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he mentions north of the mouth of the ~01inas is Nooomagus. or Noviomagus, of the Lexuvii or chovii. This is the Orne, which flows into the Atlantic below Cam in the department of Calradoa. D‘Anville says that in the middle age writings the name of the river is Olna, which is easily changed into Orne. GOSSEllfl supposma the Olinas to be the Sonic, and there are other conjectures ; but. the identity of name is the only evidence that we an trust in this case. [G. L.]
ULlN’l‘lGl, a maritime town of Hispania Baeticlg lying E. of Onoba. (Mela, iii. 1. 4.) Its real name seems to have been Olontigi, as many coins are found in the neighbourhood bearing the inscription 0mm. (Florez, Med. ii. pp. 495, 509, iii. p. 103; Miounet, Sup. i. p. 111, ap. Ultert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 840.) Varioust identified with Moguer and Palm. [T. H. D.]
OLlSll’O ('OAtodEfimI, Ptol. ii. 5. § 4), I city of Lusitania, on the right bank of the Tagus, and not far from its mouth. The name is variously written. Thus Pliny (iv. 35) has ()lisippo; so also the ltin. Ant. pp. 416, 418, seq. In Mela (iii. 1. § 6), Soliuus (c. 23), &c., we find Ulyssippo, on account probably of the legend mentioned in Strabo, which ascribed its foundation to Ulysses, but which is more correctly referred to Odysseia in Hispania Baetiea. [ODYSSE1A.] Under the Romans it was a municipium, with the additional name of Felicitas Julia. (Plin. L c.) The neighbourhood of Olisipo was celebrated for a breed of horses of remarkable fleetuess, which gave rise to the fable that the mares were impregnated by the west wind. (1‘lin. viii. 67; Varr. R. R. ii. 1, 19; C01. vi. 27.) It is the modern Liaboa or Lisbon. T. H. D.]
OLI'ZON (‘Oktfu’m EUL'OMg‘tfwms , an ancient town of Magnesia in Thessaly, mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithet of “ rugged." (Hum. [1. ii. I7'17.) 1t possessed a harbour (Scylax, p. 25); and as it was opposite Artemisium in Euboea (Plut. Them. 8), it is placed by Leake on the isthmus connecting the peninsula of Triklu'ri with the rest of Magnesia. (Strab. ix. p. 436; Pliu. iv. 9. s. 16; Steph. B. a. 0.; Leake, Nor-Mm Greece, vol. iv. p. 384.)
O'LLlUS (Oglio), a river of Cisalpine Gaul, and one of the more considerable of the northern tributaries of the Padus. 1t rises in the Alps, at the foot of the Monte Tonale, flows through the Val Camonica (the district of the ancient Camuni), and forms the extensive lake called by Pliny the Lucas Sebinus, new the Logo 11' heo. From thence it has a course of about 80 miles to the Padus, mceiving on its way the tributary streams of the Mela or Mel/a, and the Clusius or C/tiese. Though one of the most important rivers of this part of Italy, its name is mentioned only by Pliny and the Geographer of Ravenna. (Phn. iii. 16. s. 20, 19. s. 23; Geogr. Rav. iv. 36.) H. B.]
OLMElUS. [Bone-rm, Vol. I. p. 413. 11.]
O'LMIAE. [Coum'ruus Vol. 1. p. 688, a.]
OLMO'XES ('Ohuiwes : Eth. 'Ovaetix), a village in Boeotia, situated 12 stadia to the left of Copae, and 7 studio from Hyettus. It derived its name from Olmus, the son of Sisyphus, but enutained nothing worthy of notice in the time of l'ausanius. Forchhammer places Olmones in the small island in the lake Copais, SW. of Copue, now called Trelo- Yani. [See the Map, Vol. I. p. 411, where the island lies SW. of No. 10.] (Pans. ix. 24. § 3; Steph. B. a. 11.; Forchhatnmer, Hellem'ka, p. 178.)
it derived its name. (Strab. xii. pp. 571, 576.) The inhabitants of the district were called Olympeni ('Ohvp'lr‘nvoi, Strab. xii.p. 574 ; Ptol. v. 2. 15) or Olympieni ('OAvoa-nyvof, Herod. vii. 74; comp. lilvsu). [L. 5.]
OLY'MPIA (1'7 ’OAolnria), the temple and sacred grove of Zeus Olympius, situated at a small distance west of Pisa in l'eloponnesus. 1t originally belonged to Pisa, and the plain, in which it stood, was called in more ancient times the plain of Pisa; but after the destruction ofthis city by the Eleians in a. c. 572, the name of Olympia was extended to the whole district. Besides the temple of Zeus Olympins, there were several other sacred edifices and public buildings in the sacred grove and its immediate neighbourhood; but there was no distinct town of Olympia.
The plain of Olympia is open towards the sea on the west, but is surrounded on every other side by hills of no great height, yet in many places abrupt and precipitous. Their surface presents a series of sandy elifi‘s of light yellow colour, covered with the pine, ilex. and other evergreens. On entering the valley from the west, the most conspicuous object is a bold and nearly insulated eminence rising on the north from the level plain in the form of an irregular cone. (Mare, vol. ii. p. 28].) This is Mount Cuoruus, or the hill of Cronus, which is frequently noticed by Finder and other ancient writers. (wap' ebdnlev Kpomos', Find. 01. i. ill; I'd-yo: Kpovou, 01. xi. 49; Mitch) 1ré'rpa Miéa'ror Kpoviou, 01. vi. 64; Kpdvou trap’ aiirt‘lv 5x00v, Lyeophr. 42; d Kpowetos, Xen. Hell. vii. 4. § 14; 1?: Jpn: 'rb Kpdviov, Paus. v. 21. § 2, vi. l9. 1, vi. 20. § 1; Ptol. iii. 16. § 14.) The range of hills to which it belongs is called by most modern writers the Olympian, on the authority of a passage of Xenophon. (Hell. vii. 4. § 14). Leake, however, supposes that the Olympian hill alluded to in this passage wru no other than Cronius itself; but it would appear, that the common opinion is correct, since Strabo (viii. p. 356) describes Pisa as lying between the two mountains Olympus and Ossa. The hills, which bound the plain on the south, are higher than theCronian ridge, and, like the latter, are covered with evergreens, with the exception of one bare summit, distant about half a mile from the Alpheins. This was the ancient TYPAEUB (Twaiov), from which women, who frequented the Olympic games, or crossed the river on forbidden days, were condemned to be hurled headlong. (Pans. v. 6. 7.) Another range of hills closes the vale of Olympia to the east, at the foot of which runs the rivulet of Mir-dim. On the west the vale was bounded by the CLADEUS (KAdBeos), which flowed from north to south along the side of the sacred grove, and fell into the Alpheius. (Pans. v. 7. l; KAdoaos, Xen. llell. vii. 4. §29.) This river rises at Lola in Mount Pholo'd. The Alpheius, which flows along the southern edge of the plain, constantly changes its course, and has buried beneath the new alluvial plain, or carried into the river, all the remains of buildings and monuments which stood in the southern part of the Sacred Grove. in winter the Alpheius is fullI rapid, and turbid; in summer it. is scanty, and divided into several torrents flowing between islands or sandbanks over a wide gravelly bed. The vale of Olympia is now called Andi/“lo (i. e. opposite to Lalo), and is uninhabited. The soil is naturally rich, but swampy in part, owing to the inundations of the river. ()t' the numerous buildings and countless statues, which once covered this sacred spot,
the only-remains are those of the temple of Zeus Olympius. Pausanias has devoted nearly two books, and one fifth of his whole work, to the description of Olympia; but he does not enumerate the buildings in their exact topographical order : owing to this circumstance, to the absence of ancient remains, and to the changes in the surface of the soil by the fluctuations in the course of the Alpheius, the topography of the plain must be to a great extent conjectural. The latest and most able attempt to elucidate this subject, is that of Colonel Leake in his Pelolumnesiaca, whose description is here chiefly followed.
Olympia lay partly within and partly outside of the Sacred Grove. This Sacred Grove bore from the most ancient times the name of ALTIB (1'! 'AA-rts), which is the Peloponnesian Aeolic form of liAaos. (Paus. v. 10. 1.) It was adomed with trees, and in its centre there Was a grove of planes. (Pans. v. 27. § 11.) Pindar likewise describes it as well wooded (Ilium: sfioevdpov e’rr' 'Alttps'qv Moos, 0!. viii. 12). The space of the Altis was measured out by Hercules, and was surrounded by this hero with a wall. (Pind. 0!. xi. 4-8.) On the west it ran along the Cladeus; on the south its direction maybe traced by a terrace raised above the Alpheius; on the 91st it was bounded by the stadium. There were several gates in the wall, but the principal one, through which all the processions passed, was situated in the middle of the western side, and was called the Pompic Entrance “Oftl’lk‘l‘l dances, Pans. v. 15. § 2). From this gate, a road, called the Pompic \Vny, ran across the Altis, and entered the stadium by a gateway on the eastern side.
1. The Olympiet'um, Olympium, or temple of Zeus Olympius. An oracle of the Olympian god existed on this spot from the most ancient times (Strub. viii. p. 353), and here a temple was doubtless built, even before the Olympic games became a Pan-Hellenic festival. But after the conquest of Pisa and the surrounding cities by the Eleians in B. c. 572, the latter determined to devote the spoils of the conquered cities to the erection of a new and splendid temple of the Olympian god. (Pans. v. 10. §§ 2. 3.) The architect was Libon of Elis. The temple was not, however, finished till nearly a century afterwards, at the period when the Attic school of art was supreme in Greece, and the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis had thrown into the shade all previous works of art. Shortly after the dedication of the Parthenon, the Eleians invited Pheidias and his school of artists to remove to Elis, and adorn the Olympian temple in a manner Worthy of the king of the gods. l'heidias probably remained at Olympia for four or five years from about u. c. 437 to 434 or 433. The colossal statue of Zeus in the cello, and the figures in the pediments of the temple were executed by Pheidias and his associates. The pictorial embellishments were the work of his relative l‘anaenus. (Strab. viii. p. 354) [Coinp. Diet. ofb‘iogr. Vol.1". p. 248.] Pausanias has given a minute description ofthe temple (v. 10); and its site, plan, and dimensions have been well ancertained by the excavations of the French Commission of the Morea. The foundations are now exposed to view; and several fine fragments of the sculptures, representing the labours of Hercules, are now in the museum of the Louvre. The temple stood in the south-western portion of the Altis, to the right hand of the Pompic entrance. It was built of the native limestone, which Pausanias called pores, and surface of stucco, which gave it the appearance of marble. It was ofthe Doric order, and a periptcral hexastyle building. Accordingly it had six columns in the front and thirteen on the sidcs. The columns were fluted, and 7ft. 4in. in diameter, a size greater than that ofany otlter existing columns of a Grecian temple. The length of the temple was 230 Greek feet, the breadth 95, the height to the summit of the pediment 68. The roof was covered with slabs of Pentelic marble in the form of tiles. At each end of the pcdimcnt stood a gilded vase, and on the apex a gildcd statue of Nike or \"ictory: below which was a golden shield with the head of Medusa in the middle, dedicated by the Lacedacmonians on account of their victory over the Athenians at Tansgra in B. C. 457. The two peditncnts were filled with figures. The eastern pediment had I. statue of lens in the centre, with Ocnomaua on his right and Pelops on his left. prepared to contend in the chariot~race; the figures on either side consisted of their attendants, and in the angles were the two rivers, Clsdeus to the right of Zeus, and Alpheius
which was covered in the more finished parts by a '
to his left. In the western pediment was the con-' test of the Centanrs and the Lapithae, Peirithons occupying the central place. On the metopes over the doom at the custom and western ends the labours of Hercules were represented. In its interior construction the temple resembled the Parthenon. The cells consisted of two chambers, of which the eastern contained the statue, and the western was called the Opisthodomus. The colossal statue of Zeus, the master<Work of Pheidias, was made of ivory and gold. It stood at the end of the front chamber of the cello, directly facing the entrance, so that. it at. once showed itself in all its grandeur to a spectator entering the temple. The approach to it was between a double row of columns, supporting the roof. The god was seated on a magnificent throne adorned with sculptures, a full description of which, as well as of the statue, has been given in another place. [Diet ofBinyr. Vol. 111. p. 252.] Behind thc Opisthodomns of the temple was the Callislepbamu or wild olive tree, which furnished the garlands of the Olympic victors. (Pans. v. 15. § 3.)
GROUND PLAN OF THE OLYMPIEIUM.
2. The Pelopium stood opposite the temple of Zeus, on the other side of the Pompic way. Its position is defined by Pausanias, who says that it stood to the right of the entrance into the temple of Zeus and to the north of that building. It was an enclosure, containing trees and statues, having an opening to the west. (Pans. v. 13. § 1.)
3. The Heraeum was the most important temple in the Altis after that of Zeus It was also a Doric peripteral building. lts dimensions are unknown. Pausanias says (v. 16. § 1) that it Was 63 feet in length; but this is clearly a mistake, since no peripteral building was so small; and the numerous statues in the cella, described by Pausanius, clearly show that it must have been of considerable dimensions. The two most remarkable monuments in the Hemertm were the table, on which were placed the garlands prepared for the victors in the Olympic contest“, and the celebrated chest: of Cypsclus, covered with figures in relief, of which Paltsunllts‘ has given an elaborate description (v. 17—19). We learn from a passage of Dion Chrysostom (Orat. xi. p. 163), cited by Leake, that this chest stood in the opisthmloinus of the Heraeum ; whence we may infer that the cells of the temple consisted of two apartments.
4. The Great Altm- of Zeus is described by Pansanias as equidistant from the Pelnpium and the Heraeum, and as being in front of them both.
(Pans. v. 13. § 8.) Leake places the Hemeun't near the Pompic entrance of the Stadium, and supposes that it faced eastward; accordingly be conjcctures that the altar was opposite to the backt'ronts of the Pelopium and the Hemeum. The total height of the altar was 22 feet. It had two platforms, of which the upper was made of the cin~ tiers of the thighs sacrificed on this and other altars.
5. The Column of Oenomaus stood between the great altar and the temple of Zeus. It was said to have belonged to the house of Oenomaus, and to have been the only part of the building which escaped when it was burnt by lightning. (Pans. v. 20. § 6.)
6. The Jlletroum, or temple of the Mother of the Gods, was a large Doric building, situated within the Altis (Pans. v. 20. § 9.) It is placed by Leake to the left of the Pompic. Way nearly opposite the Heraeum.
7. The Prytaneium is placed by Pausanias within the Altis, near the Gymnasium, which was outside the sacred enclosure (v. 15. § 8.)
8. The Bouleuterion, or Council-House, seems to have been near the l’rytaneium. (Pans. v. 23. § 1, 24. § 1.)
9. The Philippeium. a circular building, erected. by Philip after the battle of Chaeroneia, was to the left in proceeding from the entrance of the Allis to the Prytaneium. (Pans. v. 17. § 4, v. 20. § 10.)
10. The Theecoleon, a building belonging to the Sandbox: or superintendents of the sacrifices (Pans. v. 15. § 8). Its position is uncertain.
11. The Hz'ppodamium, named from Hippodamcia, who was buried here, was within the Altis ncnr the l'ompic Way. (Paus. vi. 20. § 7.)
12. The temple Q)" the Olympian Eileilltyia (Lucina) appears to have stood on the neck of Mount Cronius. (Pans. vi. 20. § 2.)
13. The Temple of the Olympian Aphrodite was near that of Eileithyia. (l’aus. vi. 20. § 6.)
14. The Thesauri or Treasuries, ten in number, were, like those at Delphi, built by ditl'erent cities, for the reception of their dedicatory ofi‘erings. T ht-y are described by Pausanias as standing to the north of the l-Ieraeum at the foot of Mount CroniusI upon a platform made of the stone poros (Pans. vi. 19. § 1).
15. Zones, statues of Zeus, erected from the produce of fines levied upon athletae. who had violated the regulations of the games. They stood upon a stone platform at the foot of Mount Cronius, to the left of a person going from the Metroum to the Stadium. (Paus. v. 21. § 2.)
16. The Studio of Plteidias, which was outside the Altis, and near the l’ompic entrance. (Pans. v. 15. § 1.)
17. The Leom'a'aeum, built by Leonidas, a native, was near the Studio of Pheidius. Here the Roman magistrates were lodged in the time of Pausanias (v. 15. l, 2).
18. The Gymnasium, also outside the Altis, and near the northern entrance into it. (Pans. vi. 21. §2.) Near the Gymnasium was (19) the Palaestra.
20 and 21. The Stadium and the Hippodrome were two of the most important sites at Olympia. as together they formed the place of exhibition for all the Olympic contests. Their position cannot be determined with certainty; but as they appear to have formed a continued area. from the circular end of the Stadium to the further extremity of the Hippodrome, the position assigned to them by Leake is the most probable. He places the circular and of
the Stadium at the foot of the heights to the NE. of the summit of Mount Cronius, and the further end of the Hippodrome on the bank of the Alpheius.
The Stadium is described by Pansanias as a mound of earth, upon which there was a seat for the Hellanodicae, and over against it an altar of marble, on which sat the priestess of Demeter Chamyne to behold the games. There were two entrances into the Stadium, the Pompic and the Secret. The latter, through which the Hellanodicae and the agonistae entered, was near the Zanes; the former probably entered the area in front of the rectilinear extremity of the Stadium. (Pans. vi. 20. § 8, seq.) In proceeding towards the Hippodrome from that part. of the Stadium where the Hellauodicae sat was the Hippaphésis or starting place of the horses (1‘7 a¢EGIS 1131/ Humor). In form it resembled the prow of a ship, the embolus or beak being turned towards the racecourse. Its widest part adjoined the stoa. of Agnaptus. At the end of the embolus was a brazen dolphin standing upon a pillar. Either side of the IIippaphesis was more than 400 feet in length, and contained apartments, which those who were going to contend in the horse- races obtained by lot. Before the horses a cord was extended as a barrier. An altar was erected in the middle of the prow, on which was an eagle with outstretched wings. The superintendent of the race elevated this eagle by means of machinery, sons to be seen by all the spectators, and at the same time the dolphin fell to the ground. Therenpon the first barriers on either side, near the stoa of Agnnptus, were removed, and then the other barriers were withdrawn in like manner in succession, until all the horses were in line at the embolus.
One side of the Hippodrome was longer than the other, and was formed by a mound of earth. There was a passage through this side leading out of the Hippodrome; and near the passage was a. kind of circular altar, called Taraxippus (TapdEnriros), or the terrifier of horses, because the horses were frequently seized with terror in passing it, so that cha
l. ()lympieium. I 19. Palaestra.
2. Pelopmm. . ‘20. Stadium.
3. Heraeum. l 21. Hippodrome:
4. Great Altar of Zeus. ‘ n a. Secret entrance to the Stadium. ' 5. Pillar of Oenomaus. I b b. Pumpic entrance to the Stadlum. 6. Metroum. , c. Stoa of Agnaptus.
7. Prytamcium. ‘ d. Hippaphéais.
8. Bouleuterinn. , c r. Chambers for the horses.
9. Phillppeium. _ j. Embolul.
ll. Hippodamillm. ) Taraxippua.
12. Temple of Eilelthyla. . Passage out of the Hippodrome. 13. Temple of Aphrodite. i 1'. drama. 14. Treasuries. 1:. Temple of Demeter Chamyne. 15. Zanes. l 1. Artificial side of the Hippodrome. 16. Studio of Pheidiaa. m m. Natural height.
18. Gymnasium. 22. Theatre.
- . ‘ A 7- 4y