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tic manner. His opinions in general display good sense and an enlarged way of thinking. Indeed, they were thought so free, that the puritanical divines of the commonwealth charged them with an atheistical tendency, and moved the vice-chancellor of Oxford to cause his book to be publicly burnt. This proposal did not take effect, but an order was procured to prohibit the sale of it, which increased its popularity. Of atheism, however, the author expressed great detestation; but at the same time he has some strokes at whining sanctity, which could not fail to give offence at that period. This writer has been cited as giving his opinion in preference of a public education over a private one. In fact, he was sensible of what he had himself lost by escaping the discipline of a public school, but perhaps he did not so well compute the advantages he had gained by the domestic plan of education; and these personal and individual consequences seem to have influenced most of those who have treated on the same subject. His other publications were various tracts upon political topics: “Historical Memoirs on the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James,” 1658, octavo, of which the character is, that they contain many anecdotes, with severe and satirical reflections: and “A Miscellany of sundry Essays, Paradoxes, and problematical Discourses, Letters and Characters; together with political Deductions from the History of the Earl of Essex, executed under Queen Elizabeth,” 1659, octavo. Other anonymous works have been attributed to him. Biog. Britan.—A. OSIANDER, ANDRew, a learned and celebrated German lutheran divine in the sixteenth century, noted for the singularity of some of his opinions, was vernacularly known by the family name of Hosman, and born at Guntzenhusen in Bavaria, in the year 1498. Possessing excellent natural abilities, and an inclination for learning, he was sent from the elementary schools to the university of Wittemberg, where, by most intense study, he soon excelled in the knowledge of languages, the belles lettres, and the mathematics. Afterwards he applied with equal diligence and success to the study of divinity. From Wittemberg he went to Nuremberg, and made himself master of the Hebrew language in the Augustine convent at that city; and in this place, by his studious industry and acquirements, he gained the esteem of the most eminent learned men who resided there; some of whom he afterwards offended

by his roughness of manners, together with his

impetuosity and arrogance of temper. As he was also distinguished by his powers of eloquence, the magistrates of the city appointed him preacher at the church of St. Lawrence, where he delivered his first sermon in February 1522. When Luther declared against the doctrine of indulgences, Osiander joined his party, and frequently disputed, with great applause and success, against that scandalous corruption of the papal system. Nor did he stop here, but zealously supported that bold reformer

in his attacks on the power and jurisdiction

of the Roman pontiff, and in his glorious effort for establishing a system of doctrine and discipline more consonant with the principles and precepts of the gospel than that of Rome. From this time he had a considerable share in the controversies and conferences which were held on the subject of religion. He assisted at the conference of Marpurg, in 1529, between Luther and the Swiss divines; on which occasion he spoke after Luther upon the subject of iustification, in such a manner as shewed that e did not then entirely concur in opinion with him upon that topic. Afterwards he assisted . at the conference at Augsburg, in 1530, and gave his vote with the rest of the protestant divines. He continued discharging the duties of the pastoral office at Nuremberg till the year 1548, when, upon the promulgation of the Interim by the emperor Charles V., he withdrew into Prussia, where Albert duke of Brandenburg, who had attended his sermons at Nuremberg, and had been made a convert by them to the doctrines of the reformation, appointed him pastor and professor of divinity at Konigsberg. In this new station, he began his academical functions bypropagating notions concerning the divine image, and the nature of repentance, very different from the doctrines which Luther had taught concerning those subjects; and in the year 1550, he introduced considerable alterations into the doctrine that had been generally received in the lutheran church, with respect to the means of our justification before God. His doctrine, though expressed in an obscure manner, when carefully examined, says Mosheim, will appear to amount to the following propositions: “Christ, considered in his human nature only, could not, by his obedience to the divine {..., obtain justification and pardon for sinners; neither can we be justified before God by embracing and applying to ourselves, through faith, the righteousness and obedience of the man Christ. It is only through

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dwells in Christ considered at God, and which resides in his divine nature, that is united to the human, that mankind can obtain complete justification. Man becomes a partaker of this divine righteousness by faith; since it is in consequence of this uniting principle that Christ dwells in the heart of man, with his divine righteousness. Now wherever this divine righteousness dwells, there God can behold no sin, and therefore, when it is present with Christ in the hearts of the regenerate, they are, on its account, considered by the deity as righteous, although they be sinners. Moreover, this aivine and justifying righteousness of Christ excites the faithful to the pursuit of holiness, and to the practice of virtue.” This doctrine was zealously opposed by many eminent doctors of the lutheran church, and particularly by Melanchton, Joachim, Morlin, and Stancarus, professor of Hebrew at Konigsberg. On the other hand, Osiander defended it with great spirit, and his sentiments were supported by persons of considerable weight. He drew up a confession of faith, upon his principle of justification, which was printed by order of the duke of Brandenburg; but disapproved of by the lutheran divines assembled at Augsburg. While he was preparing to maintain his doctrine and to assail his opponents with still greater vigour, he was attacked by an epileptic disorder, which terminated his life in the year 1552, at the age of fifty-four. After his death, the flame of controversy upon this point was soon cooled, and in the year 1566 became entirely extinguished. He is accused by his enemies of having been addicted to the love of wine, and ef a propensity to profane allusions in his convivial parties; but these charges are not easily reconcileable with the acknowledged intenseness of his studious application, to which the disorder which hastened his death is attributed, or the severity of his religious notions. Osiander was the author of “Harmonia Evangelica, Graece et Latine, cum Annotationibus, et Elencho Harmoniae,” 1561, folio; “Liber de ultimis Temporibus, ac Fine Mundi, ex sacris Literis;” “De prohibitis Nuptiis;” “Liber de Imagine Dei, quid sit,” “An Filius Dei fuerit incarnandus, si peccatum non introivisset in Mundum ,” “Epistola ad Ulricum Zuinglium Apologetica, qua docet quam ob causam, quidque posthacabeo in negocio Eucharistia, expectandum sit "...together with “Dissertations,” “Sermons,” and controversial tracts in the Latin and German languages. Melchior. Adam. Wit. Germ. Theol. Freheri Theat. Vir.

heri Theatrum Vir. Erud. Clar. Dupin

Erud. Clar. Dupin. Moreri. Now”. Dict. Hist. A/osh. Hist. Eccl. sac. xvi. sect. iii. par. ii, cap. i. § 35.—M. OSIANDER, ANDREw, grandson of the receding, and like him a lutheran divine, was |. at Blauberen in the duchy of Wirtemberg, in the year 1562. As he early discovered a promising genius, and made a rapid progress in elementary learning, at the age of fourteen he was received into the number of ducal stipendiaries at Stutgard, and passed through the different courses of academical study, with honourable testimonies from his superiors to his diligence and improvement. In the year 1584, he was appointed deacon of the church of Aurach; whence he was removed, in 1586, and made pastor of the church of Gigligen. Two years afterwards he was appointed preacher and counsellor to prince Lewis of Wirtemberg; and in 1592, he received the degree of doctor of divinity from the new ducal university of Tubingen. In the year 1598, prince Frederic nominated him abbot of Adelberg, and superintendant of the churches in that district. His last promotions he received in the year 1605, when he was appointed pastor of the church of Tubiogen, and with great solemnities installed chancellor of the university in that place. After discharging the duties of these posts with great reputation for twelve years, he died in 1617, when in the fifty-fifth year of his age. He was the editor of “Biblia sacra, Latiné vulgata, cum Emendationibus et Explicationibus superiorum Versionum, et Observationibus ex Theol. Andreae, Heerbrandi, &c.” 16oo, folio, which in the year 1635 had passed through five editions, and is commended by father Simon, in his “Crit. Hist. of the Old Test.” Osiander was also the author of “Assertiones Theologicae de Conciliis;” “Informatio ad Cocnam sacram accedentium ;” “Papa non Papa, hoc est, Papae et Papicolarun de praecipuis Christianae Doctrina, partibus Lutherana Confessio, ex Jure Canonico et aliquot Auctoribus pontifi, usin Enchiridii formam Collecta,” 1599, octavo; which Dupin, without enquiring whether his citations from the canon law and the testimonies of ecclesiastical authors are properly applied or not, pronounces to be an excellent collection upon all points of religion, ecclesiastical discipline, &c. A selchior. Adam. Wit. Germ. Theol. FreLe Long’s Bibl. Sacra, vol. I.—M. OSIANDER, John ADAM, a German lutheran divine and professor in the seventeenth


theran divine and professor in the seventeenth century, was a native of Vayingen in the duchy of Wittemberg, but whether he was of the same family with the preceding, or in what year he was born, we are not informed. Neither are we furnished with any other particulars concerning his personal history, than that he was admitted to the degree of doctor of divinity, and appointed professor of that faculty at the university of Tubingen, where he was also elected provost, and died in the year 1697. He was the author of “Commentarius in Pentateuchum,” 1676-1678, in five volumes, folio; “Commentarius in Josuam, Librum Judicum, Ruth, et in Samuelis duos Lib,” 1681 1687, in three volumes, folio; “Ultima Jacobi Oracula de duodecim Filiis, Gen. xlix. 5.” 1669, quarto; “Disputationes Academicae in præcipua et maxime controversa Novi Testamenti Loca,” 168o, octavo ; “Disputationes Academicæ de Asylis Hebræorum, Graecorum, et Christianorum,” 1673, 12mo., “De Jubilaeo Hebræorum, Christianorum, et Academicorum,” 1677, quarto; “Observationes in Lib. Grotii de Jure Belli et Pacis;” “Specimen Jansenismi;” “Theologia casualis, de Magia,” 1687, quarto, and numerous single “Dissertations,” “Disputations,” &c. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist, Le Long's Bibl. Sacra, vol. II.-M. OSIANDER, Luke, son of the elder Andrew Osiander, and a lutheran divine of considerable learning and eminence in the sixteenth century, was born at Nuremberg, in the ear 1534. He pursued his studies at first in #. native city, and afterwards, at Konigsberg, where he cultivated with great success the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, and also went through his philosophical and theological courses. In the year 1555, when he had arrived at the age of twenty-one, he was first made deacon of the church of Göppingen, and then Copastor. In 1557, he was preferred to the pastorship and superintendency of Blauberen. Afterwards he was successively appointed pastor of St. Leonard at Stutgard, with the superintendency of the churches in that district; court preacher to the duke of Wirtemberg, and assessor of the ecclesiastical consistory; abbot of Adelberg; and first preacher at Eslingen. He sustained a part in the theological conference at Maulbrun, in 1564; that of Montbeillard, in 1586, where he entered the lists with James Andreas, against Beza and his associates; and that of Ratisbon, in 1594, with James Heilbrunner, Samuel Huber, and other WOL. VII,

divines. Afterwards we are told that he met with some harsh treatment from the senate of Eslingen; upon which he removed to Tubingen, where he died in 1604, when he was about seventy years of age. He published a “Commentary” on the whole of the Old Testament, in Latin, the title of which is variously given in our different authorities, and is thus announced by Le Long: “Biblia Lat ad Fontes Hebraici Textus emendata, cum brevi et perspicua Expositione Lucae Osiandri invertis Locis Theologicis,” 1574-1586, in seven volumes, quarto. This work, of which father Simon speaks in terms of praise in his “Crit. Hist. of the Old Test.” met with a very favourable reception, and underwent such a number of impressions, that in the year 1723, father Le Long was able to particularize no fewer than thirteen, the last of which is of the date of 1635. Osiander was also the author of “Institutiones Christianae Religionis, vel, Loci communes de Omnibus Fidei Articulis;” “Postilla Evangeliorum ;”, “Enchiridion Evangeliorum et Epistolarum dominicalium,” octavo; “Enchiridion Controversiarum Religionis inter Augustanae Confessionis I heclogos, Pontificios, Calvinianos, et Anabaptistas,” octavo ; “Epitome Historiae Ecclesiasticae,” i 657-161 o, in seven volumes, quarto, from the first to the sixteenth century, boh inclusive; “Libellus de ratione concionandi,” octavo ; and “Sermons,” controversial treatises, &c. in the German language. This author is to be distinguished from another LUKE Osi AND R, who was chancellor of the university of tubingen, and died in 1638, at the age of sixty eight. He published a volume of “Funeral Orations,” in Latin, and several treatises on the “Omnipresence of Christ's Body,” and other points in controversial divinity. Freheri 1 heatr. Vir. Erud. Clar. Witte. Diar. Biog. Le Long's Bibl. Sac. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hit.—M. OSMAN. See OTH MAN. OSMAN, Topal, a distinguished Turkish general, born in 1573, was brought up among the youth of the seraglio destined to public employments, and by his proficiency in learning languages and in military exercises, and his amiable disposition, obtained the esteem of his masters. He was appointed superintendant of the carriages; and in 1693 or 1699, he was sent to Cairo with a message from the emperor. In his passage the vessel on which he had embarked was attacked by an Algerine cruizer, and taken after an action in which vs

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man, bravely fighting, was dangerously wounded in the arm and thigh. 'The consequences of the latter wound rendered him lame for life, and gave him the surname of Topal, which signifies halting. The prize was carried to Malta, where it was visited by Vincent Arniaud, a native of Marseilles, then port-captain. Osman, on his coming on board, said to him, “Do a generous action—ransom me—you will be no loser by it.” Arniaud, struck with 'this address, asked the captain who took him what he demanded for the ransom of this slave; the answer was, a thousand sequins. Arniaud turned to Osman; “I never saw you before in my life; I know nothing of you ; and you ask me to pay a thousand sequins for you on your bare word.” “Both of us (replied Osman) act in character. For myself, I arm in setters, and it is natural that I should employ every means to regain my liberty. You naturally distrust my faith. I have no secuority to give but my word, in which you have no reason to confide: if, however, you will run the risk, I repeat, you will not repent it.” Impressed with the frankness of his words and manner, Armiaud agreed with the captain for five hundred sequins, which he paid down, and putting Osman on board a bark of his own, sent him medical assistance and every thing necessary for his recovery. When cured, Osman proposed to him to write to Constantinople for re-payment of what he had advanced, and desired to be dismissed upon his parole. Arniaud would not be generous by halves, but gave Osman permission to take the bark and dispose of it as he pleased. He immediately set sail for Damieta, whence he ascended the Nile to Cairo. He there paid to the captain one thousand sequins on account of his benefactor, and presented him with two rich pelisses for himself. He executed his commission, returned happily to Constantinople, and was himself the bearer of the news of his captivity. , His gratitude to Arniaud terminated only with his life, and during all the steps of his elevation he never intermitted a correspondence of letters and presents with him. He even extended his beneficence to all the Frenchmen with whom he had any concern. In 1715, war having been declared between

the Turks and the Venetians, the grand vizier

Ali-bashaw, intending to invade the Morea, assembled his army in the neighbourhood of the isthmus of Corinth, and gave in charge to Osman to force the passage, which he cffected,

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fought a bloody battle with Thomas Kouli

Khan, in which the Ottoman arms were victorious; and his success was rewarded with an accession of power and dignity. A second battle, however, in the following September, proved extremely disastrous to the Turks, and fatal to Osman, who was killed in the field by two musket shots. AMoreri.-A. OSORIO, JERome,a learned Portuguese prelate who flourishedin the sixteenth century. Flattery and fable deduce the family of the Osorios from no less a person than Osiris, who figures in the fabulous history of Portugal. Without going back to the demigods, Jerome was descended by both his parents from illustrious families, and born at Lisbon, in the year 1506. From early childhood he discovered a strong inclination for acquiring learning, and astonished his masters by the rapidity with which he became such a proficient in the Latin language as to be able to converse in it. At the age of thirteen he was sent to the university of Salamanca, where he perfected himself in Latin and Greek, and afterwards, by the command of his parents, applied for some time to the study of the civil law, carefully reading the best writers in that faculty. When he was nineteen years old he removed to Paris, where he studied dialectics and natural philosophy under the celebrated professors in that city, according to the Aristotelian systems then taught in the schools. , Here he became intimately acquainted with Peter le Faire, one of the first associates of Loyola; which circumstance contributed to the early introduction of the Jesuits into Portugal, by inducing him warmly to recommend the patronage of the society to king John III. From Paris Osorio went to Bologna, where he devoted himself entirely to the study of divinity, the sacred Scriptures, and the Hebrew language. The character which he here acquired for profound skill in theological and biblical knowledge, induced king John, upon Osorio's return to his native country, to appoint him professor of sacred literature at the university of Coimbra, where he explained the prophet Isaiah, and the epistle of St. Paul to the Romans, with great applause. Sometime afterwards he was ordained priest, when the infant Don Lewis presented him to the benefice of Tavara. Not long after this cardinal Henry, brother to the king, and archbishop of Evora, made him archdeacon of his church ; upon which occasion he voluntarily resigned his benefice of Tavara, that he might afford no ground for suspicion that he had devoted himself to the ecclesiastical profession from interested motives. He retained this post till Catherine of Austria, the widow of king John, and regent of the kingdom during the minority of her grandson Sebastian, promoted him to the bishopric of Sylves. He now applied to the good government of his diocese, with exemplary diligence and fidelity. Every third year he regularly visited the whole of it, exercising the strictest vigilance over the characters and morals of his clergy, and, where his admonitions failed in correcting the profligate, and insufficient, sup: plying their places with well informed and worthy successors. Instead of accumulating his revenues, or expending them in needless ostentation, he devoted the whole beyond what his frugal and necessary demands required, to useful and benevolent purposes. His palace

was the resort of learned and worthy men, whom he supported and encouraged in their honourable pursuits. He was free of access to all, and the poor and afflicted found in him a kind adviser and generous benefactor. At his domestic meals, it was his custom to have some portion out of St. Bernard's works read to him, which he afterwards made the subject of conversation, and encouraged those who were present to suggest any difficulties which might occur to them upon it. In the mean time king Sebastian had arrived at his majority; and it was with great sorrow that the worthy prelate received information of his having been determined by motives of false honour, and the persuasions of rash and intemperate advisers, to attempt the conquest of Africa. Against embarking on this desperate expedition he earnestly admonished the king, foreseeing and predicting the disastrous consequences with which it would be attended. When he found that no regard was paid to his remonstrances, under various pretences he went to Rome, that he might not be a witness to the calamities which he was sensible were impending over his country. Here he was received in an honourable manner by pope Gregory XIII. who gave him many testimonies of his esteem. King Sebastian, however, directed that he should be recalled to Portugal when he had been absent about twelve months from his diocese; and not long after his return home the fatal intelligence arrived of the destruction of that prince and his army, in the battle of

Alcazer against the Moors, on the fourth of

August 1578. For an account of the miseries in which the consequences of that battle involved Portugal, particularly after the death of king Henry, we must refer to the historians of the times. On the event last mentioned, Osorio advised submission to the claims of Philip Il. king of Spain to the crown; and he laboured to preserve the people of his diocese from taking a part in the tumults which distracted and laid waste the kingdom. These disorders he took so much to heart, that he died of grief at Tavila in his diocese, in the year 1580, when about the age of seventy. Dupin gives him the following character as an author. “He wrote with ease and eloquence.—He is entitled to the denomination of the Portuguese Cicero, since no writer has more closely imitated that Roman, whether we regard his style, his choice of subjects, or his manner of treating them. His compositions are not interlarded

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