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fluence their hygienic condition. These may be considered under three heads: camjis, in the field, consisting of tents or huts; barracks for those in garrisons or camps of instruction, and hospital* for the sick or wounded. In camp, there«are several descriptions of tent used, the principal of which are the Wedge tent, now falling into disuse from its inconvenience; the Sibley tent, conoid in form with a movable cowl at the top, so arranged as to be easily shifted according to the direction of the wind, or a modification of it made by fastening three poles together at one end, the other ends being separated so as to form a large tripod; and the Bell tent, so named from its form, and which is ventilated by a window cut in one side near the top, which can be closed by a canvas flap. These tents are in use by the men; the Sibley is intended for fifteen infantry soldiers, or thirteen mounted men, too large a number for effective ventilation or comfort. The officers' tent is square, and has a canvas wall four feet high, which can be raised all around. It has also a fly or movable canvas flap on each side of the roof, which aids in preventing the heat of the sun or the rain from entering. The hospital tent is larger and higher, being 15 feet square and 12 feet high, with a wall 4^ feet high, and has a heavy fly. The ends are open, and it is so arranged that two or more can be joined together, forming a continuous ward. On the march the troops sometimes use the small shelter tent or tent d'alri, composed of canvas sheets and jointed sticks, of which each one of the four soldiers who are to occupy it carries his portion. These afford a slight protection from rains and heavy dews at night, but most of the soldiers prefer sleeping in the open air. "Where a camp is somewhat permanent, the soldiers often build huts. These are generally large enough to contain 20 men, and should, but do not always, have a ridge ventilation. There is a great tendency to overcrowding in the camps, by placing them too ciosely on the plot selected for a cam]). The army regulations, based on the number of men in the old Wedge tent, prescribed a density of population equal to 86,448 to the square mile, a far greater number than are crowded into the same space in either London or New York. With the Sibley tent, the application of this rulo would have led to a density nearly three times greater than this. The evil effects of such overcrowding were soon exhibited in tho increase of sickness in the camps, and the space occupied has been greatly enlarged by the commanding generals. The police regulations of tho camp must bo strictly enforced, or there is invariably a serious increase of illness. Every tent or hut must have a trench around it, the streets and open spaces must be carefully swept every day, and all garbage and filth carried off, the latrines placed to leeward of tho camp, and a foot of fresh earth thrown on them daily, fires built in tho open spaces, as often as military necessity will admit, tents struck and moved to another
position, and the earth on which they stood allowed to sun, and the sides of the tents raised to admit fresh air. With the observance of these precautions, a camp life is favorabk rather than prejudicial to health.
The attention to ventilation, the avoidance of overcrowding, and the careful observance of cleanliness, so requisite in camp, are still more necessary in barracks, and in addition to these, there should be strict regard given to bathing and ablution by every inmate. Most of the barracks have ample provision for this, and it should be enforced, if necessary, as a matter of discipline.
While great attention lias been paid to the hygienic condition of the camps and barracks, a work in which the Medical Inspectors of the Sanitary Commission have rendered valuable service to the army and to the medical department, that department has performed a Herculean labor in the erection and fitting up of 233 general hospitals, in different parts of the country, beside a very considerable number of post and garrison hospitals. These hospitals are generally temporary structures, intended to last, without material repairs, for ten years, but in their vast extent, their admirable plans, and their completeness of outfit, they have never been approached by those of any other nation. At tho commencement of the war, the War Department had no hospitals, save a few post and garrison establishments of antiquated design, and whoso aggregate capacity was less than that of a singlo one of the magnificent structures sinco erected. In the battles of the spring of '18G2, though new hospitals were erected with the utmost rapidity, consistent witli their thorough adaptation to the wants of the patients, they were inadequate to accommodate the tens of thousands of the sick and wounded who needed care, and the Government was compelled to solicit the admission of its patient sufferers into the civil hospitals in the larpe cities. In this way many were provided for hi Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Louisville. Tho pushing forward of tho new hospitals to completion, as well as the erection of others, meantime occupied the energies of the Quartermaster-General and the Surgeon-General, both men of extraordinary executive ability, and in the autumn of 1862, they were able to announce their readiness to accommodate in their own hospitals all their sick and wounded. In the construction and administration of those hospitals tho Surgeon-General laid down these principles to be observed:
1st. That they should be capable of being well ventilated.
2d. That each should be sufficiently capacious for the number of inmates it was to contain.
3d. That they should admit of good drain.'ige.
4th. That they should be provided with a sufficient number of windows.
5th. That the kitchen, laundry, and other offices of administration, should be separated from the wards, well arranged, and of ample size.
6th. That efficient water-closets, ablution, and bathing accommodations should be provided.
7th. That they should be amply supplied with water and gas, or other means of illumination.
8th. That the furniture of all kinds should be of suitable quality.
9th. That the officers and attendants should hive their proper respective duties assigned to t.iem, and that they should be in number sufficient for the wants of the sick.
10th. That proper rules should be established for the government of the hospital, for the diet <>f the inmates, and for preserving order and an e Scient state of police.
The idea of a hospital, conceived by most non-professional readers, is that of a huge barrack-looking building or buildings, three or four stories in height, gloomy in appearance, and into whose cavernous 'walls many a poor unfortunate enters, but very few return to the life and bustle of the outer world. This typical hospital is as far as possiblo from the conception of Surgeon-General Hammond, or the able medical directors and surgeons who have been his coadjutors in planning and superintending the construction of the General Hospitals of the Army. They started with certain fundamental ideas of construction, which have been carried through all their hospitals. The first of these was ridge ventilation, or the supplying a way of ogress for the foul air of the ward by an opening of from ten inches to three feet at the ridge or apex of the roof, protected from the admission of rain, snow, or violent winds by a false roof, raised four inches above the true one, and projecting over it on each side about two feet. A perforated iron plate near the floor and behind each bed admits the fresh air, which passes thus upwards, and forces the foul air through the roof opening. This forms the summer ventilation. In winter the fresh air is admitted around the stove from below, and passing between the stove and an outer casing of zinc, which surrounds it, is distributed through the room; while a large, square wooden tube open at the bottom, and extending to the roof, receives and encloses the pipe of the stove to its termination above the ridge, and thus becomes the ventilator of that portion of the ward.
Another now feature in the construction of these hospitals was the entire separation of tho wards from the administrative portion of the hospital, and tho making of each ward a single one story pavilion, removed so far from every other ward or building, that it could have the benefit of tho sun, and the free circulation of pnre air on both sides of it, throughout tho day, while at the same time one end of each ward opened from a corridor which would serve as a covered hall for exorcise to the convalescing Patients, and through which thero was communication with the administrative buildings. Ihe pavilions were to have their long diameter, where possible, a north and south line. An
other point insisted upon was that no patient should have less than 1,000 (except under very peculiar circumstances not less than 1,200) cubio i'eet of space, and the air of this, by the system of ventilation, constantly changing.
The pavilions were to bo raised at least one foot, generally two, above the ground; tho floors to be coated with a mixture of beeswax and oil, to prevent any liquid from soaking into them; the baths and water closets to bo at the extreme end of the pavilions, and form an angle with them, and to bo connected with such a system of sewerage as would convey all offensive matters and odors away instantly. A ward or pavilion was not to contain more than fifty-two beds, and these were to bo placed in pairs with threo feet space betweon the two, and each pair to be placed between the windows; the two beds occupying an average space of fifteen feet in the length of the ward, and of seven and a half feet in width, and a passage way of ten feet to extend through the middle of the ward for its whole length, thus making tho width of each ward twenty-fivo feet, and its length, if it contains fifty-two beds, about two hundred and twenty feet; tho additional twenty-fivo feet being occupied with water closets, scullery, &c, at one end, and wardmasters', nurses' rooms, and mess room at the other. In tho practical application of these principles, it has been found better not to have tho wards quite so long, and they generally contain only thirty-six or forty-eight beds (some only twonty-four); or, if there aro fifty-two, they occupy somewhat less than fifteen feet to the pair, the first largo hospital built upon the principles presented by the surgeon-general, was tho West Philadelphia Hospital, situated at tho intersection of Forty-fourth and Spruce streets, half a mile outside of the limits of the city of Philadelphia. "We subjoin an engraving (fig. 1) of the general plan. The corridors are each 860 feet long, 14 feet wide, and 13 feet high, and servo as mess rooms for the pavilion. Thero aro 34 pavilions, b b b, each 24 feet wide, and 13 feet high at the eaves; they are now of unequal length, ranging from 150 to 250 feet. Between tho corridors is the administrative building, a. There are three kitchens, c c c; two laundries, d d; a chapel, e\ store rooms, f f\ a mess room for special occasions, g\ two buildings for officers' quarters, h h; boiler room, i; residence of surgeon in charge, h; water tanks, I; barber shop and printing office, m and n; boiler and tank, o; snioking rooms, p p; reading and lecture room, q; knapsack room, r; guard room, s; stable, t; guard, «. The pavilions aro 21 feet apart, which is too close by at least ten foot. The building is of wood, lathed and plastered on the outside. Its cost, aside from furniture, exceeded $200,000. It.has 3,124 beds. The number of medical officers is fifty-two, besido eighteen medical cadets, and of cooks, nurses, and other attendants, four hundred and sixtyfour. There are also three chaplains.
a ward pavilion in detail: a is the ward room, occupying 150 feet in length of the pavilion, and twenty feot wide, containing fifty-two beds; 6, the mess room; c, scullery; d, bath room; e, water closet; /, ablution room; g, wardmaster's room. The pavilions aro four or five feet narrower than they should bo, and when the beds aro all full there aro but 960 cubic feet of air to each patient; but as this is constantly changed by the admirable ventilation, it is nearly sufficient. The number of beds is 3,320. There is a force of 622 officers, attendants, guard, &c, attached to the hospital. The cost of the buildings was over $250,000. The McCIellan Hospital, situated in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, though smaller (1,040 beds), is, perhaps, more nearly perfect than any other yet erected. The corridor is of a flattened ovoidal form, from the ends of which the pavilions project. These pavilions are wider, larger, and farther apart than at the Mower Hospital. The administrative building is in the centre and connected with the corridor by two straight passage ways. In the ground-plan (fig. 3), a is the main corridor; bbb, wards; c, administrative building, two stories high; d, kitchen; e, laundry; f, clothing and guard rooms; g, engine room; h, stable; i, provision and knapsack store room; 1% quarters of medical officers in charge.
_Wo give below ground-plans of two other military hospitals of large size, each arranging the pavilions in a different way, but all observing the same principles. The first is the Hammond General Hospital, at Point Lookout (fig. 4), in which sixteen pavilions project from a circular corridor. The administrative building is the wide structure at the upper side of the circle, and the kitchen, laundry, guard room, dead house, &c, are in the centre. The pavilions here are 40 feet apart at the corridor, and 75
feet at the farther end. They nro 145 feet long, 25 feet wide, and 14 feet high to tho eaves, and 18 to tho ridge. Tho ventilation is perfect. Each patient has 1,110 cubic feot of space. The second, the Lincoln General Hospital, at Washington city (fig. 5), has its pavilions placed en echelon, along a corridor, forming two sides of an acute-angled triangle. Tho administrative building is at tho npex, and tho kitchen, &c, inclosed within tho angle. This hospital accommodates 1,200 patients. By this arrangement a thorough ventilation of each ward is secured, while all the wards have tho same direction and receive the rays of tho sun at the same time—a matter of considerable importance.
In tho West, large hospitals on somo one of these, or similar plans, have been erected at St. Louis, Louisville, Nashville, Madison, Evansville, and New Albany, Indiana; and others are building at Madison, 'Wisconsin; Davenport, Iowa; and other points.
For field hospitals, the hospital tent is undoubtedly preferable to any building. Where a camp is somewhat permanent, the improved Crimean tent with double walls, ridge ventilation, and the admission of pure air near the floor, answers a good purpose. In both, special attention should lie paid to ventilation, and over-crowding carefully avoided.
In the lighting and warming of hospitals, special care is now taken to avoid vitiating tho air by the gases produced by combustion. Where it is possible, illuminating gas is used, but the vitiated air, and carbonic acid gas, are conducted off by chimneys in such a way as to increase the ventilation of the ward. If gas cannot be obtained, the vegetable oils or paraffine, spermaceti, or wax candles aro preferablo to any other modes of illumination. Coal or petroleum oils, cainpheue and burning fluid, ir