صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني
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shown at oo, fig. 4. This shaft o has two crankstion of loom employed for the weaving of figured upon it, which, by means of the connecting links goods, and consists in certain machinery to be pp, gives motion to the lay. The other end of this placed above the loom for the purpose of effecting shaft has a small toothed-wheel 9, seen at fig. 3, the raising and depressing of such parts of the warp which takes into another toothed-wheel r, of twice as are usually operated upon by the draw boy. the diameter, which last is fixed upon the end of an Very considerable difficulty and labor are attendant horizontal axle tt, extending the whole width of upon the old mode of setting in any particular the loom, as shown al fig. 1. This axle has a small pattern, figure, or design to be woven, but this labor bevel pinion v fixed upon it, which actuates a be- and consequent expense are, in a great measure, vel-wheel u upon the cross axle w. The tappet overcome by the plan proposed under the present wheel x is also fixed upon this axle, and the geer patent. is so regulated that the tappet wheel makes one A section of the improved piece of mechanism revolution to every nine revolutions of the crank is shown in plate II., fig. 1, which is to be placed shaft.

immediately over the heddles or leases of the loom; The tappet wheel r is formed by two wheels a is a cylinder mounted upon an axle, and supportwhich carry nine small axles, on each of these ed upon bearings in the frame. The periphery of axles are six small friction rollers, making in the this cylinder is perforated with a vast number of whole fifty-four friction rollers. These rollers are holes at equal distances apart, so as to render the intended to act upon twelve curved levers y, 2, fig. appearance of its entire surface like a colander. 1. The curved levers move upon fixed centres Previous to placing the cylinder in the loom, it is supported in small bearings ; six of these curved to be covered with stout drawing paper, and, when levers are supported at 1, and the other six at 2, set in such a situation that the light may shine crossing each other, as shown in fig. 1, the extre- through the perforations, a small punch is to be mities of the levers alternately rising and falling. employed for the purpose of pricking through the The ends of these levers, towards the middle of the paper, and through the cylinder, certain holes corloom, are attached by cords to the lower rails of responding to the required pattern. the heddles, and their other extremities by cords The cylinder thus pierced is then placed in the to the top levers, from which are suspended the up- frame as shown at a, so as to revolve upon its piper rails of the heddles.

vots, resting in bearings capable of accurate adjustThe operation of the tappet wheel upon the hed- ment. A series of needles b are ranged in a horidles is this :—Having been actuated by means of zontal position, so that their end may come in the shaft and geer, as before described, the wheel contact with the periphery of the cylinder.-Cords in its revolution causes the friction rollers to strike cc and dd, fastened to the frame above, pass through alternately upon one or other of the levers y or 2, eyes in the needles, and proceed down to the hedand force them down, by which means the respec- dles or leases below. These needles work in guide tive teddles are depressed or raised at certain parts pieces, and are supported by a straight bar e, of the operation, and these drawing the sheds of the which passes through their bent.parts behind, and warp up or down to permit the shuttle to pass, as by that means they are enabled to slide acccuratebefore described, dispose the warp according to ly in a line with the axis of the cylinder. When that particular arrangement which is calculated to the ends of the needles come against the blank or produce a twilled fabric. In order to vary the unpierced parts of the paper upon the periphery of iwill, the friction rollers are capable of being shift- the cylinder, they are pressed back, and the cords ed, and, by so disposing the collets between the are drawn out of the perpendicular, as d, d, by rollers, certain of them may be situated so as not which means the needles acquire a tendency to adto act upon any particular one or more of the curv- vance when any of the apertures come opposite ed levers.

them, so as to permit their ends to slide forward. The operation of pecking, or throwing the shut- When any of the needles have slidden forward ile, is effected by means of a double arm or tappet through any of the apertures of the cylinder, the 3 on the axis of the shaft tt, which acts upon the cords attached to those needles become straight as levers 4, seen in fig. 3, whence rods and bands (, c. There are four bars ; &, f, g, from each of pass to a vibrating lever 5, upon the axle of a which a row of forks, like a wide toothed comb, wheel at the top of the loom in front, as seen in fig. extend. Between the forks or teeth of these bars 1. Thus the revolution of the tappets 3, causing the cords pass; and as the bars are drawn up or the alteration of the levers 4, produce the vibratory let down, by the action of the top levers, a knot in action of the lever 5; and cords being passed from each of the cords causes them and the heddles to this lever to the peckers 6, 6, cause the peckers al- which they are attached below to be drawn up or ternately to strike the shuttle out of its box, and let down also: it will hence be seen that those send it across the lay e.

needles which have been allowed to advance by There is a provision in case the shuttle should passing into the apertures of the cylinder, draw the by any accident stop in the race to prevent the lay bent cords d, d, into the straight position of c c, and from coming forward, which would otherwise break by that means those cords are withdrawn from the the reed; this is by means of small springs in the teeth of the forked bars g, g, and are placed beshuttle boxes, which, when the shuttle has not tween the teeth of f 1, which, in rising, take hold reached its destination, stand out and catch against of the knots and list the heddles attached to the small projections, and by that means stop the ad- cords so operated upon; while those needles which vance of the lay. Whenever this happens, the are forced back by the blanks of the cylinder keep main strap m is, by the sudden action of a spring, their cords bent in the position of d, d, and the

off the rigger of the main shaft, and the heddles connected to these cords are lifted by the machinery is altogether stopped until the accidental rising of the bars g, g; thus the different parts of interruption is removed.

the warp required to be raised, to produce any The second improvement applies to that descrip- particular pattern or damask figure, are so raised by the shifting of the cords connected to the re. lever k, which will cause the hook f to be lifted spective heddles from the fork bars f 10 g, or from out of the teeth of the ratchet, and the beating up g to f, as may be required, which is effected by the of the cloth will proceed without causing the roller sliding of the needles as above described.

e to draw it off until a second weft thread has been The manner in which the different parts of this introduced, which by the increased thickness prepiece of mechanism are put in action is as follows: vents the advance of the lay as before, and now al-h is a main shaft turned by a connexion with the lows the hook to take hold of the ratchet, and draw lay of the loom, so as to move half round every it one tooth forward. When this contrivance is time that the shuttle has been passed across the adapted to a power loom, the lay must be worked warp. Upon this shaft there are several cams or by an arm which has a spring, in order to permit tappets operating upon levers; i is one of these the lay to advance according to the thickness of the cams, which, as it revolves, strikes against the fric- weft. tion roller of a bent lever j, and drives the rod k The fourth improvement applies to the working forward. At the reverse end of this rod k there is of the yarn roller and the cloth roller together, by a vibrating lever l, connected to which a pall m is means of certain machinery as will be explained. attached, and this, taking into the ratchet' teeth of Fig. 3 shows the end of a loom with such parts as the cylinder a, causes the cylinder to advance one are necessary to explain this improvement; a is tooth every time that the cam i strikes the lever j, the yarn roller with a toothed wheel b upon its and rod k. There is a hook n, by the side of the axis; c is a horizontal shaft having an endless pall m, which is connected also to the action of the screw upon it, taking into the toothed wheel; d is lever l and rod k, for the purpose of giving the cy- a friction pulley, over which two weighted cords linder a retrograde motion, which is requisite pass, the one e fastened to the frame, the other f atwhen the figure or pattern is designed to be worked tached to an arm or lever g, extending from the backwards and forwards, as in what is called a leg of the lay. When the lay goes back, previous to point pattern; the means of putting either the pall throwing the shuttle, the lever g draws down the or the hook out of action is a cam upon the shaft o. cord f, in which act the pulley d and its shaft e is

In order to move the cylinder forward one tooth turned a short distance 'round, and the endless of a revolution, it is necessary to withdraw those screw upon this shaft taking into the toothed wheel needles that have passed into the apertures ; this b causes that wheel and the roller a to tura sufis done by the cam or tappet wheel p (also upon the ficiently to give out a portion of the warp. main shaft) permitting the rod 9 to recede, and When the lay returns, for the purpose of beating up with it the guide bar e, which draws the whole of the west, the lever g slackens the cord f, which now the needles b a short distance back every time that slides and is drawn tight by the weight at its exthe shuttle has passed across the loom. The lifting tremity, the pulley d being prevented from returnof the fork bars is produced by two tappets r and ing by the friction of the weighted cord e. s, likewise upon the main shaft, which, coming in In order to regulate the delivery of the warp, contact with the friction rollers of the bent levers according to the larger or smaller diameter of the t, v, by the cords at their extremities, alternately warp roller a, a lever h is placed at the back of the pull down the longer arms of the top levers, and loom, carrying the friction roller i, which is pressed ihereby cause the shorter arms of the same levers against the periphery of the warp roller by the tento lift the forked bars and the cords c or d as be- sion of a cord j fastened to the lever h, and passing fore described.

thence over a pulley to the arm or lever g before The third improvement applicable to looms con- mentioned. This lever is pressed by a spring 1 in sists in a new mode of taking up or winding the the side of the lay, and as the diameter of the warp cloth or fabric upon the beam, or cloth roller as it roller diminishes; the lever h advances and relaxes accumulates in the loom; this part of the invention the cord j, by which the spring / is enabled to force is capable of adaptation to both power looms, and the arm g farther out, and hence the cord f is those worked by hand. It has been found extremely drawn further down in the receding of the lay above difficult in hand looms to produce an even cloth, described, which draws the pulley also, and thereowing to the unequal force by which the lay has by causes the toothed wheel and the warp roller to beaten up the weft or shoot. This contrivance is advance more rapidly than would be required if shown at fig. 2, which exhibits an end view of a the roller was full. power loom, such parts only being shown as are In opening the sheds of warp for passing the necessary for the illustration of this contrivance.- shuttle, the warp roller is not permitted to give a is the roller upon which the yarn is wound; this way as in other looms : but the cloth roller is roller turns with considerable friction, owing to the made to yield by the following means :—m is the weighted cord coiled round it, which distends the cloth roller, having a toothed wheel upon its axis, warp threads b. The roller upon which the cloth taking into a pinion which is fixed upon the axis of is wound is marked c, and has upon its axis a the pulley n; this pulley has two grooves of differtoothed wheel d, taking into a pinion upon the axle ent diameters, round which pass cords with baof the ratchet wheel e. This ratchet wheel is mov- lance weights. As the lay vibrates, its tail lever o ed round by a hooked pall f, which is connected to draws the cord up and down, which by friction the lever g; and this lever, being jointed to the leg causes the pulley to move sufficiently to afford the of the lay h, causes the hook to pull the ratchet required relaxation of the cloth. wheel one tooth at every vibration of the lay. The fifth improvement consists in disposing the

If the west or shoot carried by the shuttle be of warps and shuttles in several ranges, one above the uniform substance, the cloth or other fabric woven other, which particularly applies to ribbon looms; by these means will be of an even texture; but, if in this improvement the shuttles are placed in the some parts of the west be thinner than other parts, lay in several rows, and consequently several porthen the lay will come forward a small distance tions of reeds are adapted to correspond to the seand permit the tail rod i to strike against the short veral rows of warp. The sixth improvement is in


the manner of working these shuttles for the weav. to Edinburgh, in 1693. He published several sering of narrow goods as ribbons ; by which arrange- mons, and died in 1720. ment, shuttles with different colors or shades of WEBSTER (Alexander), D. D., son to the precolor may be worked at the same time. The lay is ceding, was born in 1737, studied at Edinburgh, provided with an iron sliding frame, having beaters and in 1733 was ordained minister in Culross. In extending up and down, so as to reach the several 1737 he was called to the Tolbooth church in Edinshuttles in the upper and lower rows ; or, if more burgh. In 1745 he continued in the city when it than two rows of shuttles be arranged, then the was taken by the rebels, and all the clergy had sliding beater is formed as a ladder.

fled. By his popularity and eloquence he retained WEB, n. s. Sax. pebba. Texture; any vast numbers loyal to the house of Hanover. He WEB’BED, adj. ( thing woven; a film: webbed suggested and entirely planned the scheme for the WEB'FOOTED, is joined by a film : webfooted, relief of the ministers' widows of the church of

WEB'ster,n. s.) having films between the toes: Scotland, called the widows' scheme. To him also webster, a weaver (obsolete).

was owing the first outline of the plan for extendPenelope, for her Ulysses' sake,

ing the royalty, and building the new town of Devised a web her wooers to deceive :

Edinburgh. In 1755 he was engaged in a work of In which the work that she all day did make,

vast public utility, being the first Statistical Account The same at night she did again unreave. Spenser. This is the foul Aibertigibbet ; he gives the web and of the different parishes which he procured, other

of Scotland; and the amount of the population the pin, squints the eye, and makes the hairlip.


investigations have since proved to be exceedingly

He died in 1784. Spiders touched, seek their web's inmost part.


WEBSTER (Charles), M. D., a learned physician, After local names, the most in number have been born in Dundee, and educated at St. Andrew's, derived from occupations: as, Taylor, Webster, Wheeler. where he also studied divinity. About 1760 he

Camden. went to Edinburgh, where he practised as a physiThe sword, whereof the web was steel ;

cian, gave lectures on chemistry and materia mediPommel, rich stone ; hilt, gold approved by touch. ca, at the public dispensary, where he was assist


ant physician along with Mr. Duncan; and became The fates, when they this happy web have spun, minister of the non-jurant Scottish episcopal conShall bless the sacred clue, and bid it smoothly run.


gregation in Carrubber's Close, and afterwards of

St. Peter's Chapel in Roxburgh place, which he Webfooled fowls do not live constantly upon the

himself built. He lived many years much respected land, nor fear to enter the water.

Ray. Such as are whole-footed, or whose toes are webbed in Edinburgh, and contributed greatly to the protogether, their legs are generally short, the most conve- curing the repeal of the penal laws against the nient size for swimming.

Derham. Episcopalians of Scotland, and was one of the WEBB (Philip Carteret), esq., an eminent committee which went to London on that business. English antiquary and lawyer, born in 1700. In He published a short essay, proving condensation 1751 he was employed to procure the charter of to be the cause of heat, and some other chemical incorporation for the Society of Antiquaries, Lon- tracts. He went abroad during the revolutionary don.' In 1754 he was elected M. P. for Hasle- war, and died in the West Indies about 1797. lle mere; and re-elected in 1761. He was appointed published also a sermon preached at the opening solicitor to the treasury ; in which office he con- of St. Peter's Chapel, and an occasional prayer tinued till June 1765. In 1747 he published prefixed. A volume of his posthumous sermons Observations on the Proceedings in the Admiralty has been published for the benefit of his daughters. Courts, 8vo. In 1760 he presented the famous WEBSTER (William), a mathematician of LonHeraclean Table to the king of Spain, for which don, born in 1684, who kept a school in Leicesterhe received a diamond ring worth £300. In April, Fields. He translated from the French of La 1763, he was employed in defending Mr. Wilkes Hoste A Compendious course of Mathematics; 2 in the celebrated prosecution against him. On that vols. 12mo. He also wrote a Treatise on Arithmeoccasion he published A Collection of Records tic; and another on Book-keeping; and died in about General Warrants, and other political tracts. 1744, aged sixty. He also published, 1. A Letter to Dr. Warburton, WECHEL (Christopher), a celebrated printer 1742, 8vo. 2. Excerpta ex Instrumentis Publicis of the sixteenth century at Paris ; who in 1530 de Judæis, 4to., with other tracts about the Jew began to print elegant and correct editions of the bills. 3. Account of a Copper Table discovered ancient Greek authors. To make them perfectly at Heraclea, 1760. He published many other accurate, he employed the learned Sylburgius to temporary tracts. He was three times married; prepare the copy and correct the proofs. He died and died in 1770.

in 1572. They were so correct that not two errors WEBSTER (Rev. James), a Scottish divine, could be found in a large folio. was educated at St. Andrew's, then under the noted Wechel (Andrew), son of Christopher, being a archbishop Sharp, to whom he rendered himself Protestant, about the time of the massacre of Paris, obnoxious by his attachment to Presbyterian prin- fled to Frankfort and to Basil, where he carried on ciples. Having joined the party who refused to the printing with equal reputation as his father. abjure the covenant (see CAMERONIANS, Cargil- He published a catalogue of all the books printed LITES, &c.), he shared in their persecutions, and by them both at Frankfort, in 8vo. 1590. He underwent two severe imprisonments in Dundee printed also many valuable works at Basil. and Dumfries, from the latter of which he was WED, v. a. & v.n. Sax. pedian. To marry; liberated by king James VII.'s act of universal WED'DING, n. 8.

take for a husband or wife; toleration in 1685. On the establishment of Pres- join in marriage; unite or take permanently: to byterianism in 1688 he obtained firsi Liberton, contract matrimony: a wedding is the nuptial cewhence he was removed to Whitekirk, and lastly remony; marriage.

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