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remark, that there are some modern tongues which in this respect are much more inflexible than ours.
The next example I shall produce is very similar to the former, as in it the substantive verb is preceded by the participle passive, and followed by the nominative. In the acclamations of the people on our Saviour's public entry into Jerusalem, the historian informs us, that they cried out, " Blessed is he that cometh in the name of " the Lord*.” Instead of this, say,
Instead of this, say, “ He that cometh in “ the name of the Lord is blessed ;" aud by this alteration in the order of the words, apparently trifling, you convert a fervid exclamation into a cold aphorism.
The third example shall be of an active verb, preceded by the accusative, and followed by the nominative. It may be proper to observe by the way, that unless one of these is a pronoun, such an arrangement is scarcely admissible in our language. These cases in our nouus, not being distinguished by inflection, as they are in our pronouns, are solely ascertained by place. But to come to the proposed example, we are informed by the sacred historian, that when Peter and John ordered the cripple who sat begging at the beautiful gate of the temple, to look on them, he looked at them very earnestly, expecting to receive something from them. Then Peter said, “ Silver and gold have I none, but such as I have, give " I thee; in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, arise - and walk t.” Here the wishful look and expectation
Le Clerc ? " La Diane des Ephesiens est une grande deesse." How deficient that of Beausobre ? " La grande Diane des Ephesiens." How ridiculous that of Saci ? « Vive la grande Diane des Ephesiens."
• Matt. xxi. 9° Gr. Evroymuesvos o sexojusvos svorspeari Kups. Lat. Valg. Eras. Bez. “ Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.” Cast. “ Benne sit ei que “ venit," &c. Ital. Diod. “ Benedetto colui che viene nel nome del Signiore Fr. Le Clerc, Beaus. Saci, " Beni soit celui qui vient au nom du Seigneur."
+ Acts iii. 6. Gr. A gyugoy xos xqurlov ex vragxu pun o de xw, FYTru didas E) osapallo Inox Xpose T8 Nalware erysipai rai TICKETS. Lat. Vul. Eras. Bez. “ Argen. “ tum et aurum non est mihi ; quod autem habeo, hoc tibi dn. In momine Jesu Christi Nazareni, surge et ambula.” Castaglio hath not adhered so closely to the order of the words in the original, but hath in this and some other places, for the sake of latinity, weakened the expression : “ Nec argentum mihi nec aurum " est ; sed quod habeo, hoc tibi do. In nomine," &c. It would seem that neither the Italian language nor the French can admit so great a latitude in arranging the words ; for in these the vivacity resulting from the order is not only
of the beggar, naturally leads to a vivid conception of Le that which was the object of his thoughts, and this con
ception as naturally displays itself in the very form of El the declaration made by the apostle. But as every thing
u is best judged by comparison, let us contrast with this .] the same sentence arranged according to the rigid rules 21 of grammar, which render it almost a literal translation c. of the Italian and French versions quoted in the margin, Ex“ I have no gold and silver; but I give thee that which
“ I have : In the name of” The import is the same, but the expression is rendered quite exanimate. Yet the sentences differ chiefly in arrangement, the other difference in composition is inconsiderable.
There is another happy transposition in the English version of the passage under review, which, though peculiar to our version, deserves our notice, as it contri. butes not a little to the energy of the whole. I mean not only the separation of the adjective none from its substantives silver and gold, but the placing of it in the end of the clause, which, as it were, rests upon it. “ Silver and gold have I none.” For here, as in several other instances, the next place to the first, in respect of emphasis, is the last. We shall be more sensible of this by making a very small alteration on the composition and structure of the sentence, and saying, 6 Silver and “gold are not in my possession;" which is manifestly weaker.
My fourth example should be one wherein the verb occupies the first place in the sentence, which often happens in the ancient languages with great advantage in point of vivacity. But this cannot frequently obtain in English, without occasioning an ambiguity; the first place when given to the verb, being, by the rules of our
weakened but destroyed. Diod. " Io non ho ne argento ne oro; ma quel che ho, “ jo t'el dono: nel nome di Jesu Christo il Nazareo, levati e camina."" 'Le Clerc, Beausobre, “ Je n'ai ni or ni argent; mais ce que j'ai, je vous le donne: au nom • de Jesus Christ de Nazareth, levez-vous et marchez.”. Saci's is the same, except in the last member, where by transposing the words, “ au nom de Jesus Christ de Nazareth,” and putting them after “ levez-vous,” he hath altered the sense, and made that a circumstance attending the action of the lame man, which was intended to express the authority whereby the apostle gave the order.
syntax, appropriated to distinguish these three things, a command, as “ Stay not here ;” a question, as “ IVcre " they present ;" and a supposition, as “ Had I known," from an assertion, as “ Ye stay not here ;" “ They were
present ;” and “ I had known.” A few trifling phrases, as said he, replied they, are the sole exceptions in the simple tenses, at least in prose. In some instances, however, in the compound tenses the precede without giving rise to any double meaning. In such cases it is not the auxiliary or the substantive verb that begins the sentence, as in supposition and interrogation, but the infinitive of the principal verb in the active voice, and the participle in the passive, as in expressions like these,“ Go I must, whatever may ensue.”
“ Avoid it he could not by any means." “ An instance in the passive voice bath been given in the second example. I shall here observe, that in one passage of scripture our translators, by not attending to this small circumstance, that the import of the passive verb lies in the participle, have, without necessity, not only given up the emphatical arrangement, ! but, in order to be literal, have copied a figure, which, though forcible in the original, is, in the place assigned it in the translation, rather unnatural and insignificant. The passage alluded to is this, “ Another angel follow
ed, saying Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city*." Here, as it was the event itself that chiefly occupied the angel's mind, the verb in the Greek with great propriety begins the proclamation : Again, as it was an event
• Rev. xiv. 8. Gr. Erisso, inice Baburus in sodus peeyaa n. As the expression is taken from Isaiah xxi. 9. the same order is found in the Hebrew, Saarbrah2. Al the Latin translations that I have seen, have followed the same order. “ Ceri“ dit, cecidit Babylon, urbs illa magna." Le Clerc and Saci in the French, both agree with the arrangement in the English. Babylone est tombee; elle est • tombee ; cette grande ville." Beausobre's version in that tongue is rather better, as it comes nearer the order of the words in the Greek. He begins wi:h the pronoun, and puts the name after the verb. “ Elle est tombee, elle est tom
bee, Babylona la grande ville.” This, I believe, is as near the original as the idiom of the French will permit
. ' In the Italian, Diodati hath preserved entire. ly, the vivacity resulting both from the disposition of the words, and the redu. plication of the verb, and hath given the passage that turn which the English interpreters might and should have given it: « Caduta, caduta e Babilonia la “ gran cita.” It is evident that in this matter the Italian allows more liberty than the French, and the English more than the Italian. The truth of this oba servation will appear more fully afterwards.
of so surprising a nature, and of such mighty consequence, it was natural to attempt, by repeating the word, to rivet it in the minds of the hearers, ere he proceeded any further. The words is fallen in our language, answer to the single word by which the verb is expressed in the original. Our translators were sensible they could not say, “ Is fallen, is fallen, Babylon that great city," This could convey no meaning, being neither affirmation nor interrogation, hypothesis nor wish. For this reason they have preferred the colder arrangement, prescribed by grammarians, though by so doing they have also lost the effect of the reduplication. A little attention to the genius of our tongue would have shewn them, that all the effect, both of the order and of the figure, would have been preserved by saying, “ Fallen, fallen, is Baby“ Jon the great city *.”
Often a particle, such as an adverb or preposition belonging to a compound verb (for it matters not in which way you consider it), emphatically begins the sentence, as in that formerly quoted for another purpose. Up
goes my grave Impudence to the maid.” In the particle up, that circumstance is denoted, which particularly marks the impudence of the action. By the help of it too, the verb is made to precede the nominative, which otherwise it could not do. In negations it holds very generally, that the negative particle should be joined to the verb. Yet in some cases the expression is greatly enlivened, and consequently the denial appears more determinate, by beginning the sentence with the adverb. “ Not every one," says our Saviour, " that “ saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the king" dom of heaven ; but he that doth the will of my fa" ther who is in heaven t.” Vary but the position of
• Somewhat similar is the admirable example we have in this passage of Virgil
Me, me, adsum qui feci, in me convertite ferrum. Æn. L. ix. The emphasis here is even the stronger, that the pronoun so happily begun with and repeated is perfectly irregular, it being quite detached from the construction of the sentence.
# Mat. vii. 21. Gr. Ou Tas é asywny pol, Kupu Kupse, susidevoiler sig omy Ceoiluas TWs sparar. All the Latin translators, however differently they express the sense, agree in beginning with the negative particle. So also doth Diodati in the Ital. ian : “ Non chiunque mi dice, Signore, Signore, entrera nel regno de' cieli." Not so the French. Le Clerc az.d Bi ausobre thus : “ Tous ceux que me dis
the negative in the first member, and say,
“ Every one " that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall not enter into “ the kingdom of heaven," and you will flatten the expression exceedingly. On so slight a circumstance in the arrangement does the energy of a sentence sometimes depend. We have some admirable examples of the power of this circumstance in Shakespeare. In the conference of Malcom with Macduff; after the former had asserted, that he himself was so wicked, that even Macbeth, compared with him, would appear innocent as a lamb, Macduff replies with some warmth,
Not in the legions
The arrangement in this sentence is admirably adapted to the speaker's purpose ; whereas, if you dispose the words in the usual manner, and say, “A more damned “ devil in the legions of horrid hell cannot come to top “ Macbeth in ills ;" we shall scarcely be persuaded that the thought is the same. If it were needful to multiply examples, I might' easily show that other adverbs, particularly those of time and of place, when such circumstances require special notice, may, with great advantage to the energy, appear foremost in the sentence.
I proceed to observe, that when a sentence begins with a conjunction, whether it be expressed in one word or more, with naming or titling the persons addressed, with a call to attention, or even with a term that is little more than an expletive, the place immediately following such phrase, title, or connective, will often give the same advantage to the expression that fills it, as in other cases the first place will do. The first term or phrase is considered only as the link which connects the sentence with that which went before ; or, if it have no relation to the preceding, as an intimation that something
“ent, Seigneur, Seigneur, n'entreront pas dans le royaume du ciel.” Saci thus, « Ceux qui me disent, Seigneur, Seigneur, n'entreront pas tous dans le roy. • aume des cieux.”