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words memory and to remember refer to four distinct things :
(1) The presence of mental images; e.g., 'Can you remember his face?' usually means, 'Can you call up a visual image of his face?'
(2) The feeling of a thing as having been experienced; e.g., 'I remember your face but I cannot place it.' Recognition is a better name for this sort of feeling.
(3) The feeling of a thing or event as belonging to some definite experience of one's own in the past, or, in the words of Professor James, “Knowledge of an event, or fact, of which meantime we have not been thinking, with the additional consciousness that we have thought or experienced it before;" e.g., 'Do you remember how you fell from your horse here last summer?' means, ‘Can you call to mind the event, and feel that you experienced it?'
(4) The continued existence of connections that have been formed between ideas or feelings and acts or acts and acts; e.g., 'Do you remember your Latin?', 'Do you remember how to write shorthand ?', and 'Do you remember how to throw an out curve?' refer to the presence not of feelings of things past but of connections made in the past. Permanence of connections or associations is a better name for these facts.
Memory Proper.—The word memory, or rather memories, may best be kept rather strictly for the feelings of class (3) of the above. Such feelings are evidently complex. They involve far more than the mere repetition of a feeling. Like images they are feelings of a thing or event as not present. They also involve the perception of time, since they are feelings of things or events as having been present in the past. The consciousness of self enters, also, since they are feelings of a thing
or event as having been in one's own past experience. Like judgments they imply an affirmation that such a state of affairs is (here was) the case. It would indeed not be unfair to define memories (meaning by the word class (3) above) as judgments concerning one's own past experience.
The facts about the permanence of connections will be presented in Part III, since they are explainable by the laws of the mind's action,-belong, that is, to dynamic psychology. Why different individuals possess different degrees of ability in retaining connections once formed, what decides whether one shall be able to call up a given fact or not, how connections may most readily be made permanent,—are samples of the questions that will arise.
Exercises 1. Study carefully the picture your mind calls up of your breakfast-table of this morning as Galton directs in his 'Questions on Visualizing and then write down your answers to the first three questions of his list. Where would you class yourself in visual imagery and in color representation, using Galton's scale (printed on page 55f)?
2. Make the observations and answer the questions as directed by Galton, so far as you have time. What kinds of images do you lack entirely? What kinds are little developed ? What kinds are most prominent? Compare your answers with those of three or four of your friends.
In answering the questions one must beware of:
(1) Confusing the image of the name of a thing with the image of the thing itself. That I can call up the word bitter does not mean that I can have an image of a bitter taste.
(2) Confusing the fact that one can act as if a feeling were present in his mind with the fact of the real presence of the feeling. The same act may have various antecedents. That I can draw my finger around an oblong space in the air does not imply that I can have a visual image of an oblong. That I shiver when someone is hurt does not imply that I feel an image of pain.
(3) Confusing the knowledge that something happened with an image of its happening. That I can now feel that I was angry does not mean that I feel a mental image of the emotion, anger.
(4) Confusing the process of arousing certain conditions and so having a certain real feeling, with the process of arousing an image of that feeling. That I can, by thinking of certain events, get a feeling of anger, does not mean that I can get an image of the feeling of anger. That by calling up thoughts of the country I can arouse a feeling of desire does not mean that I can feel an image of the feeling of desire.
GALTON'S 'QUESTIONS ON VISUALIZING AND OTHER ALLIED
"The object of these Questions is to elicit the degree in which different persons possess the power of seeing images in their mind's eye, and of reviving past sensations.
From inquiries I have already made, it appears that remarkable variations exist both in the strength and in the quality of these faculties, and it is highly probable that a statistical inquiry into them will throw light upon more than one psychological problem.
Before addressing yourself to any of the Questions .... think of some definite object-suppose it is your breakfast-table as you sat down to it this morning-and consider carefully the picture that rises before your mind's eye.
1. Illumination.-Is the image dim or fairly clear? Is its brightness comparable to that of the actual scene?
2. Definition.- Are all the objects pretty well defined at the same time, or is the place of sharpest definition at any one moment more contracted than it is in a real scene?
3. Colouring.–Are the colours of the china, of the toast, bread crust, mustard, meat, parsley, or whatever may have been on the table, quite distinct and natural?
4. Extent of field of view.-Call up the image of some panoramic view (the walls of your room might suffice). Can you force yourself to see mentally a wider range of it than could be taken in by any single glance of the eyes? Can you mentally see more than three faces of a die, or more than one hemisphere of a globe at the same instant of time?
5. Distance of images.—Where do mental images appear to
be situated? Within the head, within the eye-ball, just in front of the eyes, or at a distance corresponding to reality? Can you project an image upon a piece of paper?
6. Command over images.-Can you retain a mental picture steadily before the eyes? When you do so, does it grow brighter or dimmer? When the act of retaining it becomes wearisome, in what part of the head or eye-ball is the fatigue felt?
7. Persons.-Can you recall with distinctness the features of all near relations and many other persons ? Can you at will cause your mental image of any or most of them to sit, stand, or turn slowly round? Can you deliberately seat the image of a wellknown person in a chair and see it with enough distinctness to enable you to sketch it leisurely (supposing yourself able to draw)?
8. Scenery. Do you preserve the recollection of scenery with much precision of detail, and do you find pleasure in dwelling on it? Can you easily form mental pictures from the descriptions of scenery that are so frequently met with in novels and books of travel?
9. Comparison with reality.—What difference do you perceive between a very vivid mental picture called up in the dark, and a real scene? Have you ever mistaken a mental image for a reality when in health and wide awake?
10. Numerals and dates.-Are these invariably associated in your mind with any peculiar mental imagery, whether of written or printed figures, diagrams, or colours ? If so, explain fully, and say if you can account for the association.
11. Specialties. If you happen to have special aptitudes for mechanics, mathematics (either geometry of three dimensions or pure analysis), mental arithmetic, or chess-playing blindfold, please explain fully how far your processes depend on the use of visual images, and how far otherwise ?
12. Call up before your imagination the objects specified in the six following paragraphs, numbered A to F, and consider carefully whether your mental representation of them generally, is in each group very faint, faint, fair, good, or vivid and comparable to the actual sensation :
A. Light and colour.–An evenly clouded sky (omitting all landscape), first bright, then gloomy. A thick surrounding haze, first white, then successively blue, yellow, green, and red.
B. Sound.—The beat of rain against the window panes, the crack of a whip, a church bell, the hum of bees, the whistle of a railway, the clinking of tea-spoons and saucers, the slam of a door.
C. Smells.—Tar, roses, an oil-lamp blown out, hay, violets, a fur coat, gas, tobacco.
D. Tastes.-Salt, sugar, lemon juice, raisins, chocolate, currant jelly.
E. Touch.-Velvet, silk, soap, gum, sand, dough, a crisp dead leaf, the prick of a pin.
F. Other sensations.—Heat, hunger, cold, thirst, fatigue, fever, drowsiness, a bad cold.
13. Music.—Have you any aptitude for mentally recalling music, or for imagining it ?
14. At different ages.-Do you recollect what your powers of visualizing, etc., were in childhood ? Have they varied much within your recollection ?” (F. Galton, Inquiries Into Human Faculty, pp. 378-380.) GALTON'S SCALE OF VIVIDNESS AND FIDELITY
IN VISUAL IMAGERY
First Suboctile.—The image once seen is perfectly clear and bright.
First Octile.—I can see my breakfast-table or any equally familiar thing with my mind's eye quite as well in all particulars as I can do if the reality is before me.
First Quartile.—Fairly clear; illumination of actual scene is fairly represented. Well defined. Parts do not obtrude themselves, but attention has to be directed to different points in succession to call up the whole.
Middlemost.–Fairly clear. Brightness probably at least from one-half to two-thirds of the original. Definition varies very much, one or two objects being much more distinct than the others, but the latter come out clearly if attention be paid to them.
Last Quartile.—Dim, certainly not comparable to the actual scene. I have to think separately of the several things on the table to bring them clearly before the mind's eye, and when I think of some things the others fade away in confusion.
Last Octile.--Dim and not comparable in brightness to the real scene. Badly defined with blotches of light; very incomplete; very little of one object is seen at one time.