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RETURN OF TROOPS FROM SANTIAGO HASTENED–MEASURES ADOPTEI).
Two days later it was learned that owing to urgency the transportation of troops from Santiago would be begun immediately, and the following letter was addressed by yourself to the Secretary of War:
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, August 5, 1898.
SIR: I have the honor to inclose here with a letter from the Supervising SurgeonGeneral of the Marine-Hospital Service, together with a memorandum prepared by the latter giving his views as to the precautionary measures that should be taken with regard to landing of the troops from Santiago at Montauk Point to prevent the introduction of yellow fever.
I have to request that this matter be placed before the proper authorities of your Department for the purpose of either securing the adoption of the measures indicated by the Surgeon-General of the Marine-Hospital Service, or a conference between the latter and the officers of your Department, with a view to bring about a cooperation which shall effect the desired end.
The SECRETARY OF WAR.
WASHINGTON, August 5, 1838. SIR: I have learned that the troops at Santiago are to be transferred to Montauk Point and that 7,000 of General Shafter's army will be immediately transported, and that it will be impracticable to take the precautions at the port of departure which were outlined in my letter to the Secretary of War of the 3d instant, forwarded by yourself the same day. I have, therefore, to inclose the following memorandum giving an outline of the measures which I deem necessary to prevent the introduction of yellow fever with these troops at Montauk Point, and respectfully request that the memorandum be transmitted to the Secretary of War and his attention invited to the necessity of carrying out the provisions of the same. Respectfully, yours. WALTER WYMAN, Supervising Surgeon-General, M. H.S.
The SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.
1. Troops arriving on transports from Santiago should be debarked at Montauk Point and divided into groups of not more than a full regiment, say from 1,000 to 1,200 men. These groups should be placed in temporary observation camps, and held under observation for from eight to ten days or longer to insure their freedom from the infection of yellow fever. 2. If yellow fever has occurred in any of the groups under observation they will not be transferred to permanent camp until a sufficient time has elapsed to insure their freedom from infection. No clothing, bedding, etc., directly exposed to the infection of yellow fever should be transferred to permanent camp before being sterilized. 3. Fresh clothing and bedding should be provided for those who have been exposed to the infection of yellow fever before going into permanent camp, or the clothing and bedding in use during the period of observation be sterilized before bei ng transferred. 4. Temporary camps of observation should be separated one from another, with sufficient distance between to insure against the transmission of infection, should any occur. No communication to be held between these camps and the outside, or one with another, save under the proper sanitary supervision.
5. Cases of yellow fever occurring on the transports en route, on arrival, or in the temporary observation camps, should be immediately transferred to a special Hospital for this purpose. A detention hospital should also be provided where cases of sickness in which the diagnosis is not determined, also those cases of ordinary illness which have been exposed directly to the contagion of yellow fever en route or in camp could be sent. Ordinary cases of sickness, such as malarial, typhoid fever, etc., should be sent to the general hospital, care being taken, however, to limit the danger of their carrying yellow fever to this general hospital. 6. A floating quarantine plant should be established in the waters conveniently near by for the purpose of disinfecting the transports. Disinfecting apparatus should also be established near the point of debarkation for the purpose of disinfecting the personal effects of the troops and other articles taken from the vessels which are liable to convey the infection of yellow fever.
On August 6 I was invited to another conference with the Secretary of War, the Surgeon-General, and the Quartermaster-General of the Army, and, as a result, the following letter was addressed by yourself to the Secretary of War, and the following telegraphic orders were issued by the Adjutant-General of the Army:
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, August 8, 1898.
SIR: Referring to my letter of the 5th instant, inclosing memorandum from the Surgeon-General of the Marine-Hospital Service, I am informed by the latter that, in response to an invitation from yourself, he attended a meeting for consultation in your office with the Surgeon-General and the Quartermaster-General of the Army, on Saturday, the 6th, and that it was agreed that the Marine-Hospital Service should establish a maritime quarantine for Montauk Point, inspecting transports as they arrive and performing necessary disinfection.
In accordance with the understanding arrived at the Surgeon-General has ordered a disinfecting barge and inspecting officers to Montauk Point. P. A. Surg. G. M. Magruder will be in charge of the inspection of transports, and P. A. Surg. J. J. Kinyoun in charge of disinfection of vessels and material.
I have to request that the commanding officer of the camp at Montauk Point be directed to extend necessary and proper facilities to the officers of the MarineHospital Service in the performance of their duties.
L. J. GAGE, Secretary. The SECRETARY OF WAR.
TELEGRAPHIC ORDERs—PRECAUTIONS AT SANTIAGO.
August 9, 1898. CoMMANDING GENERAL, FIFTH CORPs,
Santiago de Cuba: Recommendations of surgeon-generals of Army and Marine-Hospital Service, as follows, should be accomplished as far as practicable: 1. Hold troops assigned to a transport under observation three to five days in separate camp not infected by fever. 2. Surgeons to inspect same twice daily, promptly isolating suspected cases. 3. Bathe and freshly clothe, or sterilize old clothing of troops at the beginning of period of observation. 4. When not possible to detain troops in camps under observation, bathe them 10918—44 and freshly clothe, or sterilize old clothes before embarkation, excluding, after searching inspection, suspected cases. , 5. Yellow fever convalescents or suspects should not accompany healthy troops. 6. No equipage or personal effects capable of conveying infection should accompany troops, unless disinfected by steam or otherwise. 7. Arrange to embark by daylight, under careful supervision of surgeons, who will control sanitary conditions of troopships en route. By order of the Secretary of War: H. C. CoRBIN, Adjutant-General.
TELEGRAPHIC ORDERs—PRECAUTIONS AT MONTAUK PoinT.
WAR DEPARTMENT, August 11, 1838. The Secretary of War directs that you cooperate with Surgeon Magruder, United States Marine-Hospital Service, to establish and fix quarantine grounds and anchorage for transports bringing General Shafter's command to Montauk Point. As each transport arrives the quarantine officer will board it, raise the yellow flag, and make personal inspection of the troops on the transport. If no yellow fever cases are found the sick will be removed to general hospital and the well to detention camp, where they will be held three to five days, and then moved to general camp. If any yellow fever cases are found they will be taken off and either put aboard the sanitary barge or put in yellow fever hospital. Other sick will be moved to general hospital, and the well.be detained in the detention camp eight or ten days. No person will be allowed aboard a transport while the yellow flag is up without a written pass of Surgeon Magruder. A revenue cutter has been ordered to Montauk Point to enforce sanitary and quarantine harbor regulations. H. C. Corbix, Adjutant-General, U. S. A. General YoUNG, Montauk Point, Long Island.
UNITED STATES MARITIME QUARANTINE AT MONTAUK POINT.
In anticipation of some such necessity as the Montauk quarantine the contractors who were constructing the disinfecting barge Protector at Philadelphia had been directed to hasten its completion, and were authorized to employ extra labor and work at night. The barge was completed and immediately towed to Montauk, arriving there twentyfour hours in advance of the first transport. Two hospital stewards and 21 attendants, the latter detailed from several of the quarantine stations and marine hospitals, were directed to join the barge at Philadelphia, and the following-named medical officers were ordered to Montauk Point for quarantine service, viz:
P. A. Surg. G. M. Magruder (in command), P. A. Surg. J. J. Kinyoun (in charge of disinfection), P. A. Surg. J. B. Stoner, P. A. Surg. E. K. Sprague, Asst. Surg. Hill Hastings, Asst. Surg. Sherrard Tabb, Asst. Surg. Mark J. White, Sanitary Inspector W. F. Brunner (yellow fever expert).
Two of the foregoing medical officers were detailed on account of the assistance they could render, but more particularly to familiarize
them with quarantine procedures, advantage being taken of so valuable a field of instruction. By request the Light-House Board buoyed out the quarantine anchorages, the Revenue-Cutter Service sent a cutter to convey supplies and perform other necessary service, and the Navy Department sent two small vessels of the auxiliary navy to serve as a patrol. The Quartermaster's Department furnished a boarding vessel.
The following instructions were transmitted by telegraph to Passed Assistant Surgeon Magruder:
You are to establish a national quarantine by request of Secretary of War. Army will manage detention camp. Instructions are to inspect vessels as they arrive, raise yellow flag on them, and you are to have control of them until flag comes down. On inspection, typhoid and other nonquarantinable diseases will be reported to medical officer of Army in charge, for proper disposition, and likewise cases of yellow fever or suspected yellow fever. After sorting out these, the remaining troops can be landed to go into detention camp, with such precautions regarding those specially exposed as is necessary, including disinfection. * * * After discharge of troops, vessels and crews to be taken to barge Protector for thorough and rapid disinfection. * * * Cause as little delay as possible in inspections. * * * Prevent communication with vessels while in quarantine.
The first transport, the Gate City, arrived on August 13, 1898, and from that date until September 13 there were thirty-two arrivals at the quarantine.
The quarantine procedures were in no way different from those pursued at any national quarantine station as regarded the inspection of the vessel and crew and the treatment of the vessel.
All vessels on arriving were thoroughly inspected, and all sick examined carefully in order to detect any symptoms of yellow fever.. If any sick were found-and there were some sick on all of them, the cases were reported to the medical officers of the United States Army for removal. All care of the troops, whether well or not, after removal from the vessel devolved on the War Department, and were received and retained in detention camps and subsequently transferred to the main camp.
In the case of the arrival of a transport infected with yellow fever, as in the cases of the transports St. Louis and the Grande Duchesse, after the removal of the cases of yellow fever the remaining troops were bathed on board of the Protector, and were-through the Quartermaster's Department of the Army-furnished with new uniforms; their clothes were disinfected in the chambers of the Protector, and they were then turned over to the militar"authorities, after which the vessel was thoroughly disinfected.
Upward of 17,000 troops returned from Santiago to the United States, via Montauk Point; of these there were more than 2,200 sick with various diseases, but in all this number there were only four cases of yellow fever, two of the cases occurring on the Grande Duchesse—the men.
were ill on arrival—and the other case developing on the St. Louis, two days after her arrival at Montauk Point. This last transport had had a death at sea during the voyage which had been attributed to yellow fever. There was no delay in either making the inspections or in the quarantine treatment of passengers or vessels, and with the aid of vessels loaned by the Navy Department and the Revenue-Cutter Service there was no break in the efficiency of the quarantine maintained. Thanks are due to the Light-House Board, Revenue-Cutter Service, and Medical Department and Quartermaster's Department of the Army for their cooperation. Acknowledgments have been made to the Secretary of the Navy for services rendered by the auxiliary cruisers Aileen and Alfreda. Detailed reports concerning this quarantine have not as yet been received, the commanding officer and several of the other officers being transferred immediately on the close of the station to yellow-fever-infected points in the South. Following, however, is a tabulated statement of the operations of this quarantine:
Statement of transports which arrived at Montauk Point (Camp Wikoff) August 13 to September 13, 1898, showing number of troops arriving thereon, number of sick, and number of yellow fever cases and deaths reported to have occurred on soline.
Date. Name of transport. o: Yor Remarks.
14 Vigilancia -- 699 21 o.
14 St. Louis------------- 872 24 Crew, 330; 1 death from yellow fever duri voyage; no yellow fever cases on arriv at quarantine; 1 case on the 16th.
14 | Miami.--------------- 680 34 || No follow fever.
15 St. Paul-------------. 1,113 ---------- O.
15 Grande Duchesse---- 1, 143 |---------- Two cases of yellow fever on arrival: 25 suspects.
15 Matteawan ---------- 527 70 | No yellow fever; 2 deaths en route.
18 Comanche -- 488 114 | No yellow fever.
19 Mobile ------ 1,600 300 | No yellow fever; 10 deaths en route.
20 | Rio Grande. 636 30 No yellow fever.
20 || Breakwater 345 50 | No yellow fever; 8 deaths en route.
20 | Olivette..... 275 30 Noyellow fever; 8 deaths en route. Steamship Olivette ordered to Boston to place sick in hospital there. Left August 22.
21 || City of Macon....... 462 92 | No yellow fever; 2 deaths en route.
21 | Montera -------- --- 312 20 | No yellow fever.
22 | Leona.------ 528 104 o.
23 | Resolute...--- 688 61 | No follow fever; no deaths.
23 Badger. ------- --- 186 82 o.
23 Arcadia--------- -- 185 27 Do.
24 Yale.------------ --- 1,069 178 || No yellow fever; 1 death en route.
25 Mohawk ------------- 1,199 130 One suspicious case; 1 death en route.
25 | Harvard ------ t;70 33 | No yellow fever; 1 death en route.
25 | Santiago. ----- 489 124 No yellow fever.
28 Minnewaska. - --- 816 49 No yellow fever; 1 death en route.
30 Specialist ----- -- 118 20 No yellow fever.
30 San Marcos---------- 397 5 Ninety-four sick landed in New York; no yellow fever.
30 City of Berlin ------- 886 150 | No yellow fever; 1 death en route.
31 | Panther -----...------ 106 5 No yellow fever.
31 Allegheny 480 No yellow fever; 14 deaths en route.
Sept. 1 exico No yellow fever.
11 Saratoga 207 stevedores; no contagious disease.
12 | Missouri -- No contagious disease.
13 Vigilancia 312 persons; no infection.