« السابقةمتابعة »
one of which is placed a figure, in regular succession, from one to nine. Each of the players provides himself with a smooth halfpenny, which he places upon the edge of the table, and striking it with the palm of his hand, drives it towards the marks; and according to the value of the figure affixed to the partition wherein the halfpenny rests, his game is reckoned; which generally is stated at thirtyone, and must be made precisely : if it be exceeded, the player goes again for nine, which must also be brought exactly, or the turn is forfeited ; and if the halfpenny rests upon any of the marks that separate the partitions, or overpasses the external boundaries, the go is void.”
I fele my torments so increse,
That lyfe cannot remayne.
Deth doth draw nye,
(6) SCENE IV.--Bartholomew boar-pig.] — Roast pig, even down to the middle of the last century, appears to have constituted one of the staple attractions of Bartholomew fair. See Ben Jonson's play of “Bartholomew Fair," and D'Avenant's burlesque poem on a long vacation:
"Now London's chief, on sadle new,
Rides to the Fare of Bartholemew;
(5) SCENE IV.
This is the beginning of a mournful ballad, of which we append the first and last stanzas, said to have been composed by Anne Boleyne, but which Ritson thought was more likely to have been written by her brother, George, Viscount Rochford, who was reputed to be the author of several poems, songs, and sonnets. Mr. W. Chappell (Popular Music, &c., vol. i. p. 238) has published the first stanza, with the tune, from a manuscript of the latter part of the reign of Henry VIII.
“ O Death, rocke me on slepe,
Bring me on quiet reste,
Out of my carefull brest;
For I must dye,
(7) SCENE IV.-Flap-dragons. The sport of placing a plum or raisin in a shallow dish of spirit, and then setting light to it, and while the whole was in a flame, snatching out the flap-dragon, as it was called, with the mouth, was borrowed from the Dutch. Our gallants, who vied with each other in disgusting extravagances while toasting their mistresses, improved upon the Dutch practice, by making even a candle's end into a flap-dragon, and swallowing that off. An allusion to this, and another frantic absurdity of the fast youths of former times—that of puncturing their arms, and drinking the health of their charmers in blood, occurs in an old ballad, called “The Man in the Moon drinks Claret:"
"* Farewell my pleasures past,
Welcum my present payne,
" Bacchus the father of drunken nowles,
Full mazers, beakers, glasses, bowls,
(1) SCENE II.-I was once of Clement s-inn. This Inn was so called, says Stow, “because it standeth near to St. Clement's Church, but nearer to the fair fountain called Clement's Well.” How long before 1479, nineteenth of Edward IV., it was occupied by students of the law is not known, but that it had been so inhabited for some time previously is quite certain ; and we have the testimony of Strype to show that in after-times the roisterers of the Inns of Court fully maintained the repu. tation which Shallow took so much pride in claiming for himself and his fellow swinge-bucklers: “Here about this Church," he is speaking of St. Clement's, "and in the parts adjacent, were frequent disturbances by reason of the unthrifts of the Inns of Chancery, who were so unruly on nights, walking about to the disturbance and danger of such as passed along the streets, that the inhabitants were fain to keep watches. In the year 1582, the Recorder himself, with six more of the honest inhabitants, stood by St. Clement's Church, to see the lanthorn hung out, and
observe if he could meet with any of these outrageous dealers."-Strype's Stow, vol. ii. p. 108, ed. 1755.
For the king's sons, and writ in ballad royal
Daintily well," &c. as described by Ben Jonson in his Masque of “The Fortunate Isles." This was Henry Scogan. The other, John Scogan, whom Holinshed mentions as “a learned gentleman of Edward the Fourth's reign, student for a time in Oxford, of a pleasaunto witte, and bent to mery devises, in respect whereof he was called into the courte, where guiding himselfe to his naturall inclination of mirthe and
Pasaunt pastime, he plaied many sporting parts," &c.
Others believe there was but one poet of the name, and that the compositions attributed to the supposed Scogan of Edward the Fourth's time were written by him of Henry IV. It is needless to prolong the controversy. There was cert
s certainly a book published in the reign of Henry VIII. by Andrew Borde, called “Scoggin's Jests," which was reprinted in 1565 ; and the father of these jokes was no doubt considered by Shakespeare and his auditory as a court-jester of a former period, whether in the reign of Henry IV. or Edward IV. was not material.
(2) Scene II.-I saw him break Skogan's head. Some of the commentators contend there were two Skogans, one
" A fine gentleman, and a master of arts,
(3) SCENE II.-Our watch-word vos, llem, boys ! ] There was an old rollicking song, whose burden, hem, boys, hem ! still lingered in Justice Shallow's memory, and of which the only verse now extant is quoted by Brome in his comedy of A Jovial Creu, or the Merry Beggars, first acted in 1611 :
" There was an old fellow at Waltham Cross,
| frequently so engaged, he had also higher duties. He Who merrily sung when he liv'd by the loss,
figured now and then in the religious plays of a later date ; He never was heard to sigh with hey-ho,
and in The Life and Repentance of Mary Magdalea, But sent it out with a hey trolly-lo! He cheer'd up his heart, when his goods went to wrack,
1567, he performed the part of her lover, before her con. With a hem, boys, hem! and a cup of old sack."
version, under the name of Infidelity : in King Darius,
*Act II. Sc. 1. 1565, he also acted a prominent part, by his own impulses Mr. Chappell (“Popular Music of the Olden Time," i.
to mischief, under the name of Iniquity, without any 262), acquaints us with the interesting fact, that the
prompting from the representative of the principle of
evil. Such was the general style of the Vice, and as original air to which the above burden was sung, is the
Iniquity he is spoken of by Shakespeare (“Richard III." same still heard in the well-known chorus,
III. 1,) and Ben Jonson, ("Staple of News,” second In“A very good song, and very well sung;
termean.) The Vice and Iniquity seem, however, someJolly companions every one."
times to have been distinct persons,* and he was not
unfrequently called by the name of particular vices : thus, (4) SCENE II.-I was then Sir Dagonet in Arthur's || in Lusty Juventus, the Vice performs the part of Hyshow. Arthur's show appears to have been an exhibition pocrisy ; in Common Conditions, he is called Conditions ; performed by a band of Toxopholites, calling themselves in Like Will to Like, he is named Nichol Newfangle; in * The Auncient Order, Society, and Unitie laudable of The Trial of Treasure, his part is that of Inclination ; Prince Arthure and his Knightly Armory of the Round in All for Money, he is called Sin ; in Tom Tyler and Table,” the associates of which took the names of the his Wife, Desire ; and in dppius and Virginia, Hapknights who figure in the famous romance, and were fifty hazard. eight in number. Their ordinary place of rendezvous was Gifford designates the Vice “the Buffoon of the Old Mile End Green, for ages the spot chosen by the Londoners Mysteries and Moralities," as if he had figured in the for their martial sports and exercises, but they occasionally Miracle-plays represented at Chester, Coventry, York, presented their spectacle in Smithfield and in other parts and elsewhere. Malone, also, speaks of him as the “conof the city. Of the origin of this Society nothing is stant attendant" of the Devil in “the ancient religious known ; but from a passage in the dedication of a rare plays ;" but the fact is, that the Vice was wholly unknown tract by Richard Robinson, its historian and poet, we learn in our religious plays, which have hitherto gone by the that it was confirmed by charter under Henry VIII. ; who, | name of Mysteries. The Life and Repentance of Mary “when he sawe a good archer indeede, he chose him, and Magdalen, and King Darius, already mentioned as conordained such a one for a knight of this order.” That it taining the character of the Vice, were not written until flourished in Shakespeare's time is proved by the following after the reign of Mary. The same remark will apply extract from a treatise on the training of children, by to the Interlude of Queen Hester, 1561, which differs from Richard Mulcaster (1581), Master of St. Paul's School, other religious plays, inasmuch as the Vice there is a where the writer, expatiating on the utility of Archerie as court-jester and servant, and is named Hardydardy. a preservative of health, says :-“how can I but prayse On the external appearance of the Vice, Mr. Douce has them, who professe it throughly, and maintaine it nobly, observed, that, “ being generally dressed in a fool's habit," the friendly and frank felloroship of Prince Arthur's he was gradually and undistinguishably blended with the Knights, in and about the citie of London? which, if I domestic fool. Ben Jonson, in his Devil is an Ass, alludes had sacred to silence, would not my good friend in the to this very circumstance, when he is speaking of the citie, Maister Hewgh Offly, and the same my noble fellow fools of old kept in the houses of the nobility and in that order, Syr Launcelot, at our next meeting have
gentry :given me a soure nodde, being the chief furtherer of the
- fifty years agone and six. fact which I commend, and the famousest knight of the fellowship which I am of. Nay, would not even Prince
When erery great man had his Vice stand by him
In his long coat, shaking his wooden dagger!" Arthur himselfe, Maister Thomas Smith, and the whole table of those well-known knights, and most active archers, The Vice here spoken of was the domestic fool of the have laid in their challenge against their fellow-knight, if
nobility about the year 1560, to whom also Puttenham, in speaking of their pastime, I should have spared their his Arte of English Poesie, alludes under the terms names?'
“buffoon or vice in plays." The complacency with which Justice Shallow refers to
In the first Intermean of Ben Jonson's Staple of Venos, his personification of poor Sir Dagonet, who in the romance Mirth leads us to suppose that it was a very common teris the fool of King Arthur, is charmingly characteristic,
mination of the adventures of the Vice, for him to be and must have been highly relished by an auditory fami
carried off to hell on the back of the devil : “he would liar with all the personages of La Morte d' Arthure.
carry away the Vice on his back, quick to hell, in every
play where he came." In The longer thou livest the more (5) SCENE II.-And now is this Vice's dagger become a Fool thou art, and in Like Will to Like, the Vice is dissquire. The following particulars concerning the old posed of nearly in this summary manner. In King Darius, stage favourite, called the VICE, are mainly taken from an the Vice runs to hell of his own accord, to escape from instructive article on the subject, in Mr. Collier's “ His. Constancy, Equity, and Charity. According to Bishop tory of English Dramatic Poetry.” Mr. Douce is of Harsnet, in a passage cited by Malone, the Vice was in opinion that the name was derived from the nature of the habit of riding and beating the Devil, at other times the character; and certain it is that he is represented | than when he was thus carried against his will to punishmost wicked by design, and never good but by accident. ment. As the Devil now and then appeared without the Vice, so the Vice sometimes appeared without the Devil. Ma
* In the play of “ Histriomastix," 1610, we read :-"Enter a lone tells us that “the principal employment of the roaring Devil with the Vice on his back, Iniquily on one hand, Vice was to belabour the Devil ;” but although he was and Juventus on the other."
(1) SCENE II.-I do arrest thee, traitor, of high treason.) | intent and purpose, promising that he and his woulde --Holinshed's account of the insurrection does not, per prosecute the same in assysting the Archebishop, who rehaps, directly implicate Prince John in this unparalleled joycing hereat, gave credite to the Earle, and perswaded breach of faith and honour; but it cannot be forgotten the Earle Marshall agaynst hys will as it were to go with that the earl was acting under the orders of his general. him to a place appoynted for them to common to
“The archbishop, accompanied with the Erle Marshall, gyther. Here when they were mette with like number devised certaine articles of such matters as it was sup on eyther part, the articles were reade over, and without posed, that not onely the commonaltie of the Realme, but any more adoe, the earle of Westmerlande and those that also the Nobilitie, found themselves agrieved with : which were with him, agreed to doe theyr best to see that a articles they shewed first unto such of their adherents as reformation might bee had, according to the same. The were neare aboute them, and after sent them abrode to Earle of Westmerlande using more policie than the rest : theyr friendes further of, assuring them that for redresse well (savde he) then our travaile is come to the wished of such oppressions, they woulde shedde the last droppe ende: and where our people have beene long in armour, of bloud in thevr bodyes, if neede were. The Archbishop
let them depart home to their wonted trades and occupanot meaning to stay after he saw hymselfe accompanied tions : in the meane time let us drinke togyther, in signe with a greate number of men, that came flocking to Yorke of agreement, that the people on both sydes may see it, to take his parte in this quarrell, forthwith discovered his and know that it is true, that we be light at a poynt. enterprice, causing the articles aforesayde to be set up in They had no sooner shaked handes togither, but that a the publicke streetes of the Citie of Yorke and upon the knight was sent streightwayes from the Archbishop to bring gates of the monasteries, that eche man might under worde to the people that there was peace concluded, comstande the cause that moved him to rise in armes against manding eche man to lay aside his armes, and to resort the King, the reforming whereof did not yet apperteyne home to their houses. The people beholding such tokens unto him. Hereupon knights, esquiers, gentlemen, yeo of peace, as shaking of handes, and drinking togither men, and other of the commons, * * * * assembled to of the Lordes in loving manner, they being alreadie wearied gither in great numbers, and the Archbishop comming with the unaccustomed travell of warre ; brake up their forth amongst them clad in armor, encouraged, exhorted, fielde and returned homewardes; but in the meane time and, by all means he coulde, pricked them forth to take whilest the people of the Archbishoppes side withdrew the enterprise in hand, * * * * and thus not only all away, the number of the contrarie part increased, accordthe citizens of York, but all other in the countries about, ing to order given by the earle of Westmerland, and yet that were able to bear weapon, came to the Archbishop, the Archbishop perceyved not that he was deceyved, untill and to the Erle Marshal. Indeed, the respect that men the Earl of Westmerland arrested both him and the earle had to the Archbishop, caused them to like the better Marshall with diverse other. *** The Archbishop and of the cause, since the gravitie of his age, his integrity the Earle Marshall were brought to Pomfret to the king, of life, and incomparable learning, with the reverend who in this meane while was advanced thither with his aspect of his amiable personage, moved all menne to have power, and from thence he went to Yorke, whither the him in no small estimation. The King advertised of these prisoners were also brought, and there beheaded the matters, meaning to prevent them, left his journey into morrow after Whitsundaie in a place without the citie, Wales, and marched with al speed towards the north that is to understand, the Archbishop himselfe, the Earle partes. Also Raufe Nevill, Erle of Westmerlande, that marshall, Sir John Lampleie, and Sir Robert Plumpton. was not farre off, togither with the lorde John of Lan Unto all which persons though indemnitie were promised, caster the king's sonne, being enformed of this rebellious
yet was the same to none of them at anie hand performed. attempt, assembled togither such power as they might | By the issue hereof, I meane the death of the foresaid, make.* * * * * and comming into a plaine within the but speciallie of the archbishop, the prophesie of a sickelie forest of Galtree, caused theyr standarts to be pight canon of Bridlington in Yorkeshire fell out to be true, who downe in like sort as the Archbishop had pight his, over darklie inough foretold this matter, and the infortunate agaynst them, being farre stronger in number of people event thereof in these words hereafter following, saieng :than the other, for (as some write) there were of the rebels at the least 20 thousand men. When the Erle of
Pacem tractabunt, sed fraudem subter arabunt, Westmerlande perveyved the force of adversaries, and
Pro nulla marca, salvabitur ille hierarcha. that they lay still and attempted not to come forwarde upon him, he subtilly devised how to quail their purpose, and foorth with dispatched Messengeres unto the Archbyshoppe to understande the cause as it were of that (2.) SCENE III.-A good sherris-sack hath a two-fold greate assemble, and for what cause contrarye to the operation in it. When we consider how familiar nearly kings peace they came so in armor. The Archbishop everybody in this country must have been with the wine answered, that he tooke nothing in hande agaynste the called Sack, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, king's peace, but that whatsover he did, tended rather to it seems remarkable that any doubt should exist as to advaunce the peace and quiet of the common wealth, what that liquor really was ; yet, after all the labour and than otherwise, and where he and his companie were in research expended by the commentators on the older draarmes, it was for feare of the king, to whom hee could matists, the question is still not positively determined. have no free accesse by reason of such a multitude of The reason of this uncertainty appears to be, that when flatterers as were about him, and therefore he mainteyned Sack was the universal wine sold in London and other that his purpose was good and profitable, as well for the great cities, the simple name was enough to distinguish king himselfe, as for the realme, if men were willing to it; one kind only was expressed, because one kind only understand a truth : and herewith hee shewed forthe a was intended. But as commercial enterprise and mariskroll in which the articles were written, wherof before ye time discovery became extended, other wines were introhave heard. The Messengers returning unto the Earle of duced, very different from the genuine Sack, but which Westmerlande shewed him what they had heard and were assumed to have the same characteristics and brought from the Archbishop. When he had read the qualities, and which therefore received the generical name, articles, hee shewed in word and countenance outwardly though occasionally with a local distinction prefixed to that he lyked of the Archbyshoppes holy and vertuous it, until at length its original meaning became inde
finite, if not altogether unknown. In the slight notices "The Merry Wives of Windsor," where the “posset" is of Sack contained in his “llustrations of Shakespeare,” | twice mentioned. Mr. Douce observes that there are two principal questions on the subject : first, whether Sack was known in the (3) SCENE IV.time of Henry IV. ; second, whether it was a dry or a
- they do observe sweet wine, when this play was written? The first of these
Unfather'd heirs, and loathly births of nature.] inquiries is altogether valueless, inasmuch as Shakespeare
This passage has been strangely misunderstood. By certainly never contemplated the historical age of Henry
loathly births of nature, are, of course, meant, monetrons IV., but exhibited only the manners of his own time.
mis-shapen productions of nature. Such prodigies, we The second question is relevant, and deserves attention.
know, from the many broadside descriptions of them which It would weary the reader, however, and occupy far too
are registered in the books of the Stationers' Company, ch space, to insert a tithe of the passages collected
or are still extant, and from the good-humoured sarcasms from the old writers in illustration of the qualities of
of Shakespeare—“A strange fish! Were I in England nou, Sack. The most descriptive and important are before us,
(as once I was,) and had but this tish painted, not a and the conclusions deducible from them appear to be,
holiday fool there but would give a piece of silver : there that Sack, properly so called, was a Spanish wine, and
would this monster make a man ; any strange beast there hence was named Sherris, or Aeres Sack, that it was a
makes a man,"--possessed an extraordinary fascination hot, stimulating, and especially dry wine, from which last
for our credulous and sight-loving forefathers. But the quality its name of Sack (sec) was indubitably derived ;
unfather'd heirs, whom Prince Humphrey is alarmed to that the name was also expressive of a class of wines
see the people reverence, were certain so-called prophets, comprehending several very different species of Sack, some
who pretended to have been conceived by miracle, like of which were usually medicated or prepared according to
Merlin the taste of the drinker ; and that the genuine old Sack
“And, sooth, men say that he was not the sonne in reality closely resembled, if it were not indeed the very
Of mortall syre or other living wight, same liquor as the modern sherry, the simple name of
But wondrously begotten, and begoune which was not older than the end of the seventeenth
By false illusion of a guilefull spright century :
On a faire lady Nonne, that whilome hight
Matilda, daughter to Pubidius “ The next that stood up, with a countenance merry,
Who was the lord of Mathtraval by right,
And coosen unto king Ambrosius;
Whence he indued was with skill so merveilous."
Faerie Queene, III. 3, St. 13, That Sack, in the general meaning of the name, was a and assumed, on that account, to be endowed, like him, Spanish vine, is established, without going beyond the with the prophetic character. Walter Scott, it will be older dictionaries. Florio, in defining the liquor called
remembered, imputes a kindred origin to his wizari “ Tibidrago,” says that it is “a kind of strong Spanish Hermit, Brian, in “ The Lady of the Lake"wine, or Sacke; we call it Rubiedavy." A name, by the
“Of Brian's birth strange tales were told," &c. way, which does not appear to have been noticed by any
Canto III. St. 5. authors who have written on wines. Cotgrave translates
And Montaigne refers to such supposed miraculous consack into “ Vin d'Espagne :" Coles renders the word
ceptions in his Essay entitled the A pology for Raimond Se“ Vinum Hispanicum; and Minsheu gives it the same
bond, “In Mahomet's religion, by the easie beleefe of that signification in eleven languages, as if that were to be
people, are many Merlins found; That is to say, fatherles rogarded as the best explanation in all.
children ; Spiritual children, conceived and borne devinely Of its hot and stimulating qualities, we need no further
in the wombs of virgins, and that in their language beare evidence than the copious and eloquent eulogy of Falstaff
nanies, importing as much.”-“Florio's Montaigne," folio in the present speech, and Herrick's “Welcome” and
1603, p. 308. “ Farewell to Sack," published in 1618; and its dryness,
If the meaning here attributed to the expression un. by which is to be understood the contrary of a sweet wine,
father'd heirs, be that intended by the poet, it may, peris sufficiently indicated both by its name, and by the
haps, afford a key to another in “The Merry Wives of practice of sweetening and preparing it for different pur
Windsor, Act V. Sceno 5, which has been long discussed, poses, or according to the taste of the imbiber. Sack and
but never yet explained, sugar, burnt Sack, and Sack-posset are well-known names of these preparations, and even the “lime in the sack,"
“ You orphan heirs of fixed destiny." which Sir John condemns as a vile adulteration, may be shown to belong to the same class of medicated liquors. (4) SCENE IV. Dr. Venner, 1622, considered the sugar which was occa
WAR. 'Tis call! Jerusalem, my noble lord. sionally added to the Sack to be quite as much of a medi
K. Hen. Laud be to God !-even there my life must end.] cine as a luxury ; but Fynes Moryson, in 1617, regarded it as simply indicative of the national liking for sweet In looking at this representation of Henry's death, in conness in general. “Clownes and vulgar men only," he nection with the beginning of his dramatic history, we are remarks, “ use large drinking of beere, or ale ; but gentle reminded of the words of the Duke of Ephesus, at the end men garrause only in wine; with which they mix sugar; of The Comedy of Errors," “Why, here begins his mornwhich I never observed in any other place or kingdom to ing story right.” The king discovers in the present scene, be used for that purpose. And, because the taste of the that one reason at least for his pressing forward an expeEnglish is thus delighted with sweetness, the wines in dition to the Holy Land, was the fulfilment of a prediction taverns,--for I speak not of merchantes' or gentlemen's that he should die in Jerusalem. Such a prophecy, as to cellars-are mixed at the filling thereof, to make them the death of an important personage, appears to have been pleasant."
not unusual in the middle ages ; and a remarkable illusThe next artificial preparation of Sack, the “burning" tration of it is on record, concerning Pope Sylvester II. it, seems to have been designed partly to warm the liquor, Cardinal Benno states, that when he inquired of spiritual partly to enrich the flavour, and partly to abate the agency as to the length of his life, he was assured that he strength of the spirit; but it was probably a slight pro should not die until he had said mass at Jerusalem ; on cess, that simple preparation only, to which Falstaff' refers, which he promised himself a very long existence. In the when he says, “Go, brew me a pottle of sack finely ;" a fifth year of his pontificate, however, A.D. 1003, he hanbrewage altogether different to the elaborate concoction pened to celebrate mass in the church called “The Holy called Sack-posset, the excellence of which, however,-the Cross in Jerusalem ;” and there he was suddenly taken method of making it in Shakespeare's days, and the ill, and soon after died. Holinshed seems to doubt the proper hour when it ought to be found in perfect projec prediction respecting Henry IV. “Whether this was tion-will be more fittingly set forth in the commentary on 1 true, that so he spake as one that gave too much credit to foolish prophesies and vaine tales, or whether it was Christi College, Cambridge, written by Clement Mayfained, as in such cases it commonlie happeneth, we leave destone, a contemporary and an ecclesiastic, entitled —"A to the admired reader to judge." There does not appear, | History of the Martyrdom of Archbishop Scroop," in however, to be any sufficient reason to doubt either that which the following passage occurs :such a prediction was uttered, or that Henry declared it. “Within thirty days after the death of the said king His purpose of levying “a power of English" to recover Henry the Fourth, a certain man of his household came the city of Jerusalem from the infidels, was universally to the house of the Holy Trinity at Houndeslow to eat, known, and the prophecy, that he would die there, seemed and the standers-by discoursing of that king's probity of to be a very natural conclusion, and a politic flattering of life, the aforesaid person made answer to an esquire, whose his design as well. Henry had brought forward this name was Thomas Maydestone, then sitting at the same measure at a very early period of his reign, and it con table, God knows whether he was a good man; but this I tinued to be “the ruling passion strong in death." Shortly certainly know, that when his body was carried from Westbefore he was attacked by apoplexy at Eltham, about minster towards Canterbury, in a small vessel to be buried, Christmas, 1413, he held a council at Whitefriars, which I was one of the three persons that threw his body into the ordered the fitting out of ships and galleys, and other sea between Berkyng and Gravesend. And he added, conpreparations to be made for the voyage. And even after firming it with an oath,-So great a storm of wind and his partial recovery, when “hee was taken with his last waves came upon us, that many noblemen that followed us in sicknesse, he was making his prayers at Sainte Edwardes eight small vessels, were dispersed, and narrowly escaped shrine, there as it were to take his leave, and so to proceede the danger of death. But we that were with the body desforthe on hys iourney; and was then “so suddaynely and pairing of our lives, by common consent threw it into the greevouslie taken that suche as were about him, feared sea, and a great calm ensued; but the chest it was in, least he would have dyed presently, wherefore to relieve covered with cloth of gold, we carried in very honourable him if it were possible, they bare him into a chamber that manner to Canterbury, and buried it. The monks of Canwas nexte at hand, belonging to the Abbot of Westminster, terbury may therefore say, The tomb of King Henry the where they layd him on a pallet before the fier, and used Fourth is with us, but not his body, as Peter said of holy all remedyes to revive him : at length, hee recovered hys David, Acts ii. Almighty God is witness and judge that speeche, and understanding and perceiving himselfe in a | I, Clement Maydestone, saw that man, and heard him strange place which he knew not, hee willed to know if the swear to my father, Thomas Maydestone, that all abovechamber had any particular name, whereunto aunswere said was true.' was made, that it was called 'Jerusalem.' Then saide the It had long been the wish of historians and antiking, laudes be gyven to the father of heaven, for now I quaries to test the value of this story, and at length knowe that I shall dye heere in thys chamber, according on the 21st of August, 1832, the tomb was opened by to the prophecie of me declared, that I shoulde depart the cathedral authorities, when the body was found this life in Jerusalem.” * * *
cased in lead, within a rude elm coffin, so much larger It is quite possible that his early and active military than necessary, that the intervening spaces were filled employment in foreign countries might have given the with hay-bands. On removing the wrapper, “ to the first impetus to his design of an expedition to Palestine ; astonishment of all present, the face of the deceased king but it is still more probable that he contemplated it as a was seen in remarkable preservation. The nose elevated, meritorious atonement for the means by which he had the cartilage even remaining, though, on the admission of obtained the crown.
the air, it sunk rapidly away, and had entirely disappeared The effigy of Henry IV. upon his tomb at Canterbury, before the examination was finished. The skin of the is considered to be the most splendid of our regal series. chin was entire, of the consistence and thickness of the No doubt was entertained that the King was really buried upper leather of a shoe, brown and moist; the beard there, until the discovery by Wharton of a MS. in Corpus | thick and matted and of a deep russet color,”
(1) SCENE I.--By cock and pye.]This popular adjura- | solemn vows or engagements for the performance of some tion was once supposed to refer to the sacred name, and I considerable enterprise. This ceremony was usually perto the table of services in the Romish Church, called The formed during some grand feast or entertainment, at which Pie : but it is now thought to be what Hotspur termed a a roasted peacock or pheasant being seryed up by ladies in mere “protest of pepper-gingerbread," as innocent as a dish of gold or silver, was thus presented to each knight, Slender's, “By these gloves," or "By this hat." In “Soli who then made the particular vow which he had chosen, man and Perseda,” 1599, it occurs coupled with mouse-foot ; with great solemnity. When this custom had fallen into “ By cock and pie and mouse-foot ;” and again, in The disuse, the peacock nevertheless continued to be a favouPlaine Man's Pathway to Heaven," by Arthur Dent, 1607, rite dish, and was introduced on the table in a pie, the where we have the following dialogue : Asunctus—“I know head, with gilded beak, being proudly elevated above the a man that will never swear but by cock or py, or mouse crust, and the splendid tail expanded. Other birds of foot. I hope you will not say these be oaths. For he is as smaller value were introduced in the same manner, and honest a man as ever brake bread. You shall not hear an the recollection of the old peacock vows might occasion the oath come out of his mouth.” Theologus—“I do not less serious, or even burlesque, imitation of swearing not think he is so honest a man as you make him. For it only by the bird itself but also by the pie ; and hence prois no small sin to swear by creatures.” The Cock and Pye, bably the oath by cock and pie, for the use of which no i. e., and Magpie, was an ordinary ale-house sign, and may very old authority can be found. The vow to the peacock thus have become a subject for the vulgar to swear by. had even got into the mouths of such as had no pretensions Douce, however, ascribes to it a less ignoble origin, and to knighthood. Thus in The merchant's second tale, or the his interpretation is much too ingenious to be passed in history of Beryn, the host is made to say,silence :-" It will, no doubt, be recollected, that in the days of ancient chivalry it was the practice to make "I make a rorce lo the pecock there shal wake a foul mist."