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fact, two temples united in one. It has 18 columns in each side, and is 180 feet long by 80 in width. The third temple, which is at some distance from the other two, nearer to the N. gate of the town, and is commonly known as the Temple of Ceres or Vesta (though there is no reason for either name), is much smaller than the other two, being only 108 feet in length by 48 in breadth: it presents no remarkable architectural peculiarities, but is, as well as the so-called Basilica, of much later date than the great temple. Mr. Wilkins, indeed, would assign them both to the Roman period: but it is difficult to reconcile this with the history of the city, which never appears to have been a place of much importance under the Roman rule. (Swinburne's Travels, vol. ii. pp. 131—138; Wilkins's Magna Graecia, pp. 55—67.)

The other remains are of little importance. The vestiges of an amphitheatre exist near the centre of the city; and not far from them are the fallen ruins of a fourth temple, of small size and clearly of Roman date. Excavations have also laid bare the fuundations of many houses and other buildings, and the traces of a portico, which appear to indicate the site of the ancient forum. The remains of an aqueduct are also visible outside the walls; and numerous tombs (some of which are said to be of much interest) have been recently brought to light.

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PLAN OF PAESTUM.

A. Temple of Neptune.

B. Temple, commonly called Basilica.

C. Smaller temple, of Vesta (?).

D. Amphitheatre.

V ■ Other ruins of Roman time.
F F. Gates of the city.
G. River Sabo.

The small river which (as already noticed by Strata), by stagnating under the walls of Paestum, rendered its situation so unhealthy, is now called the Snls, i : its ancient name is not mentioned. It forms extensive deposits of a calcareous stone, resembling the Roman travertin, which forms an excellent building material, with which both the walls and edifices of the city have been constructed. The malaria, which caused the site to be wholly abandoned during the middle ages, has already sensibly diminished, since the resort of travellers has again attracted a small population to the spot, and given rise to some cultivation.

About five miles from Paestum, at the mouth of the Silarus or Sele, stood, in ancient times, a celebrated temple of Juno, which, according to the tradition adopted both by Straho and Pliny, was founded by the Argonauts under Jason (Strab. vi. p. 252;

Plin. iii, 5. s. 10). It is probable that the worship of the Argive Hera, or Juno, was brought hither by the Troezenian colonists of Posidonia, Pliny places the temple on the N. bank of the Silarus; Strata, probably more correctly, on the S.

The extensive gulf which extends from the promontory of Minerva (the Pvnta della CampaneUa) to the headland called Posidium (the Pvnta di Licoao), and is now known as the Gulf of Salerno, derived its ancient name from the city of Paestum, being called by the Romans Paestanus Sinus, and by the Greeks the gulf of Posidonia (TlotrfiHuvtdTtjs K6\wos. (Strab. v. p. 251 ; Sinus Paestanus, Plin. iil 5. s. 10; Mel. ii. 4. § 9; Cic. ad Att. xvi. 6.) '[E.H.B.]

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PAESU'LA (IWouAci), a town of the Tnrdetfini in Hispania Baetiea. (Ptol. ii. 4. § 13.) It is identified by Ukert with Salteras but its site is uncertain.

PAESUS (riaiffoY), an ancient town on the coast of Trots, at the entrance of the Propontis, between Lampsacus and Parium. (Horn. II. ii. 828, v. 612; Herod, v. 117.) At one period it received colonists from Miletus; but in Strata's time (xiii. p. 589) the town was destroyed, and its inhabitants had transferred themselves to Lampsacus, which was likewise a Milesian colony. The town derived its name from the small river Paesus, on which it was situated, and now bears the name Beiram-Dere. [L. S.]

PAGAE. [peqae.]

PAGALA (ta UayaXa, Arrian, Indie, c. 23,) a place on the coast of Gedrosia, to which the fleet of Nearchus came after leaving the river Arabis. It seems probable that it is the same as a place called Segada or Pegala by Philostratus, and which was also in the country of the Oritae (Fit Apoll. iii. 54). It cannot be identified with any existing spot. [V.]

PAGASAE (Uayatral: also Pagasa, gen. -ae, Plin. iv. 8. s. 15; Mela, ii. 3. § 6; Prop. i. 20. 17: Eth. Uayatrmos, Pagasaeus), a town of Magnesia in Thessaly, situated at the northern extremity of the bay named after it. (JlayaatjTiKbs K6\ttos, Scylax, p. 24; Strab. ix. p. 438; Xlayaalrns, Dem. PkiL Epist 159; Pagasaeus Sinus, Mela, I. c; Pagasicus, Plin. I. c.) Pugasae is celebrated in mythology as the poit where Jason built the ship Argo, and from which he sailed upon his adventurous voyage: hence some of the ancients derived its name from the construction of that vessel (from vfryvvfu), but others from the numerous and abundant springs which were found at this spot. (Strab. ix. p. 436.) Pagasae I was conquered by Philip after the defeat of OnoI matchus. (Dem. 01 i. pp. 11, 13; Diod. xvi. 31, ', where fur Tlayai we ought probably to read liayaaaiJ} On the foundation of Demetrias in B. c. 290, Pagasae was one of the towns, whose inhabitants were transferred to the new city; bat after the Roman conquest Pagasae was restored, and again became an important place. In the time of Strabo it was the port of Pherae, which was the principal city in this part of Thessaly. Pagasae was 90 stadia from Pherae, and 20 from Iolcos. (Strab. I. c.) The ruins of the ancient city are to be seen near Volo, which has given the modern name to the bay. The acropolis occupied the summit of some rocky heights above Cope Angldstri, and at the foot of the rocks are many copious sources of water, of which Strabo speaks. But as these springs are rather saline to the taste, the city was provided in the Roman times with water from a distance by means of an aqueduct, the ruined piers of which are still a conspicuous object. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 368, seq.)

PAGASAEUS SINUS. [pagasas.] PAGE A E (UarypaC), a town of Syria, placed by Ptolemy in the district of Pieria, near the Syrian gates (v. 15. § 12), but more particularly described by Strabo, as adjoining Gindarus, the acropolis of Cyrrhestice. Pagrae he places in the district of Antiochis, and describes as a strong place near the ascent of the Amanus, on the Syrian side of the pass called Amanides Pylae [Vol. L p. 113], the Syrian gates of Ptolemy (/. a). The plain of Antioch, adds Strabo, lies under Pagrae, throngh which flows the Arceuthus, the Orontes, and the Labotas. In this plain is also the dyke of Meleager and the river Oenoparas. Above it is the ridge of Trapezae, so called from its resemblance to a table, on which Ventidius engaged Phranicates, general of the Parthians. (xvi. p. 751.) The place is easily identified in medieval and modern geography by the aid of Abulfeda and Pococke. Baghras, writes the former, has a lofty citadel, with fountains, and valley, and gardens; it is said to be distant 12 miles from Antioch, and as many from Iskanderim. It is situated on a mountain overhanging the valley of Charem, which Charem is distant two stages to the east. Baghras is distant less than a stage from Darbasdk, to the south. {TabulaSyriae, p. 120 ) Pococke is still more particular in his description. He passed within sight of it between Antioch and Baias. After passing Caramaut, he turned to the west between the hills. "We saw also, about 2 miles to the north, the strong castle of Pagras on the hills; this was the ancient name of it in the Itinerary [Antonini], in which it is placed 16 miles from Alexandria and 25 from Antioch; which latter is a mistake, for the Jerusalem Journey (calling it Pangrios) puts it more justly 16 miles from Antioch. As I have been informed, a river called' Sowda rises in the mountain to the west, runs under this place,... and falls into the lake of Antioch,"— also called from it Bahr-el-Souda, otherwise BahrAgoule, "the White Lake," from the colour of its waters. This Souda "seems to be the river Arceuthus mentioned by Strabo, immediately after Pagrae, as running through the plain of Antioch." {Observations on Syria, vol. ii. p. 173.) It is numbered 17 on the map of the golf of Issus. [Vol. I. p. 114.] [G. W.]

PAGUS (Ilaryos), a hill of Ionia, a little to the north of Smyrna, with a chapel of Nemesis and a spring of excellent water. (Paus. v. 12. § 1.) Modern travellers describe the hill as between 500 and 600 feet hiffh and as presenting the form of a cone from

which the point is cut off. (Hamilton, Researches, i. p. 53, foil.) [L. S.]

PAGYBI'TAE (n<ry»o7TO., Ptol. iii. 5. § 22), s people of European Sarmatia, whos* position cannot be made out. Schafarik (Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 211) connects the termination of their name with the word "gura," which the Poles and other Russo-Slavonian stocks use for " gora," 11 mountain." [E. B. J.]

PALA'CIUM (noAoW), a fortress in the Tauric Chersonese, built by Scilurus, king of, the TnuroScythians, to resist the attacks of Mithridates and his generals. (Strab. vii. p. 312.) The name, which it seems to have taken from his son Palacus (Strab. pp. 306, 309), still survives in the modern BalaJeldva, which Dr. Clark (Travels, vol. ii. p. 219) inaccurately supposes to be derived from the Genoese "Bella Clava," " The Fair Harbour." Its harbour was the Symbolon Portub (2vh$6\wv \iui'!v, Strab. vii. pp. 308, 309; Arrian, Peripl. p. 20; Ptol. iii. 6. § 2; Plin. iv. 26), or the Cembaro or Cembalo of the middle ages, the narrow entrance to which has been described by Strabo (I. c.) with such fidelity to nature. According to him, the harbour, together with that of Ctenus (Sebastopol), constituted by their approach an isthmus of 40 stadiu; this with a wall fenced the Lesser Peninsula, having within it the city of Chersonesus The SrNus Portuosus of Pomponius Mela (ii. 1. § 3), from the position he assigns to it between Criumetopon and the nest point to the W., can only agree with BalaUil ca, which is truly " Ku\bs AijuV et promontoriis duobus includitur." Dubois de Montpnreux ( Voyage autour du Caucase, vol. vi. pp. 115, 220), in accordance with his theory of transferring the wanderings of Odysseus to the waters of the Euxine, discovers in Balahlava the harbour of the giant Laestrygones (Odyss. x. 80—99); and this opinion has been taken up by more than one writer. It is almost needless to say that the poet's graphic picture of details freshly drawn from the visible world, is as true of other land-locked basins, edged in by cliffs, as when applied to the greyish-blue, or light red Jura rocks, which hem in the entrance to the straits of Balaklava. [E. B. J.]

PALAE, a town of Thrace, according to Lapie near Moussaldja. (Itin. Ant. p. 568.) [T. H. D.]

PALAEA. 1. (rioAoi'o), a place in the Troad on the coast, 130 stadia from Andeira. (Strab. xiii. p. 614.)

2. (IlaAoia mSftn), in Laconia. [pleiae.] PALAEBYBLOS (noAm'St/SAor, Stiab. xv. p. 755; naAaidSi/fAoi, Ptol. v. 15 § 21), a town of Phoenicia, which Strabo places after the Climax or promontory called Has- Watta-Salan, forming the N. extremity of the Bay of Kesruan. The site, which is unknown, was therefore probably between the Climax, in the steep cliffs of which it was necessary to cut steps—whence the name — and the river Lycus, among the hills which closely border the shore, and rise to the height of 1000 feet Ptolemy (/. c.) calls it a city of the interior, and the Peutinger Table places it 7 M. P. from Berytus, but does not give its distance from Byblos. (Kenrick, Phoenicia, p. 12. London, 1855.) [E. B. J.] PALAEMYNDUS. [myndiis.] PALAEOBYBLUS. [palabbyblus.] PALAEPHAKUS, or PALAEPHAKSALUS, that is either old Pharae orPherac..or old Pharsalus, according to the difference of the readings in the text of Livy (xxxii. 13).

PALAEPOLIS. [neapous.]

PALAERUS (Xla\atp6s: Eth. naXatpffc), A town on the W. coast of Acamania, on the Ionian sea, which is placed by Strabo between Leucas and Alyzia. Its exact site is unknown. Leake places it in the valley of Livddhi. In the first year of the Peloponnesian War (n. c. 431) Palaems was in alliance with the Athenians; and when the latter people took the neighbouring town of Sollium, which was a Corinthian colony, they gave both it and its territory to the inhabitants of Palaerus. (Thuc. ii. 30: Strab. x. pp. 450. 459.)

PALAESCEPSIS. [scepsis.]

PALAESIMUXDUM (Plin. vi. 22. s. 24), a great town in the ancient Taprobane (Ceylon), an account of which was given to the Romans by Annius Plocamns, who spent six months there during the reign of the emperor Claudius. According to him, it was situated on a river of the same name, which, flowing from a great internal lake, entered the sea by three mouths. It is probable that it is represented by the present Trincomalee, in the neighbourhood of which are the remains of enormous ancient works for the regulation of the course of the river—now called the MahaveUa-Ganga. (Brooke, Geogr. Joum. vol. iii. p 223.) The name occurs under the form Palaesimundu in the Periplus Mar. Erythr., and in Marcian's Peripl Maris Exteri as the name of the island itself. Thus the first speaks of vrjaos Acyofi&ii llaXai<Tifwv$&ov, but anciently Taprobane (c. 61. ed. Mflller); and the second states that the island of Taprobane was formerly called Palaesimundu, but is now called Salice (c. 35, ed. Muller). Ptolemy, and Stephanas, who follows him, state that the island Ud\ai fikv 4ko\uto "XiuAwliov, vvv 5i "XaKitcti (vii. 4. § 1). It is very probable, however, that this is in both cases to be considered as an erroneous reading, and that the true name was Palaesimundum. Lassen considers that it is derived from the Sanscrit words Pdli-Simanta, the Head of the Holy Law. (Dissert, de Insula Taprobane, p. 14.)' [V.]

PALAESTE, a town upon the coast of Chaonia in Epeirus, at the southern foot of the Acroceraunian peak, where Caesar landed from Brundusium, in order to carry on the war against Pompey in Illyria. (Lucan, Pilars, v. 460.) In this vicinity there is a modern village, called Paldsa; and there can therefore be little doubt that Lucan has preserved the real name of the place where Cae-ar landed, and that there is a mistake in the MSS. of Caesar, where the name is written Pharsalus. (Caes. B. C. iii. 6; com p. Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 5.)

PALAESTI'NA (riaAa«rrin> : Eth. UaXaivnv6i), the most commonly received and classical Dame for the country, otherwise called the Land of Canaan, Judaea, the Holy Land, &c This name has the authority of the prophet Isaiah, among the sacred writers; and was received by the earliest secular historians. Herodotus calls the Hebrews Syrians of Palestine; and states that the sea-border of Syria, inhabited, according to him, by Phoenicians from the lied Sea, was called Palaestina, as far as Egypt (vii. 89). He elsewhere places Syria Pahiestins between Phoenice and Egypt; Tyre and Sidon in Phoenice: Ascalon, Cadytis, Ienysiis in Palaestina Svriae; elsewhere he places Cadvtis and Axotus simply in Syria (iv. 39, iii. 5, ii. 116, 157, i. 105, iii. 5).

The name, as derived from the old inhabitants of the land, originally described only the sea-border south of Mount Carmel, occupied by the Philistines

from the very earliest period, and during the time of the Israelite kingdom (Exod. xiii. 17); although it would appear that this district was partially occupied by the cognate branches of the Canaanites. (Gen. x. 14, 19.) It afterwards came to be used of the inland parts likewise, and that not only on the west of the Jordan, but also to the east, as far as the limits of the children of Israel; and in this wider acceptation it will be convenient here to adopt it: although it deserves to be noted that even so lata as Josephus the name Palaestina was occasionally used in its more restricted and proper sense, viz. of that part of the coast inhabited of old by the Philistines. (See the passages referred to in Belaud, p. 41, who devotes the nine first chapters of his work to the names of Palestine, pp. 1—51.)

I. General Boundaries, Soil, Climate.

The general boundaries of Palestine, in this wider acceptation of the name, are clearly defined by the Mediterranean on the west, and the great desert, | now called the Hauran, on the east [hauran.] The country, however, on the east of Jordan was not originally designed to form part of the land of Israel; which was to have been bounded by the Jordan and its inland lakes. (Numb, xxxiv. 6, 10—12; comp. xxxii.) The northern and southem boundaries are not so clearly defined; bat it is probable that a more careful investigation and a more accurate survey of the country than has hitherto been attempted might lead to the recovery of many of the sites mentioned in the sacred books, and of natural divisions which might help to the elucidation of the geography of Palestine. On the south, indeed, recent investigations have led to the discovery of a well-defined mountain barrier, forming a natural wall along the south of Palestine, from the southern bay of the Dead Sea to the Mediterranean, along the line of which, at intervals, may be found traces of the names mentioned in the borders in the books of Moses and Joshua, terminating on the west with the river of Egypt ( Wady-eUArisk) at Rlunocorc.ra. (Numb, xxxiv. 3—5; comp. Josh. xv. 1—4; Williams, Holy CV*y,voI. i., appendix i., note 1, p. 463 —468.) On the northern border the mention of Mount Hor is perplexing; the point on the coast of "the great sea" is not fixed; nor are the sites of Haniath or Zedad determined. (Numb, xxxiv. 7, 8; comp. Ezek. xlvii. 15, 16.) But whatever account may be given of the name Hor in the northern borders of Palestine, the mention of Hermon as the northern extremity of the Israelites' conquests in Deuteronomy (iii. 9, v. 48) would point to that rather than to Lebanon, which Reland conjectures, as the mountain in question: while the fact that Sidon is assigned to the tribe of Asher (Judges, i. 21) would prove that the point on the coast must be fixed north of that border town of the Canaanites. (Gen. x. 19; Josh. xix. 28.) The present Hamah^ near to Horns (Einesa), is much too far north to fall in with the boundary of Palestine, and it must be conceded that we have not at present sufficient data to enable us to determine its northern limits. (Beland, lib. i. cap. 25, pp. 113—123.) To this it must be added that the limits of Palestine varied at different periods of its history, and according to the views of different writers (ib. cap. 26, pp. 124 —127), and that the common error of confounding the limits of the possessions of the Israelites with those assigned to their conquests has still further embarrassed the question. Assuming, however, those boundaries, as do the sacred writers and Joseph us, we may now take a general view of its physical features which have always so much to do with the formation of the character of the inhabitants. It is well described in its principal features, in the book of Deuteronomy, as "a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines,and fig-trees,and pomegranates: a land of oil olive, and honey; a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness; thou shalt not lack anything in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose nills thou mayest dig brass" (viii. 7—9; oomph xi. 11, 12). The great variety of its natural productions must be ascribed to the diversified character of its surface and the natural richness of its soil, which was obviously taxed to the utmost by the industry of its numerous inhabitants; for there is no part of the hill country, however at present desolate and depopulated, which does not bear evidences of ancient agricultural labour in its scarped rocks and ruined terrace-walls; while in the vicinity of its modern villages, the rude traditionary style of husbandry, unimproved and unvaried for 3000 years, enables the traveller to realise the ancient fertility of this highly favoured land, and the occupations of its inhabitants, as well as the genius of their poetry, all whose images are borrowed from agricultural and pastoral pursuits. As the peculiar characteristic feature in the geography of Greece is the vast proportion of its sea-border to its superficial area, so the peculiarity of the geography of Palestine may be said to be the undue proportion of mountain, or rather hill country, to its extent. In the districts of Tripoli, Akkay and Damascus, three descriptions of soil prevail. In general that of the mountainous parts of Palestine and central Syria is dry and stony, being formed in a great measure from the debris of rocks, of which a large portion of the surface of the districts of Lebanon, the Hauran, and Ledja, with tlje mountainous countries of Judaea, are composed; it is mixed, however, with the alluvium constantly brought down by the irrigating streams. The second and richest district are the plains of Esdraelon, Zabulon, Baalbek, part of the Decapolis, and Damascus, as well as the valleys of the Jordan and Orontea, which for the most part consist of a fat loamy soil. Being almost without a pebble, it becomes, when dry, a fine brown earth, like garden mould, which, when saturated by the rains, is almost a quagmire, and in the early part of the summer becomes a marsh: when cultivated, most abundant crops of tobacco, cotton, and grain are obtained. The remainder of the territory chiefly consists of the plains called Barr by the Arabs, and Midbar by the Hebrews, both words signifying simply a tract of land left entirely to nature, and being applied to the pasture tracts about almost every town in Syria, as well as to those spots where vegetation almost entirely fails. Such spots prevail in the tracts towards the eastern side of the country, where the soil is mostly an indurated clay, with irregular ridges of limestone hills separating different parts of the surface. The better description of soil is occasionally diversified by hill and dale, and has very much the appearance of some of our downs, but is covered with the liquorice plant, mixed with aromatic shrubs, and occasionally some dwarf trees, such as the tamarisk and acacia. Many of the tracts eastward of the Jordan (Peraea) are of this description, particularly those near the Hauran,

which, under the name of Roman Arabia, had Bozra for its capital. The inferior tracts are frequently coated with pebbles and black flints, having Utile, and sometimes no vegetation. Such are the greater portions of the ti%cts southward of Gaza and Hebron, and that part of the pashalick which borders upon Arabia Deserta, where scarcity of water has produced a wilderness, which at best is only capable of nourishing a limited number of sheep, goats, and camels: its condition is the worst in summer, at which season little or no rain falls throughout the eastern parts of Syria.

Owing to the inequality of its surface, Palestine has a great variety of temperature and climate, which have been distributed as follows.—(1) The cold; (2) warm and humid; (3) warm and dry. The first belongs principally to the Lebanon range and to Mount Hermon, in the extreme north of the country, but is shared in some measure by the mountain districts of Nablfa, Jerusalem, and Hebron, where the winters are often very severe, the springs mild, and a refreshing breeze tempers the summer heat. The second embraces the slopes adjoining the coast of the Mediterranean, together with the adjacent plains of Akka, Jaffa, and Gaza; also those in the interior, such as Esdraelon, the valley of the Jordan, and part of Peraea. The third prevails in the south-eastern parts of Syria, the contiguity of which to the arid deserts of burning sand, exposes them to the furnace-blasts of the sirocco untempered by the humid winds which prevail to the west of the central highlands, while the depression of the southern part of the Jordan valley and the Dead Sea gives to the plain of Jericho and the districts in the vicinity of that sea an Egyptian climate. (Col. Chesney, Expedition to the Euphrates, $c. vol. i. pp. 533—537.)

II. Geology, Natural Divisions, And ProDuctions.

The general geographical position of Palestine is well described in the following extract:—" That great mountain chain known to the ancients under the various names of I mans, Caucasus, and Taurus, which extends due east and west from China to Asia Minor; this chain, at the point where it enters Asia Minor, throws off to the southward a subordinate ridge of hills, which forms the barrier between the Western Sea and the plains of Syria and Assyria. After pursuing a tortuous course for some time, and breaking into the parallel ridges of Libanus and Antilibanus, it runs with many breaks and divergencies through Palestine and the Arabian peninsula to the Indian Ocean. One of the most remarkable of these breaks is the great plain of Esdraelon, the battle-field of the East. From this point. . . the ridge or mountainous tract extends, without interruption, to the south end of the Dead Sea, or further. This whole tract rises gradually towards the south, forming the hill country of Ephraim and Judah, until, in the vicinity of Hebron, it attains an altitude of 3250 feet above the level of the Mediterranean. At a point exactly opposite to the extreme north of the Dead Sea, i. e. due west from it, where the entire ridge has an elevation of about 2710 feet, and close to the saddle of the ridge, a very remarkable feature of this rocky process, so to call it. occurs. The appearance is as if a single, but vast wave of this sea of rock, rising and swelling gradually from north to south, had been suddenly checked in its advance, and, after a considerable subsidence below the general level, left standing perfectly isolated from the surrounding mass, both as to its front and sides. Add, that about the middle of this wave there is a slight depression, channelling it from north-west to south-east, and you have before you the natural limestone rock which forms the site of Jerusalem." {Christian Remembrancer, No. Ixvi. N. S., vol. xviii. pp. 425, 426.) A few additions to this graphic sketch of the general geography of Palestine will suffice to complete the description of its main features, and to furnish a nomenclature for the more detailed notices which must follow. This addition will be best supplied by the naturalist Kussegger, whose travels have furnished a desideratum in the geography of Palestine. It will, however, be more convenient to consider below his third division of the country, comprehending the river Jordan and the Dead Sea, with its volcanic phaenomena, as those articles have been reserved for this place, and the historical importance of them demands a fuller account than is given in his necessarily brief summary. He divides the country as follows: —

1. The fruitful plain extending; along the coast from Gaza to Juny, north-east of Beirut.

2. The mountain range separating this plain from the valley of the Jordan, which, commencing with Jebel Khalil, forms the rocky land of Judaea, Samaria, and Galilee, and ends with the knot of mountains from which Lib-anus and Autilibanus extend towards the north.

3. The valley of the Jordan, with the basins of the lake of Tiberias and the Dead Sea, as far as Wady-el- Ghor, the northern end of Wady-el-A raba.

4. The country on the east of the Jordan, as far as the parallel of Damascus.

(1.) The part of the coast plain extending from the isthmus of Suez between the sea and the mountains of Jndaea and Samaria, and bounded by the ridge of Garmel, belongs, in regard to its fertility, to the most beautiful regions of Syria. The vegetation in all its forms is that of the warmer parts of the shores of the Mediterranean; in the southern districts the palm flourishes.

The mountains of Judaea and Samaria, which rise to the height of 2000 feet above the sea, follow the line of the plain until they meet the ridge of Carmel. The coast district belongs partly to the older and newer pliocene of the marine deposits, and partly to the chalk and Jura formations of the neighbouring mountainous country.

To the north of Carmel the hilly arable land occurs again.

Still further north, with the exception of a few strips of land aliout Acre, Sur, Seida, Beirut, &c, the coast plain becomes more and more narrowed by the mountains, which extend towards the sea, until there only remains here and there a very small strip of coast.

Several mountain streams, swollen in the rainy season to torrents, flow through deep narrow valleys into the plain, in part fertilising it; in part, where there are no barriers to oppose their force, spreading devastation far and wide. Of these the principal are Nahr-el-Kelb, Nahr-ed-Damur, the Auli, the Saharaneh, Xahr-el-Kasimieh, Nahr Mukutta, &c.

The mountain sides of Lebanon, from Seida to Beirut, are cultivated in terraces; the principal product of this kind of cultivation is the vine and mulberry; the secondary, figs, oranges, pomegranates, and, in general, the so-called tropical fruits.

The want of grass begins to show itself in Syria, and especially on the sides of the promontory, owing to the long continued droughts. The Syrian mountains along the coast north of Carmel, and especially the side8,of Lebanon, are, with the exception of the garden-trees, and a few scattered pines, entirely devoid of wood.

(2.) The land immediately towards the east, which follows the line of coast from south to north, at a distance now greater now less, rises in the form of a lofty mountain chain, the summits of which are for the most part rounded, and rarely peaked; forming numerous plateaux, and including the whole space between the coast on the west, and the valley of the Jordan, with the Dead Sea and the lake of Tiberias, on the east, having an average breadth of from 8 to 10 German miles.

This mountain chain commences in the south with Jebel Khalil, which, towards the west and south-west, stretches to the plain of Gaza and the sandy deserts of the isthmus, and towards the south and south-east joins the mountain country of Arabia 1'etraea, and towards the enst sinks suddenly into the basin of the Dead Sea. Immediately joined to Jebel Khalil are Jebel el-Kods and the mountains of Ephraim, sinking on the east into the valley of the Jordan, and on the west into the plain at Jaffa. Further north follows Jebel NabUis, with the other mountains of Samaria, bounded on the east by the valley of the Jordan, on the west by the coast district; and towards the north-west extending to the sea, and forming the promontory of Carmel. North of ilerj Ibn *A mjr are the mountains of Galilee, Uermon, Tabor, Jebel Safed, Saron, &c. This group sinks into the basin of the lake of Tiberius and the upper valley of the Jordan, on the eai-t, on the west into the coast district of Acre and Sur, extends into the sea in several promontories, and is united to the chain of Lebanon at Seida, by JebeU ed-Drus, and by the mountains of the Upper Jordan and of Hasbeia to JebeUes-Sheich, or Jebelel- Telj, and thus to the chain of Antilibanus.

The whole mountain chain in the district just described belongs to the Jura and chalk formation. Crystalline and plutonic rocks there are none, and volcanic formations are to lie found only in the mountains surrounding the basin of the lake of Tiberias. The highest points are situated in the northern part of the range, in the neighbourhood of JebeUes-Sheich, and in the eastern and southeastern part of Galilee. {Jebel-es-Sheich is 9500 feet above the sea.) Further south the mountains become perceptibly lower, and the highest of the mountains of Judaea are scarcely 4000 feet above the sea.

The character of the southern part of this range is very different from that of the northern. The plateaux and slopes of the central chain of Judaea are wild, rocky, and devoid of vegetation; the valleys numerous, deep, and narrow. In the lowlands, wherever productive soil is collected, and there is a supply of water, there springs up a rich vegetation. All the plants of the temperate region of Europe flourish together with tropical fruits in perfection, especially the vine and olive.

In Samaria the character of the land is more genial; vegetation flourishes on all sides, and several of the mountains are clothed with wood to their summits. With still greater beauty and grandeur does nature exhibit herself in Galilee. The mountains become higher, their form bolder and sharper

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