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made a rapid progress in his studies, particularly excelling in the knowledge of the languages, and of the mathematics. In the science of geography he became so great a proficient, that he was called the Ptolemy of his age. With a particular view to improve himself in this branch of knowledge, he travelled into England, Ireland, France, Italy, and Germany, directing his enquiries to every object that was worthy of his attention, and forming a correspondence and friendship with men of learning and science in those countries. He visited Italy thrice, and he spent some time at Oxford in the reign of king Edward VI. He also paid a second visit to England in 1577. In this country he formed an intimacy with William Camden, who, at his request, as we are informed in the preface to the work, was engaged to undertake his “Britannia.” Amply furnished with stores of geographical knowledge, Ortelius settled at Antwerp, where, in the year 1570, he published his “Theatrum Orbis Terrarum,” in folio, consisting of maps, accompanied with short descriptions of the several countries on the globe, and the objects in them most interesting to curiosity; which was the most complete work of the kind that had ever appeared, and gained the author a reputation adequate to his immense labour in compiling it. This production occasioned his being honoured with the post of geographer to Philip II. king of Spain. It underwent various impressions, with improvements and enlargements; and in its most perfect state, was published by John Baptist Vrientius, in Latin, Spanish, and Italian. An “Epitome” of it was also published by Michael Coignet, from the Plantin press. Ortelius likewise published several other geographical works ; among which was his “Synonima Geographica,” 1578, quarto, consisting of ashort description, in alphabetical order, of all the countries in the world, the mountains, promontories, islands, ports, cities, towns, people, remarkable buildings, &c. from printed books, manuscripts, ancient marbles, coins, &c. This work was afterwards greatly enlarged, and published under the title of, “Thesaurus Geographicus,” folio, in 1587, 1597, and other periods, in different placés. In 1584, appeared, “Itinerarium per nonnullas Galliae-Belgicae partes, Abrahami Ortelii et Joannis Viviani,” 12mo, with engravings of some antiquities. In 1598, Ortelius published, “Aurei Saeculi Imago,” &c. quarto, containing a description of the manners and religion of the Germans, with illustrative plates. Ortelius had collected a museum of ancient statues,

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was of a proper age, sent for education in

grammar learning to the free school of his native place, where he enjoyed as great advantages for classical knowledge as in most public schools, and spent somewhat more than eight years, with becoming diligence and proportionable improvement. In 1733, he was placed under the care of Dr. Charles Owen, a dissenting minister at Warrington in Lancashire, who possessed considerable learning, great piety, and most amiable manners, and had usually two or three young men under his tuition. After continuing with him one year, Mr. Orton spent a month in the family of Mr. Colthurst, a worthy minister at Whitchurch in Shropshire, with whose church he first joined in the communion of the Lord's supper. In 1734, he entered a pupil in the academy under the care of Dr. Doddridge at Northampton, where he continued about seven years, excepting during an interruption of about seven months, which the ill state of his health obliged him to spend at his father's house. Before he went first from home, he had been bound apprentice to his father, that, if he should not be inclined to any of the learned professions, he might be a freeman of the town of Shrewsbury, and engage there in business ; but his inclinations were always to the christian ministry, from a pure de

sire of contributing to the religious improvement and everlasting happiness of mankind ; and to qualify himself for this great work were all his studies directed. Such were the ability and diligence with which he prosecuted his literary course at Northampton, that in March 1738-9, he was chosen assistant to Dr. Doddridge in the academy; and he began his lectures in this capacity, with instructing the junior students in the classics and geography. About the same time he was examined by a committee of neighbouring pastors, as to his qualifications for the ministeral office, and received an ample testimony of their approbation. From this time he continued to preach occasionally in all the neigbouring congregations, excepting on the first Sunday of every month, when he generally assisted Dr. Doddridge at Northampton. During the vacations, which lasted two months, the doctor staid at home in the former month, while Mr. Orton paid a visit to his friends and relations. In the second month he returned to Northampton, and took care of the family and congregation, while Dr. Doddridge made his excursions to London, or other places. In this early part of his life, Mr. Orton's acceptableness as a preacher occasioned invitations to be sent to him from several congregations to settle with them as their minister; but he thought it best to decline them, as he was already engaged in a very useful employment, and had daily opportunities of improving himself superior to what he should have had in any other station. In the year 1741, vacancies having taken place in both the presbyterian and independent congregations at Shrewsbury, the two societies concurred in an invitation to Mr. Orton to accept the pastoral charge among them, promising that in that case they would unite together in one church. The circumstance of such a pleasing coalescence of two different denominations of Christians, the unanimity of the application, the prospect of an agreeable settlement, and of a considerable sphere of usefulness, induced him to accept of the invitation, though not without a becoming diffidence in himself, and a deep sense of the peculiar delicacy of such a charge. In October 1741, Mr. Orton removed to Shrewsbury, and preached his first sermon to the united congregations. The loss of his father which happened soon afterwards, not only proved a great personal affliction to him, but brought upon him such a weight of cares, in addition to his various duties as a minister, that his health was materially injured; in consequence of which he was under the necessity of having an assistant. He was obliged, also, in the year 1742, to take a journey to Bath, where the waters afforded him some relief. In the same year he was solemnly ordained to the pastoral office, when thirty ministers were present at the service. In the year 1746, he was invited by the large and respectable cong- otion at the new meeting in Birmingham, to be their co-pastor with Mr. Bourn; but, touch he had a high esteem for the people of to at society, he was induced, from various motoves, to continue where he was already com

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doctor he was appointed to preach his funeral

sermon, and was left all such of his papers as he might choose. In the spring after the doctor's death, the congregation at Northampton invited Mr. Orton to become their pastor. This circumstance alarmed the people at Shrewsbury, who, under apprehensions lest he should listen to the application, sent him a most respectful, affectionate, and unanimous address, to intreat that he would not leave them. A separate address to the same purpose, was made to him by the young persons of the society. But various circumstances combined to determine him not to remove to Northampton, and he declined the invitation, after taking some time to consider of it, which he thought was a piece of respect due to the congregation of his late friend. Soon afterwards he was applied to by a consi– derable congregation in Westminster, to succeed their late pastor the reverend Obadiah Hughes; but he immediately rejected this proposal, both from a disinclination to settle in London, and from a firm persuasion that neither his health, nor his abilities, nor his sentiments, qualified him for a situation in the metropolis. Whether London would have been favourable to his health, might justly be questioned; but as to his abilities and sentiments, they would have enabled him to appear with distinguished advantage in the pulpit, and, if fixed in town, he could not have failed of rising to a high degree of popularity. His popularity, too, would have been of a durable and substantial kind, not founded on external and artificial accomplishments, but on discourses that were practical, serious, evangelical, and pathetic, accompanied with a plain, unaffected, and manly delivery, which irresistibly commanded attention. There was one respect, in which, perhaps, he was not so well fitted for London, and that was his recluse mode of living, which grew upon him as he advanced in years and his health declined, and which rendered him very particular and exact in his time of dining, and very cautious, not to say fastidious, in his reception of visitors. From this time nothing material occurred in the course of Mr. Orton's ministry at Shrewsbury, till the year 1765, when his bodily infirmities had arisen to such a height that he was quite disabled from continuing his public work. On the fifteenth of September, therefore, which was his birth-day, he delivered his last sermon to his congregation. Several times after this he administered the Lord's supper; but he durst not undertake to preach any more. On Mr. Orton's declining the office of minister, a contest took place with respect to the choice of an assistant to Mr. Fownes, which terminated in a division of the congregation. The larger number of the society having thought it their duty to provide themselves with another place of worship, Mr. Orton concurred with them in opinion, and esteemed himself bound to countenance them as a christian, a dissenter, a minister, and a friend to liberty. This circumstance, however, did not occasion any diminution in the friendship between Mr. Fownes and Mr. Orton; but the separation had the effect of exciting a bad spirit in several persons, of both parties. To such a height was this carried, that Mr. Orton's situation at Shrewsbury was rendered very uncomfortable, and it also produced an unfavourable effect upon his health. He, therefore, found it necessary to retire to some other place; and in the year 1766 he removed to Kidderminster, principally for the sake of the advice of Dr. Johnstone, a very able and skilful physician, who always proved himself a faithful and a tender friend. Here Mr. Orton spent the remainder of his days, zealously intent on promoting the interests of religion, though the state of his health prevented him from appearing again in the pulpit. What he could not perform as a preacher, he was solicitous to effect as a practical writer. His only publications, previously to his resignation of the pastoral office, were his small tract, entitled, “A Summary of doctrinal and practical Religion, with an Introduction, shewing the Importance and Advantage of a religious Education;” which made its first appearance in 1749, and has undergone a great number of impressions; a “Funeral Sermon for Dr. Doddridge,” printed in 1752; “A Fast Sermon” in 1756, occasioned by the earthquake at Lisbon; and “Three Discourses on Eternity, and the Importance and Advantage of looking at Eternal Things,” published in 1746, which have been repeatedly printed, and translated into the Welch language. Such was the author's ill state of his friend Dr. Adams, at that time vicar of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, against the violent attacks of some high-flown calvinistical methodists, and particularly of the writer of a piece, which made a considerable noise in its day, entitled, “Pietas Oxoniensis, &c.” These tracts reflected great credit on his understanding, and on his heart, being written with much knowledge, and in the true spirit of christian candour and benevolence. After the publication of the “Sacramental Meditations,” Mr. Orton’s state of health no longer permitted him to instruct and edify the world from the press; but he still continued to be useful by his pious example, his affectionate exhortations, and his correspondence with his intimate friends. In the spring of 1783, his complaints multiplied so fast upon him, that there was no prospect of his continuing much longer in life. He died on the nineteenth of the following July, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. Our author's talents as a preacher are thus delineated by Mr. Fownes, in the sermon which he delivered after his death. “Mr. Orton was master of a great variety of styles, and I bave frequently heard him in the course of his public services adopt them all with success. But the general character of his preaching was rather of a practical, serious, and affectionate turn, than distinguished by laboured and long continued trains of reasoning. The didactic manner, like that of a parent addressing his children, or an instructor his pupils, was that which seemed most adapted to his taste and inclination; and though he acquitted himself with general acceptance in all the methods in which he addressed his hearers, it was in that he chiefly excelled.” To the excellence of his private character, the following extract of a letter from Dr. Johnstone to Mr. Stedman bears honourable testimony. “Indeed, my friend, we shall not see his like again: we shall not see knowledge so extensive joined with such humility, such wisdom and discernment of the human character and of human life, so determinately employed in doing good to all around him, and to diffuse happiness in the large circle of human society. He truly had the wisdom of the serpent and the innocence of the dove. Of the seventeen years which he passed in Kidderminster, I spent most usefully and happily daily many hours in his company: his counsel always skilful, was faithful and benevolent. I do not remember I ever spent ten minutes in his company, without being witness to some great vivacity in one of his letters to Mr. Stedman. “I am glad I have no visitors like Mr. ***, no such Bath friends;–I would not have them: they are not friends; I would not submit to such grievances and inconveniences, nor should my wife (if I had such an one as his). “What must we do?’ they will say.—

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health, and his attention to the duties of his profession, that it was not till the year 1766 that he was enabled to give to the world his “Memoirs of the Life, Character, and Writings, of the late reverend Philip Doddridge, D. D.” in octavo, which are rendered peculiarly interesting by the extracts which he has presented to the reader from the papers of the doctor in his possession. In 1769, he published a volume of sermons, under the title of “Religious Exercises recommended, or, Discourses on the heavenly State, considered under the Idea of a Sabbath,” octavo; which are plain, affectionate, serious, and practical, and well adapted to promote the cause of christian piety, with which the interests of morality are essentially connected. Such, likewise, is the character of his “Discourses to the Aged,” published in 1771, octavo, and admirably adapted to the situation of the persons for whom they were chiefly intended; of his “Christian Zeal,” or, three discourses on the importance of seeking the things of Christ, more than our own, which were published in 1774, octavo ; of his “Christian Worship,” or, three discourses on the profitable hearing of the word, the joining in public prayer, and the singing of the praises of God, published in 1775, octavo ; and of his two volumes of “Discourses on practical Subjects,” published in 1776, octavo. Mr. Orton’s last publication, which appeared in 1777, was entitled, “Sacramental Meditations, or, Devout Reflections on various Passages of Scrip; ture, designed to assist Christians in their Attendance on the Lord's Supper, and their Improvement of it,” octavo. These meditations, which are fifty in number, are all founded on different texts of the sacred writings, and are what the author himself used in the administration of the sacrament, according to the me. observed by dissenters from the church of England, “The reader,” say the monthly reviewers in their fifty-ninth volume, “will not find in this work any rapturous flights, or wild chimeras; he will meet with nothing but what is rational and pious, tending to form the heart to the love of God, and to the practice of what is excellent and praise-worthy.” Several cminent divines of the established church expressed their high approbation of them, for whose testimonies in their favour we must re

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benevolent design or some benevolent action. He comforted and advised the opulent—he visited the widow and the fatherless, the sick, the poor and needy, in their affliction. He applied his fortune in relieving their wants; and a mind, still more rich in resources than his fortune was in abundance, in contrivances, as well as incitements to others, to administer relief. To such as needed, he gave with that generous address, and that exquisite skill, in which I think he surpassed most persons I have ever known. I repeat it, I never was in his company without perceiving he was carrying on some useful design, either of a public or privatenature: doing good himself and impelling others to concur with him in executing some charitable work, or some plan to relieve indigence, to alleviate pain, to inform ignorance, to check and reform vice. In arbitrating and settling differences, which had any where taken place among his friends or acquaintance, he possessed great influence, and shewed always great address, and gave satisfaction by his interference. He possessed a happy manner of gaining the affections and confidence of young persons, and he gave them advice in such a manner as had generally a happy influence in forming their character to habits of virtue and religion.”

Dr. Kippis, at the close of his biographical

memoir of our author, observes, “that Mr. Orton, who so long resided at Kidderminster, the principal seat of Mr. Baxter's ministerial usefulness, had a considerable resemblance, in certain respects, to that famous divine In extent of abilities, Baxter was undoubtedly greatly superior to Mr. Orton, and he prodigiously exceeded him in the multiplicity of his writings: but with regard to the nature of their practical works, and the strictness, we had almost said the rigidness, of their personal piety, there was no small degree of similarity. Both of them display, in their productions, the same ardent zeal to excite the attention of

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Why, break of all correspondence with such.

Tell them (as I did at Shrewsbury, and do here), ‘I am old and infirm; I will have my own hours. At them—I shall be glad to see my friends, but they must come soon, and go soon, or not at all.” “But we can't do this at ***.” Then I would remove to the Land's end, or to a Welch mountain, and would not sacrifice such blessings as health, regularity, domestic comfort, and family religion, for any person or persons whatsoever. I am independent, and will be so. A few nights ago I heard some weaver's lad singing a song under my window, of which I remember no more than this:

“Let them say what they will, “By Jove I’ll be free.”

I have little company and acquaintance. Ease and quiet, and an interview now and then with a worthy friend, bound my ambition. But I have a numerous and excellent society of prophets, apostles, and practical writers, especially Baxter, Bates, and Scudder, with whom I have lately been conversing.” It is proper to be mentioned, that the degree of doctor of divinity had been conferred upon Mr. Orton many years previously to his decease, but he would never permit himself to be addressed by that title, or prefix it to any of his writings. After his death, “A short and plain Exposition of the Old Testament, with devotional and practical Reflections, for the Use of Families,” was published from the author's manuscripts, by the reverend Robert Gentleman, in six large octavo volumes; the first of which appeared in 1788, and the last in 1791. This work, as the title imports, is rather adapted to the edifieation of pious and well disposed persons, than to the use of the learned reader. It contains notes, chiefly collected from modern expositors, which, though not eminently critical, often convey valuable instruction; and the reflections are well adapted to promote the purposes of serious religion. The last of Mr. Orton’s remains which has been given to the public, consists of a small collection of “Letters to a young Clergyman,” 1791, 12mo. These let

ters were addressed to the reverend Thomas Stedman, the editor, and contain advice that is, in general, well fitted for the direction and improvement of the younger clergy, of every denomination. Note to Kippi's Life of Doddridge in the Biog. Brit.—M. ORVILLE, JAMES-PHILIP D', a man of letters, was born at Amsterdam in 1696, of a family originally from France. He travelled into various parts of Europe, visiting the libraries and cabinets, and forming connections with learned men; and upon his return was appointed, in 1736, professor of history, eloquence, and Greek, at Amsterdam. He filled this office with great reputation till 1742, when he resigned it in order to devote himself wholly to study and literary composition. In conjunction with Burmann, he continued a work begun by some learned Englishmen, entitled “Observationes Miscellaneae Novac,” and ten volumes of it were published by them jointly, and four more by d'Orville separately. Some pieces of his own writing are contained in this collection, among which are, “A Dissertation on the Antiquity of the Isle of Delos,” and “Remarks on the Greek Romance of Chariton.” He also published a learned and severe critique upon Pauw of Utrecht. D'Orville died in 1751. After his death were published his observations on Sicily, under the title of “Siculae,” Amst. 1764, folio. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—A. OSBORN, FRANcis, an ingenious English writer, was the younger son of sir John Osborn of Chicksand, Bedfordshire, and was born about 1589. He received a domestic education, and when arrived at years of maturity, frequented the court, and became a retainer of the Pembroke family, and finally, master of the horse to the accomplished William earl of Pembroke. In the civil contentions of Charles I. he was led by his principles to take part with the parliament, under which, and under the protector Cromwell, he held some public employments. In the latter part of his life he resided at Oxford, in order to superintend the education of his son, and to print some of his works. He died in February 1658-9, at the house of his brother-in-law Mr. Draper, at Nether-Wotton, Oxfordshire. The work by which Mr. Osborn is best known is his “Advice to a Son,” the first part printed in 1650; the second in 1659; both frequently reprinted. It consists of maxims and directions upon a variety of topics important in the conduct of life, chiefly delivered in the sententious or aphoris

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