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the College of New Jersey and the Philadelphia High School. Not a word of that other great Jersey College known as Seton Hall! Still stranger if possible, he gives us no biography of the Very Rev. Father Corrigan, the president and professor of Christian Ethics, etc., of that institution. We might ourselves have furnished him with the titles of some of the works of that eminent educator and divine. His “ Controversies” alone would fill a dozen “large volumes.” But who has not heard of his Essay on Irish Potatoes, as a means of furnishing cheap board both to Irish and Cuban students ? although it seems the work is not popular among the students themselves. It is otherwise, however, we are assured, in regard to his learned treatise on Billiard Playing as a necessary college preparation for “the liquor business.” But we believe his chef d'œuvre is his “ You Lie! A farce in three acts." This is intended however, we are assured, only for the instruction of such as are so stupid and impudent as to believe that any other Catholic college, especially any Catholic college not conducted by Fathers, is superior to Seton Hall, or even equal to that far-famed institution. We do not ask Mr. Hart to give this " notice” in his second edition, although we are convinced it would do more good than three-fourths of the “notices” he has given. It would certainly possess more of the element of truth, for example, than the statement that after Dr. Siliman Ives had become a Catholic, he “ went back to the Episcopal Church" (p. 617).
It is evident that Archbishop Bayley has not furnished his biography, for there are a score of newspaper correspondents, male and female, any of whom is honored with a much broader and higher pedestal. As for authors like Mrs. Swisshelm, “Josh Billings,” and “Artemus Ward," any of them occupies a larger space than the three most literary and most illustrious of the archbishops put together—nay, our author makes a much greater giant of himself than of the three !
· Protestant bishops have not much influence in introducing text-books into “schools and colleges.” Accordingly, their biographies are remarkably meagre. One “journalist," or actress, receives more than a full score of them. Instance Bishop Williams, Bishop Lee, Bishop Stevens, Bishop Cox, Bishop Kip, etc. Thus poor Bishop Eastburn is put off with two lines, although we are told he “has published lectures on Philippians, and a number of sermons and charges” (!) (p. 608). Not only the Presbyterians and the Methodists, but also the Catholics receive much more credit than this for their “ sermons and charges.” At least, one reverend Father is honored with a niche on the ground that he “has in press an important work” (p. 619). Doubtless this gentleman has neglected to furnish his biography; he has evidently not filled up the blanks of the “teacher of teachers.” Otherwise he might have received as large a pedestal and as prominent a “position” as Sylvanus Cobb or Frank H. Stauffer, or as one of the various Mrs. Smiths who have also the advantage of being “connected with the press.” At least, he would have occupied as much space as Rev. Z. A. Mudge, A. M., in whose biography we find such important particulars as the following: “He removed in childhood to Lynn, Mass., the native place of his parents, where he remained to early manhood” (p. 492). These, however, were by no means his chief feats ; for, we are told that he “joined, in 1840, the New England Conference, in which he has itinerated,” etc., etc.
But we must take our leare at last of Mr. Hart. Although, in our necessarily hurried glance, we have been able to point out but a comparatively small part of the sycophancy, flunkyism, charlatanism, etc., etc., of the “teacher of teachers," we think it will be admitted that we indulged in no exaggeration, and did none injustice, in comparing the filling up of the “ Manual of American Literature," to that used by Bridget, the chambermaid, in making her “waterfall ” as large as that of her mistress. It is needless to remark to the intelligent reader—to any gentleman or lady posssessed of taste or judgment, who takes the pains to examine the book, what a sad commentary it is on our educational institutions, that many of them will not only tolerate such a performance, but reciprocate its vulgar, barefaced puffery !
Mr. Underwood is by no means free from favoritism, but he is free from self-laudation, free from vulgarity, free from
VOL. XXVI.—NO. LI.
bad grammar, free from charlatanism. Mr. Underwood makes no pretension to superior learning--still less does he call himself a “teacher of teachers.” Compared to Mr. Hart he deserves to be complimented positively for his common sense. As for evidences of culture and taste, the contrast, in that respect, between the twain is so great, that we feel justified in addressing the compiler of the “ Hand Book”_
Tu nihil invitâ dices faciesve Minervâ;
Id tibi judicum est, ea mens.* When giving our estimate of Mr. Underwood's “ Hand Book of English Authors," some months since, we paid him no such compliment as this--although we gave him credit for having evinced a judicious discrimination, and made a nearer approach to complete success, than any one else who had attempted the same task. But everybody knows that while. an ordinary painting is only regarded as such by any competent judge, when it stands alone, it seems almost a chef d'ouvre when placed beside a daub of the village sign-board style. Still we would not slight Mr. Hart. As we apply the Roman dialect to one compiler, there is no reason why we should not, in order to be impartial, apply it to the other. Nay, we are willing to apply the same lines to Mr. Hart, but slightly modified, thus :
Tu nihil invitâ dices faciesve Mammona;
Ea tibi ineptia est, ista res. We have remarked that Mr. Underwood is not free from favoritism. This will be found true to an extent that is sometimes amusing. Four-fifths of his great men and great women have been born in Boston, in Massachusetts, or at least not far from that region. It is only under very peculiar circumstances that immortality is conferred by Mr. Underwood on any one who had the misfortune of being born outside the circumference of that charmed circle. We will not say that, after all, a great many of his giants and giantesses are pigmnies; but, certainly, there are many of his swans that are but geese-well-bred geese, in most cases, we admit-geese that cackle much more politely than onr New York and New Jersey geese-but still only spurious swans! However, as we have always rather liked not only Boston and Massachusetts, but, also, some of the adjacent regions, we will pass no severe censure on Mr. Underwood for this, especially as it is the only fault his “Hand Book” has. Our readers know that an undue admiration of the text-books of the present day is not among our faults, but Mr. Underwood's book is one of the few which, while they undoubtedly bear some traces of the ruling passion of our time and country for puffery, are still to be earnestly recommended not merely to the students, parents and teachers of any particular section, party or denomination, but to all Americans who set any adequate value on culture and taste.
* Ars Poct.
Art. IV.-1. The Mathematical Principle of Natural Philos
ophy. By Sir Isaac NEWTON. 1 vol. 8vo. New York, 1848. 2. Théorie Analytique du Système du Monde. Par G. DE
PONTECOULANT. 4 vols. 8vo, and Supplement. Paris,
1834–1856. 3 Mithematical Tracts on the Lunar and the Planetary
Perturbations. By GEORGE BIDDELL Airy. 1 vol. 8vo.
Cambridge, 1858. 4. Memoir on the Secular Variations of the Elements of the
Orbits of the Eight Principal Planets, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, etc., etc. By JOHN N. STOCKWELL, M. S., Smithsonian Institute, 1872.
Cambride.cons. By GEORON Sunar and the
THERE are few things more astonishing to the human mind than the power which algebraic signs and symbols—composed of a few marks and letters—have to represent the motion of the heavenly bodies in all time; or, in other words, to exhibit to the eye and mind the past, the present, and the future state of the system of the world. To determine at any time, by means of these formulæ, as they are called, the position of a planetary body, they must be reduced to numbers ; in other words, the elements of the orbits of the bodies represented must be substituted for the algebraic symbols, the calculations indicated must be performed, and the resulting numbers will indicate the point in the heavens where, with the requisite instrument, the body may be found. A series of positions thus calculated, sufficient to represent a complete cycle of the formulæ, and arranged in order, forms planetary tables. Tables of this kind, though usually unattractive and uninteresting to the unscientific reader, are really of the highest importance as representing our knowledge of the real and apparent motions and positions of the celestial bodies; and the truthfulness with which the apparent positions are represented is a test of the degree of accuracy to which our investigations have been carried.
Tables intended to represent the motions of the celestial bodies, especially the sun and planets, consist generically, in more modern times, of two parts: the first and principal part giving the motion in a certain definite ellipse, the sun occupying one of the foci. The second part gives the amount of deviation from this ellipse, caused by the various known disturbing forces. By a comparison of the places thus calculated with the places of the heavenly bodies as actually observed, we can ascertain whether all disturbing causes, whose effects are perceptible, have been taken into consideration. The amount and direction of the deviation from the prescribed course will thus become known. These outstanding quantities, should they exist, will, in some cases, make known the law according to which they are produced, and point to the probable cause of them. These residual phenomena, as they have been called, have led to some of the most important discoveries in the whole history of astronomy.
The discovery of the requisite formulæ for the construction of astronomical tables that approximate in correctness to the degree of precision with which observations are made, has required the most profound thought in all ages of the world since astronomy became a science of calculation. Hipparchus