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The vardingales or fardingales, superseded the dresses worn by the ladies in the close of the reign of Henry VIII. and that of Edward VI. Those dresses had been distinguished by an extension of the hips with for-tails and bumrolls, as they were called. These fardingales obtained the superiority over the closer habits, on account of being adapted to display the jewels of the ladies to greater advantage.
A blooming virgin in this age seems to have been solicitous to hide her skin. The very neck was generally concealed, the arms were covered quite to the wrists; the petticoats were worn long, and the head dress was close, to which was sometimes fastened a light veil, which fell down bebind
If the authority of engraved portraits may be depended on, the beard extended and expanded itself more during the short reigns of Edward VI. and Mary, than from the Con. quest to that period. Bishop Gardiner has a beard long and streaming like a comet. The beard of Cardinal Pole is thick and bushy; this might possibly be Italian. The patriarchal beard in the tapestries of those times, is both long and large; but this seems to have been the invention of the artists who drew the cartoons *.
It is remarkable that the cloak, the most conspicuous and distinguished part of a cardinal's habit, which has been banished from England ever since the death of Cardinal Pole, is also now worn by the lowest order of females, and called a cardinal.
In this reign shoes were so enormously broad at the toes, that an order was made restraining the breadth to six inches !
ELIZABETH. In Hentzner's Itinerary is given the following account of this queen's person and court at Greenwich:
thingale is literally translated cover-infant; as if it was intended to conreal pregnancy. It is perhaps of more honourable extraction, and might rignify cover-infanta, infanta being the title of the king of Spain's eldest daughter.
* This venerable appendage to the face was formerly greatly regarded. Though learned authors have written for and against almost every thing, I never saw apy thing written against the beard. The pamphlets "on the mischief of long hair," made much noise in the kingdom in the reign of Charles I.
The growth of the beard, as far as could be traced from portraits, and other remains of antiquity, never fourished more in England, than in the century preceding the Norman conquest. That of Edward the Conlessor was reinarkably large, as appears from his seal. After William took possession of the kingdom, beards became unfashionable, and were probably looked upon as badges of disloyalty, the Normans wearing only whiskers. It is said that the English spies took those invaders for an army of priests, on account of their appearing without beards. Granger. Vol. IV. No. 100.
We " We were admitted by an order Mr. Rogers had procured from the lord chamberlain, into the presence chamber, hung with rich tapestry, and the foor after the English fashion, strewed with hay (probably rushes) through which the queen commonly passes in her way to chapel: At the door stood a gentleman dressed in relvet, with a golden chain, whose office was to introduce to the queen any person of distinction, that came to wait on her: it was Sunday, when there is usually the greatest attendance of nobility. In the same hall were the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of Lon. don, a great number of counsellors of staie, ofhcers of the crown, and gentlemen, who waited the queen's coning out; which she did from her own apartment, when it was time to go to prayers, attended in the following manner: .“ First went gentlemen, barons, earls, knights of the garter, all richly dressed and bare-headed; next came the chancellor, bearing the seals in a red silk purse, between two, one of which carried the royal cepter, the other the sword of state, in a red cabbard, studded with golden fleurs de lis, the point upwards: next came the queen, in the sixty-fifth year of her age, as we were told, very majestic; her face oblong, fair, but wrinkled; her eyes small, yet black and pleasant; her nose a little hooked; her lipi narrow, and her teeth black ; (a defect the English seem subject to, from their too great use of sugar.) She had in her ears two pearls, with very rich drops, she wore false hair, and that red; upon her head she had a small crown, reported to be made of some of the gold of the celebrated Lunenbourg table: (at this distance of time, it is difficult to sawhat this was.) Her bosom was uncoveret, as all the English ladies have it, till they marry; and she had on a necklace of exceeding fine jewels; her hands were small, her fingers long, and her stature neither 'all nor low; her air was stately, her matner of speaking mild and obliging. That day she was dressed in white silk, bordered with pearls of the size of beans, and over it a mantle of black siik, shot with silver threads; her train was very long, the end of it borne by a marchioness; instead of a chain, she had an oblong collar of gold and jewels.
"As she went alonz in all this state and magnificence, she spoke very graciously, first in one, then to another, whether foreign mi nisters or those who attended for different reasons, in English, French and Italian; for, besides being well skilled in Greek, Latin and the languages I have mentioned, she is mistress of Spanish), Scotch, and Dutch. Whoever speaks to her it is kneeling; tow and then she raises some with her hand. While we were there, W. Slawata, a Bohemian baron, had letters to present to her; and she, after pulling off her glove, gave him her right hand to kiss, sparkling with rings and jewels, a mark of particular favour. Wherever she turned her face, as she was going along, every body fell down on their knees. *
• Her father had been treated with the same deserence. It is meni
tioned "The ladies of the court followed next to her, very handsome and weil shaped, and for the most part dressed in white; she was guarded on each side by the gentlemen pensioners, fifty in number, with gilt battle-axes; in the antichapel next the hall where we were, petitions were presented to her, and she received them most graciously, which occasioned the acclamation of : Long live queen Elizabeth. She answered it with, • I thank you, my good people. In the chapel was excellent music; as soon as it and the service was over, which scarce exceeded half an hour, the queen returned in the same state and order, and prepared to go to din. ner.”
With respect to the royal robes, when it is known that this monarch bad not less than three thousand in her wardrobe, to aim at particular description would be unnecessary, more especially as they are sufficiently exbibited in the many prints of this queen.
Hentzner, also informs us, " that the English in this reig, cut the hair close on the middle of the forehead, but suffered it to grow on each side.” The large jutting coats became out of fashion, and were supplied by a coat resembling a waistcoat. covered with a short cloak of black or crimson velvet, or cloth. The ruffs of gentlemen were moderate in size* ; but those of ladies were as extravagant as their farthingales.
The breeches, or to speak more properly, drawers, fell far short of the knees, and the defect was supplied with long hose, the tops of which were fastened under the drawers.
William earl of Pembroke was the first who wore knit svorsted stockings in England, in this reign. f
Edward tioned by Fox in his Acts and Monuments, that, when the lord chancellor went out to apprehend queen Catharine Parr, he spoke to the king on his knees. Lord Bacon says, that king James I. suffered his courtiers to omit it.
Some beaux about this time introduced long swords and high ruffs, which approached the royal standard. This roused the jealousy of the queen, who appointed officers to break every man's sword, and to clip all ruffs which were beyond a certain length.
+ “ It is generally understood,” says Mr. Strutt, « that stockings of silk were an article of dress unknown in this country before ihe middle of the sixteenth century; and a pair of long Spanish silk hose, at that period, was considered as a donative worthy of the acceptance of a mobarch, and accordingly was presented to king Edward V1.by Sir Thomas Gresham. This record, though it be indisputable in itself, does not by any means prove that silk stockings were not used in England prior to the reign of that prince, notwithstanding it seems to have been considered in that light by Howe, the continuator of Stow's Chronicle, who, at the same time assures us that Henry VIII, never wore any hose, but such as were made of cloth. Had he spoken in general terms, or confined his observations to the early part of king Henry's reign, I should have rea,
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· Edward Vere, earl of Oxford, introduced embroidered gloves and perfumes, which he brought from Italy into Eng. land, and presented the queen with a pair of perfumel gloves; her portrait was painted with them upon her hands. At this period was worn a hat of a singular form, which resembled a close stool pan with a broad brim.* Philip II. ju a former reign, seeins to wear one of these utensils upon his head, with a narrower brim than ordinary, and makes at least as grotesque an appearance as his countrymnan Don Quixote with the barber's bason.t
The Rev. Mr. John More, of Norwich, one of the worthiest clergymen in the reign of Elizabeth, gave the best reason that could be given for wearing the longest and largest beard of any Englisbian of his time, namely, “ that no act of his life might be unworthy of the gravity of his appearapce."
dily agreed with him; but in the present case, he is certainly mistaken; stockings of silk were not only known to that monarch but worn by him; and several pairs were found in his wardrobes after his decease. I shall notice only the following articles of this kind, taken from an inventory, in manuscript, preserved in the British Museum, (Harl. Lib. No. 1419, 1420): “ One pair of short hose, of black silk and gold woven together; one pair of hose of purple silk and Venice gold, woven like unto a cawi, and lined with blue silver sarsenet, edged with a pas emain of purple silk and of gold, wrought at Millan ; one pair of hose of white silk and gold knit, bought of Christopher Millener; six pair of black silk hose, knit.ba
In the third year of the reign of Elizabeth, mistress Montague, the queen's silk woman, presented to her majesty a pair of black knit silk stockings, which pleased her so well that she would never wear any cloth hose afterwards. These stockings were made in England, and for that reason, as well as for the delicacy of the article itself, the qucen was desirous of encouraging this new species of manufacture by her own example. Soon alier, WILLIAM RIDER, then ap prentice to 'Thomas Burdet, at the Bridge Foot, opposite the church of St. Magnus, seeing a pair of knit worsied stockings at an Italian mer: chant's, brought from Mantụa, borrowed them; and, having made a pair like unto them, presented the same to the earl of Pembroke; which was the first pair of worsted stockings known to be knit in this country. At the latter end of the reign of this queen, WILLIAM LEE, M.A. fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, invented the stocking framl. The company of frame-work knitters have commemorated the circumBiance by having the machine as their armorial bearing, and the support. ers a man in a collegiate, habit, and a young woman in the dress of the time when the frame was invented.
* " This indecent idea," says Mr. Granger, to whose History we are obliged for many of our notices, “ forcibly obtrudes itself; and I am un. der a kind of necessity or using the comparison, as I know nothing else that in any degree resembles it. See the head of the Earl of Morton, by Houbraken, &c." it. “ See his head by Werix, or in Lucius's Sylloge Nummism elegant Argentinae, 1620, rol."
Sir William Dugdale, in his “ Origines,” observes “ It was ordered in the first year of this reign, that no fellow of Lincoln's Inn should wear any beard of above a fortnight's growth."
Respecting the ladies; the stays or boddice, were worn long waisted; Lady Hunsdon, the foremost of the ladies in the print of the procession to Hunsdon House, appears with a much longer waist than those of the ladies that follow her: she might possibly have beeo a leader of the fashion as well as of the procession.
In the year 1582, the luxury of the times having greatly prevailed among the people of all degrees, in their apparel, particularly apprentices, the lord mayor, and commoncouncil enacted, “That no apprentice whatsoever should presume, 1. To wear any apparel but what he receives from his master. 2. To wear no hat, nor any thing but a woollen cap, without any silk in or about the same. 3. To wear neither suffles, cuffs, loose collars, nor other thing than a ruff at the collar, and that only of a yard and half long. 4. To'wear no doublets but what are made of canvas, fustian, sackcloth, English leather, or woollen, without any gold, silver, or silk trimming. 5. To wear no other coloured cloth or kersey in hose or stockings, than white, blue, or russet. 6. To wear no other breeches but what shall be of the same stuffs as the doublets, and neither stitched, laced, or bordered. 7. To wear no other than a plain upper coat, of cloth or lea. aber, without pinking, stitching, edging, or silk about it. 3. To wear no other surtout than a cloth gown or cloak, lined or faced with cloth, cotton or baize, with a fixed round col. lar, without stitching, guarding, lace or silk. 9. To wear no pinps, slippers or shoes, hut of English leather, without being pinked, edged, or stitched: nor girdles, nor garters, other than of crowel, woollent, thread, or leather, without being garnished. 10. To wear no sword, dagger, or other weapon, but a knife; nor a ring, jewel of gold, nor silver, nor silk, in any part of his apparel, on pain of being punished at the discretion of the master for the first offence; to be publicly whipped at the hall of his company for a second offence; and to serve six months longer than specified in his indentures for a third offence." And it was further enacted, “ that no apprentice should frequent or go to any dancing, fencing, or musical schools: nor keep any chest,
press, or other place, for keeping of apparel or goods, but · in his master's house, under the penalties aforesaid."
We conclude this part of our essay by relating a short story from “ Camden's Remains," in which the propensity