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eight inches being allowed for the breadth or depth of each seat', a theatre of which the total diameter was five hundred feet, and the diameter of the orchestra or lowest range of seats eighty feet, would have contained eighty ranges of seats, which would have been capable, if semicircular, of seating twenty-nine thousand spectators: for, calculating

as before, we find that B0+500 x 1-67+1-25 x 80=29,120, and consequently a theatre of smaller diameter might have had an equal capacity, if it had been a semicircle prolonged, which, from the extant vestiges of the Dionysiac theatre at Athens, appears to have been its form.

In the theatre of Argos seventy rows of seats, cut in the rock, are still to be seen, measuring on the slope two hundred and thirty-seven feet'. At Athens, from the summit to the hollow below, which may be higher than the ancient orchestra, the slope is about three hundred feet in length, so that the theatre of Athens may have contained eighty ranges of seats: and if the mass of masonry marked in Stuart's plan was a part of the supporting wall of the western wing, it could not have been much less than five hundred feet in diameter.

1 This is the breadth in the theatre of Epidaurus, the work of Polycleitus; but the breadth was not so great at Argos, and in some other examples, and is more than Vitruvius (5, 6) considered the maximum. "Gradus spectaculorum, ubi subsellia componantur, ne minus alti sint palmipede ne plus pede et digitis sex ; latitudines coram ne plus pedes duos semis ne minus pedes duo constituantur." The height of the seats in the theatre of Epidaurus, and generally, is about one foot four inches. At Side in Pamphylia, with the same height of seat, there was the breadth only of two feet. Beaufort's Caramania, p. 152.

■ At Argos, the lowest seat cut in the rock is part of a curve, having a diameter of one hundred and eighty feet: unless the orchestra therefore was of dimensions much greater than usual, there were about twenty ranges of seats below the lowest now existing, making at least ninety in all.


Pages 203, 283.


Enneacrunus having been the only source of sweet water at Athens—for even the water of the deepest wells is not free from saline impregnation—it would be interesting to discover in what manner the Athenians were adequately supplied with the first necessary of life. The brackish sources could not have been sufficient for their baths, and the various other purposes required in great cities. The aqueducts of the Greeks having been rectangular channels, cut in the rock, or constructed of solid masonry, and conducted along the ground in the more or less circuitous line, which was necessary to obtain the requisite slope, it often occurred that some parts were below and some a little above the surface; the former of which may be still hidden, while the latter have been ruined or obliterated. Hence it rarely happens that the aqueducts, with which all the principal cities of Greece were doubtless furnished, are now traceable. Syracuse is that where the aqueduct, which was twelve miles in length, is best preserved. Some remains of others, formed in the same manner, are to be seen at Argos, Pharsalus, Demetrias, and on some other ancient sites of Greece. Modern Athens was not many years ago, and possibly may still be, supplied from two reservoirs, situated near the junction of the Eridanus and Uissus. Of these reservoirs one was the receptacle of a subterraneous conduit from the foot of Mount Hymettus; the other, of one of the fountains of the Cephissus at the foot of Mount Pentelicum. This conduit, which may he traced to the north of Ambeldkipo, in proceeding from thence by Kato Marusi to Kifisia, where a series of holes give air to a canal, which is deep in the ground, may possibly be a work of republican times, which has endured, while of the ostentatious but less ancient work of Hadrian nothing remains, save a few pieces of the arches. One of these in particular is seen about midway between Athens and Kifisia, near the northern extremity of the heights which stretch north-eastward from Patissia : and where two branches of the aqueduct seem to have united, after having conducted water from two or more fountains in the streams which flowing from Parnes, Pentelicum, and the intermediate ridge, form the Cephissus. The diversion of the water of the Eridanus, and that diminished vegetation on the Hymettus, which was a natural consequence of the vicinity of a great city, may account for the present waterless condition of the Uissus, compared with that which seems to have been its state, when Plato described a cool stream as flowing even in summer'.

Solon made a law that no person should draw water from a well who dwelt more than four stades from it, unless, when having sunk a well of his own to the depth of ten fathoms (opyviai), he failed in procuring water; in which case he might have a limited supply from a neighbouring well \ It seems evident, from the distance here mentioned, that the law was intended for Attica rather than for Athens, so that even at that time the city may have had an aqueduct. Three hundred years later, Dicsearchus described Athens as very dry and deficient in water *: but this also applied rather to the \u>pa than the Jtoaic, or, if to the latter, to its natural rather than to its actual condition.

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Kjoijvat' had long before that time been so numerous that they could only have been supplied by conduits from distant sources. Where the arts were so much cultivated, the hydragogic art could hardly have been in a very imperfect state, especially where a thirsty soil and a dense population, much engaged in agriculture, rendered irrigation necessary. Aristotle, in his imaginary city, which we may consider an improved Athens, recommends large receptacles of rain water to be made *. Themistocles held the office of superintending the supply of water to the canals, and of detecting those who drew it off contrary to the regulations'. The same necessity has caused a continuation of the custom to the present time. In every part of Attica where irrigation is employed, conduits from the rivers are formed, or private reservoirs are constructed, from which water is sold: the time during which each portion of land is entitled to the stream of water is strictly regulated, and an officer generally attends to see that the engagements are observed. Aristotle, in his Republic, places the superintendent of the fountains (iwifiiXriTrig Kpnvuv) in the same rank with the inspectors of harbours and fortifications *.

1 Kpi)vr\vcwp ayioyifiov. Hesych. in v. * Aristot. Polit. 7. 13.

J Vcutmv iTrtororijc, ivpwv roue ixpyptiplvovs To vSup i-ai irapoxiTivoavrof. Plutarch. Themist. 31. This office seems to have been called tpi\vapxoc, and sometimes icpi/vo^uXa?. Kpijva'y-yn (Kpnva'pxq ?) a'px») '*! rflC iirifieXtiac fioaroc. Hesych. in v. Kpqvo^vXag- dpxn r«c 'AOqvyoiv. Phot. Lex. in v.

* Polit. 6,8. 7, 12.


Page 315.


Of the one hundred and sixty-eight feet which formed the natural entrance of the Acropolis, fifty-eight near the centre were occupied by the great artificial entrance; the remainder formed two wings, which projected twenty-six feet in front of the grand colonnade of the entrance. The central building, like others of the same kind, received the name of Propylseal, from its forming a vestibule to the five gates or doors, by which the citadel was entered', and which are still in existence. On the eastern side the same gates had another prothyrous portico, about half the depth of the western. The wall in which the doors were pierced was thrown back about fifty feet from the front of the artificial opening of the hill, which was itself thrown back a few feet behind the natural entrance.

This magnificent building was constructed entirely of Pentelic marble. Each Propylaeum consisted of a front of six fluted Doric columns, supporting a pediment: the columns are four feet and a half in diameter, near twenty-nine feet in height, and have an intercolumniation which is ditriglyph in the centre, where thirteen feet were left for the carriage-way, but which diminishes to seven feet at either end; the traces of the road with the wheel-ruts worn in the rock, are still in existence. The western vestibule was forty-throe

• In common parlance thin name comprehended also the two wings.

* Heliodoros ap. Harpocr. in UfonvXaia rmira. See above, p. 463, n. 1.

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