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The vardingales or fardingales, superseded the dresses Horn by the ladies in the close of the reign of HcYiry VJII. and that of Kdward VI. Those dresses had been distinguished by an extension of the hips with fox-tails nn&bitmrolls, as they ivere called. These fardingales obtained the superiority over the closer habits, on accQunt of being adapted to display the jewels of the ladies to greater advantage.

A blooming virgin in this age seems to have been solicitous to hide her skin. The very neck was generally concealed, the arms were covered quite to the wrists; the petticoats were worn long, and the head dress was close, to which was sefhetimes fastened a light veil, which fell down behind.

If the authority of engraved portraits may be depended on, the beard extended and expanded itself more during the short reigns of Edward VI. and Mary, than from the Conquest to that period. Bishop Gardiner has a beard long and streaming like a comet. The beard of Cardinal Pole is thick and bushy; this might possibly be Italian. The patriarchal beard in the tapestries of those times, is both long and large r but this seems to have been the invention of the artists who drew the cartoons*.

It is ren;arkable that the cloak, the most conspicuous and distinguished part of a cardinal's habit, which has been banished from England ever since the death of Cardinal Pole, is also now worn by the lowest order of females, and called a cardinal.

In this reign shoes were so enormously broad at the toes, that an order was made restraining the breadth to six inches!

Elizabeth. In rlentzner's Itinerary is given the following account of this queen's person and court at Greenwich:

thnga'e is literally translated cover-infant^ as if it was intended to conceal pregnancy. It is perhaps of more honourable extraction, and might signify cover-infanta, infanta being the title of the king of Spain's eldest daughter.

* This venerable appendage (o the face was formerly greatly regarded. Though learned authors have written for and against almost every thing, I never saw any thing written against the beard. The pamphlets "on the mischief of long hair," made much rroise in the kingdom in the reign of Charles I.

The growth of the beard, as far as could be traced from portraits, and other remains of antiquity, never flourished more in England, than in the century preceding the Norman conquest. That of Edward the Conlessor was remarkably large, as appears from his seal. After William took possession of the kingdom, beards became unfashionable, and were probably looked upon as badges of disloyalty, the Normans wearing only whiskers. It is said that the English spies took those invaders for an »rmy of priests, on account of their appearing without beards. Granger.

Vqi. IV. No. 100. i C Wq

"We were admitted by an erder Mr. Rogers had procured frost ihe lord chamber tain, into the presence chamber hung with rk* lapestry, and the floor after the English fashion, strewed with bay (probably rusAei) through which the queen commonly pusti in her way to chapel: At the door stood a gentleman dressed in velvet, with a golden chain, whose office was to introduce to the queen any person of distinction, that came lo wait on her: it was Sunday, when there is usually the greatest attendance of nobility. In the same hall were the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of London, a great number of counsellors of staie, officers of the crown, and gentlemen, who waited the queen's coming out; which she did from her own apartment, when it was lime to go to prayers, attended in the following manner:

. "First went gentlemen, barons, earls, knights of the garter, all richly dressed and bare-headed; next came the chancellor, bearing the seals in a red silk purse, between two, one of which carried the royal scepter, the other the sword of state, in a red -calibird, studded with golden fleurs de lis, the point upwards: next carte the queen, in tlie sixty-fifth year of herage. as we were told, very majestic; her face oblong, fair, but wrinkled; her eyes small, yet black and pleasant; her nose a little hooked; her lip. narrow, and her teeth black; (a defect the English seem subject to, from their too great use of .rugae.) She had in her cars two pearls, with very rich drops; she wore false hair, and that red; upon her head *ht had a small crown, reported to be made of some of the gold of the celebrated Lunenbonr? table: (at this distance of time, it is difficult to a^wliat this was.) Her bosom was uncovered, as all the English ladies have it, till they marry; and she had on a necklace of exceeding fine jewels; her hands were small, her fingers long, and her staiure neither (all nor low; her air was stately, her manlier of speaking rniM and obliging. That day she was dressed in white silk, bordered with pearls of the size of beans, and over it a mantle of black siik, shot with silver threads; her irain was very long, the end of it borne by a marchioness; instead of a chain, she had an oblong cellar of gold and jewels.

"As she went along in all this state and niagni iicence, she spoke *ery graciously, first to one, then to another, whether foreign mu nisters or those who attended for different reasons, in En*li*h, French and Italian; for, besides being w ell skilled in Greek, Latin and the languages I have mentioned, she is mistress of Spanish, Scotch, and Dutch. Whoever speaks to her it is kneeling; now and then she raises some with her hand. While we were there, W. Slawata, a Bohemian baron, had letters to' present loher; and she, after pulling off her glove, gave him her right band to kiss, sparkling with rings and jeweN, a mark of pari cular favour. Wherever she fumed her face, as she was going along, every hody fell down on their knees.*

• Her father had been treated with the same deference. It is ratn


*' The ladies of the court followed next to her, very handfome and well shaped, and for the. most part dressi'd in white; she was guarded on each side by the gentlemen pensioners, fifty in number, with gilt battle-axes; in the anlicbapel next the hall where we were, petitions were presented to her, and she received them most graciously, which occasioned the acclamation of ' Long live queen. Elizabeth.' She answered it with, * I thank you, my good people.' In the chapel was excellent music; as soon as it and the service was over, which scarce exceeded half an hour, the queen returned in fhe same state and order, and prepared to go to dinner."

With respect to the royaj robes, when it is known that this monarch had not less than three thousand in her wardrobe, to aim at particular description would be unnecessary, more especially as they are sufficiently exhibited in the many prints .of this tjtieen.

Hentzner, also informs us, "that the English in this reign, cut the hair close on the middle of the forehead, but suffered it to grow on each side." The large jutting coats became out of fashion, and were supplied by a coat resembling a waistcoat, covered with a short cloak of black or crimson velvet, or cloth. The ruffs of gentlemen were moderate in size*; but those of ladies were as extravagant as their farthingales.

The breeches, or to speak more properly, drawers, fell far short of the knees, and the defect was supplied with long hose, the tops of which were fastened under the drawers.

William earl of Pembroke was the first who wore knit worsted stockings in England, in this reign, f


•ioned by Fox in his Acts and Monuments, that, when the lord chancellor went out to apprehend queen Catharine Pavr, he spoke to the king on his knees. Lord Bacon says, that king James I. suffered his courtiers to omit iti

f Some beaux about this time introduced long swords and high ruffs, which approached the royal standard. This roused the jealousy of the queen, who appointed officers to break every man's sword, and to clip all ruffs which were beyond a certain length.

f " It is generally understood," says Kir. Strutt, " that stockings of •ilk were an article of dress unknown in this country before the middle of the sixteenth century; and a pair of long Spanish silk hose, at that period, was considered as a donative worthy of the acceptance of a monarch, and accordingly was presented to king Edward VI. by Sir Thomas Gresham. This record, though it be indisputable in itself, does not by any means prove that silk stockings were not used in England prior to the reign of that prince, notwithstanding it seems to have been considered in that light by Howe, the continuator of Stow.'s Chronicle, who, at the same nine assures us thai Henry VIII. never wore any hose, but such as were made of cloth. Had he spoken in general terms, or confined his observations to the early part of king Henry's reign, I should have rea

Edward Verc, earl of Oxford, introduced embroidered gloves and perfumes, which he brought from Italy into England, and presented the" queen witli a pair of perfumed gloves; her portrait was painted with them upon her hands. At this period was worn a hat of a singular form, which resembled a close stool pan with a broad brim.* Philip II. iu a former reign, seems to wear one of these utensils upon lit. head, with a narrower brim than ordinary, and makes at least as grotesque an appearance as his countryman Don Qnixos* with the barber's bason.+

The Rev. Mr. John More, of Norwich, one of the worthiest clergymen in the reign of Elizabeth, gave the best reason that could be given for wearing the longest and largest beard of any Englishman of his time, namely, "that no act of his life might be unworthy of the gravity of bis appearauce."

dify agreed with him; but in the prcseut rase, he is certainly mistake!*; stockings of silk were not only known to that monarch hut worn by him; and several pairs were found in his wardrobes after iiis decease. I shail notice only the following articles of this kind, taken from an intemorv, in manuscript, preserved in the British Museum, {Hurl. Lib. No. 1419, 1420): " One pair of short hose, of black silk and gold woven tor ether; one pair of hose of purple silk and Venice gold, woven like unto a caw., and lined with blue silver sarsenet, edged with a pas?emain of purple silk and of gold, wrought at Millan j one pair of hose of white silk acd gold knit, bought of Christopher Millencr; six pair of Mack silk hosf knit/

In the third year of the reign of Eli7.a!icth, mistress Montague, the *tneen's silk woman, presented to her majesty a pair of black knit siii stockings, which pleased her so well that she would never wear any cloth hose afterwards. These stockings were made in England, and for that reason, as well as for the delicacy of the article itself, the queen was desirous of encouraging this new species of manufacture by her own example* Soon after, William Rider, then apprentice to Thomas Burdet, at the Bridge Foot, opposite the church of St. Magnus, seeing a pair of knit .worsted stockings at an Italian merchants, brought from Mantua, borrowed them; and, having made a pair like unto them, presented the same to the earl of Pembroke; which was the first pair of worsted stockings known to be knit in this country. At the latter end of the reign of this queen, William Lee, M.A. fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, invented the stocking jttmt. The company of frame-work knitters have commemorated the circumstance by having the machine as their armorial bearing, and the supporters a man in a collegiate, habit, and a young woman in the dress of the time when the frame was invented.

• "This indecent Wea," says Mr. Granger, to whose History we are obliged for many of our notices, " forcibly obtrudes itself; and Iamuader a kind of necessity of using the comparison, as I know nothing e!ie that in any degree resembles it. See the head of the Earl of Morton, by Houbrakcn, &c."

f "See his head by Werix, or in LuciuVs Svlloge Nummism elejant Arjjtntinae, 1620, foi."


Sir William Dugdale, in his " Origines," observes " It was ordered in the first year of this reign, that no fellow of Lincoln's Inn should wear any beard of above a fortnight's growth."

Respecting the ladies; the .stays or boddice, were worn long waisted; Lady Hunsdon, the foremost of the ladies in the print of the procession to Hunsdon House, appears with a much longer waist than those of the ladies that follow her: she might possibly have been a leader of the fashion as well as of the procession.

In the year 1582, the luxury of the times having greatly prevailed among the people of ail degrees, in their apparel, particularly apprentices, the lord mayor, and common council enacted, "That no apprentice whatsoever should presume, I. T-o wear any apparel but what he receives from his master. 2. To wear no hat, nor any thing but a woollen s ap, without any silk in or about the same. 3. To wear neither ruffles, cutFs, loose collars, nor other thing than a ruff at the collar, and that only of a yard and half long. 4. To wear no doublets but what are made of canvas, fustian, .sackcloth, English leather, or woollen, without any gold, tilver, or silk trimming. 5. To wear no other coloured cloth •>r kersey in hose or stockings, than white, blue, or russet.

6. To wear no other breeches but what shall be of the same stuffs as the doublets, and neither stitched, laced, or bordered.

7. To wear no other than a plain upper coat, of cloth or leather, without pinking, stitching, edging, or silk about it. S. To wear no other surtout than a cloth gown or cloak, lined or faced with cloth, cotton or baize, with a fixed round collar, without stitching, guarding, lace or silk. 9. To wear no pumps, slippers or shoes, but of English leather, without being pinked, edged, or stitched: nor girdles, nor garters, other than of crewel, woolk-n, thread, or leather, without being garnished. 10. To wear no sword, dagger, or other weapon, but a knife; nor a ring, jewel of gold, nor silver, nor silk, in any part of his apparel, on pain of being punished at the discretion of the master for the first offence; to be publicly whipped at the hall of his company for a second offence; and to serve six months longer than specified in his indentures for a third offence." And it was further enacted, "that no apprentice should frequent or goto anydancing, fencing, or musical schools: nor keep any chest, press,' or other place, for keeping of apparel or goods, but in his master's house, under the penalties aforesaid."

We conclude this part of our essay by relating a short story from " Camden's Remains," in which the propensity


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