the remains is often elaborately ornamented, and the mound builders were evidently possessed of a higher development of taste and skill than is evinced by any of the modern aboriginal races, by whom the mounds and their contents arc regarded as utterly mysterious.
It is not to be wondered at lhat customs so widely spread and so deeply rooted as those connected with barrow-burial should have been difficult to eradicate. In fact, compliance with Uk Christian practice of inhumation in the cemeteries sanctioned by the church, was only enforced in Europe by capitularies denouncing the punishment of death on those who persisted in burying their dead after the pagan fashion or in the pagan mounds. Yet even in the middle ages kings of Christian countries were buried with their swords and spears, and queens with their spindles and ornaments; the bishop was laid in his grave with his crozicr and comb; the priest with his chalice and vestments; and clay vessels filled with charcoal (answering to the urns of heathen times) arc found in the churches of France and Denmark.
Authorities.—Canon \V. Greenwcll, Britnh Barrow (London, 1877); Dr J. Thurnam, " On Ancient British Barrows," in Arckatologia^ voU. 42, 4\ (1869); J. R. Mortimer. Forty Years' Researches in Burial Moundt of East Yorkshire (London, 1905);?. Anderson. Scotland in Pag«n Timfs (I£(JinburRh, 1886); Dr T. H. Bryc*. "Records of Explorations nmong the Cairn* of Arran and Bute. * in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, veils. 36, J7, 38 (1901-1903); \V. C. BorLi*c. The Dolmens of Ireland (London, 1897); Dictionnaire arr.hfolaeiqitt dt la Caulf (Paris, 1875); A. P. Madscn,Grarhoif ogGrarfunafro Slenaldtren i Dantnark1 Copenhagen. 1900); S. Mullcr, Nordnihe Altertumskunde ous Dantmark v*4 Schltsvrig (Strassburg. 1697); O. Montelius, 77* Cii'ili&i/i0« of Sweden in Heathen J'imet (London. 1888), and Dtr OriVitJ **d Euroba (Stockholm, 1809); E. Cartailhac, Lcs Agts prfkistorioufs dt I'Espagne tt nu Portugal (Paris, i8f»6); \V. Gowland. "Tfcc Dolmens and Burial Mounds in Japan," in Arckarchgia. vol. 55 (1897); C. Thomas. "Report on the Mound Explorations of iwc Bureau of Ethnology" (Twelfth Annual Report for 1890-1891, Washington. 1894.) (J- A».)
BARROWE, HENRT ('•'i ,••.••'. English Puritan and Separatist, was born about 1550, at Slu'ptlam, Norfolk, of a family related by marriage to the lord keeper Bacon, and