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years scarcely a month passed without some new publication, and if speedily to produce their 'censuræ,' threatening to punish them if they we recollect that in most of the works he acted as editor, and corrected made any further delay. The professors, who knew the vacillating the proofs with the most anxious care, it appears marvellous that so and weak character of the king, promised obedience; but nothing many works could be produced in so short a time; the mere list of was done, and new charges were brought against Stephens, and new his publications in Maittaire from 1527 till 1560, which is not by any attempts were made to suspend the sale of his Bible. At last it was means complete, fills twenty large octavo pages (p. 10-30). His device agreed that Stephens and the learned divines should meet at the king's on the title-page of his publications was an olive tree with one or palace at Fontainebleau, where several bishops and cardinals likewise more branches broken off, while new branches are engrafted on the appeared. Stephens was acquitted of the charge of having printed tree, and the motto was 'Noli altum sapere,' to which he sometimes anything that impugned the Roman Catholic faith. The divines, thus added 'sed time.' Until the year 1532 he used the same types as his disappointed, suddenly contrived to give another turn to the matter, father, but in this year he used a larger and more elegant type for and to get an order from the king for a temporary suspension of his Biblia Latina,' of which he had published the first edition in the sale of Stephens's Bible, and for the matter to be investigated 1528, under the title ‘Biblia utriusque Testamenti Latina, ex veteribus afresh by a commission, whose duty it was to take cognisance of cases MSS. exemplaribus emendata, fol. This edition was not only in of heresy. After eight tedious months, Stephens at last obtained from appearance the finest that had ever been printed, but that he might the king another order that his case should be tried by the king's be able to give the text with the utmost correctness, he had examined privy council only. When Stephens had thus, for a time at least, all the libraries of Paris, St. Germain, St. Denis, and had got over secured his tranquillity, he produced, in 1548, the Editio princeps of from Spain at his own expense a very valuable Spanish Bible.

Dion Cassius, libri xxiii., and several other works. In this year he In 1531 Stephens published his first great original work : Dictiona- had occasion to travel to Lyon, and in this journey he is said to have rium, seu Latinæ Linguæ Thesaurus,' fol. The second (1536) and the made the subdivision of the chapters of the Bible into verses, which third or last edition (1545) of this dictionary are in 2 vols. fol., and was subsequently adopted in nearly all editions of the Scriptures contain numerous corrections and improvements by Robert Stephens. King Henry II. happened to be at Lyon, and when Stephens, availing The work has often been reprinted in other countries. In the year himself of the opportunity, presented himself before the king, and at 1539 Stephens was appointed printer to the King of France for Latin the same time thanked Cardinal de Guise for the services he had done and Hebrew works, and henceforth he always added on the title-page him, Stephens was informed, to his utter astonishment, that a change of bis publications, to his name, Regius Typographus, or Regius had taken place in the king's mind, in which he could not mistake the Librarius, or some other similar title. Soon after this honour was secret and intriguing workings of his adversaries: the sale of his couferred upon bim he received the same distinction for Greek works, Bibles was prohibited. Stephens, indignant at such proceedings, whence he calls himself sometimes 'Regius Typographus in Græcis.' declared that he would leave his country; but the king requested him Stephens appears to have thought that he ought to produce his publi- to retain his office of royal printer, and promised that the matter cations in a form worthy of his new rank, and it was on his suggestion complained of (the censuræ) should be speedily produced. that Francis I. bad new Hebrew, Greek, and Roman types made by Stephens was persuaded to remain; but, owing to the king's vacil. Claude Garamond. These types, which were of exquisite beauty, lation, he was still subjected to various disappointments and

vexations. were afterwards known under the name of Characteres Regii. In Some of his biographers state that in this year he visited Zürich and 1540 Stephens published a new edition of the Latin Bible with various Geneva; and if this be true, he perhaps undertook this journey with readings. On its appearance the divines of the Sorbonne renewed a feeling that it would soon be necessary for him to seek a refuge in a their attacks, but owing to the king's liberal protection he was enabled foreign country. In 1550 he published his beautiful edition of the to continue his labours unmolested. The king had such a high Greek Testament, with a nova translatio Latina.' Stephens presented esteem for his learned printer that he frequently visited him in his this work to bishop Du Chastel, who had hitherto pretended to be his office, and on one occasion, when he found him correcting a proof friend, but who now courted the favour of the Sorbonne, and declared sheet, he stopped behind him and waited silently till Stephens had that every sort of protection which he had formerly given to Stephens finished his task before he began to converse with him. The first had arisen from his not knowing the real character of his offences. Greek book that Stephens printed in the capacity of Regius Typo- Hereupon the Sorbonne again began to annoy Stephens; and after a graphus in Græcis, belongs to the same year, 1540, and bears the title tedious and ludicrous trial, held by men who found fault with the Ty@uai MovbotiXOL, sive Sententiæ singulis versibus contentæ juxta various readings in the margin of Stephens's Bible, which they took to ordinem Literarum ex diversis Poetis, cum Interpret. Latina." In be an heretical commentary, he was forbidden to sell bis impressions 1543 he published a little work called ' Alphabetum Græcum,' which of the Bible, and commanded to promise that he would print do more only contained sixteen leaves, and was afterwards frequently reprinted. copies of the Scriptures without the sanction of those learned divines. This is supposed to be the first book that was printed with the Stephens was now convinced that no reliance could be placed either Characteres Regii. In the following year Stephens edited, in one on the king, his counsellors, or the great prelates, and that he'must be folio volume, a collection of the most eminent Greek ecclesiastical prepared for the worst. He however made preparations for a step historians, under the title Ecclesiastica Historia Eusebii, Socrates, which his enemies did not expect. He finished the numerous works Theodoriti, Theodori, Sozomeni, Evagrii, Græce. This work was soon which were at the time going through the press, and at the end of followed by 'Eusebii Præparatio Evangelica,' in Greek. These two the year 1551, or at the beginning of 1552, he escaped with his family volumes contain the earliest specimens of the device subsequently to Genova, where he hoped to find that liberty of conscience which he adopted by all royal printers : a thyrsus with an olive branch and a had so long wished for. Stephens is charged by some writers with serpeut wound round it, and the motto, Baoilei 7' ayalộo spatepộ To having taken with him some of the materials belonging to the royal alxunta. In 1545 he published a new edition of the Latin Bible, printing establishment, but his biographers have shown that there which he had been preparing for several years. It contains notes is not a shadow of ground for this charge. There is also a tradition, which are ascribed to Vatablus, and which are said to have been com which does not seem at all improbable, that the professors of the municated to Stephens by the pupils of this theologian. But the Sorbonne vented their impotent rage by burning Stephens in efigy. authorship of the notes is a point which even at the time appears to Stephens began his new career at Geneva with the publication of have been the subject of much dispute. In the year following he some books of the Old Testament, and of the whole of the New Testapublished his first Hebrew Bible, and also a new edition of the Latin ment in Latin and French. In 1552 he also published Ad Censuras Bible in folio, with a preface which shows the immense pains that he Theologorum Parisiensium, quibus Biblia à Roberto Stephano, typo. took to give the text as correctly as possible.

grapho regio, excusa calumniose notarunt, eiusdem Roberti Stephani These repeated editions of the Bible and the notes ascribed to responsio. This book, which was also published in French, gives us Vatablus, which were in some parts supposed to savour of the a clear insight into the nature of his disputes with the Sorbonne, as reformed doctrines, to which Stephens himself was attached, involved well as into his own character. The other works which he published him again in disputes with the professors of the Sorbonne. He offered during a period of seven years at Geneva are almost exclusively of a publicly to acknowledge any errors which he might have committed, theological and controversial nature, consisting of works written by and to print them in an appendix to his Bible to guard the readers Calvin, Beza, and other distinguished reformers. He retained his against them. The king several times required the professors to draw former device, but under it he printed, 'Oliva Roberti Stephani.' The up a list of the errors or heresies, but they never did it. Their object name of Geneva seldom appears an the title-page of his books. He was not to prevent the propagation of any particular errors, but to died on the 7th of September 1559, leaving behind him, it is said, a get the Bible and the commentary put into the Catalogus Librorum numerous offspring and considerable property. But only three of his Prohibitorum,' and thus to stop its sale altogether. The matter was 8008 are known, Robert II., Henry 11., Francis II., and a daughter of constantly deferred, and all attempts to bring it to a close were fruit. the name of Catherine. less. Stephens, in the meantime, regardless of the clouds which were There is perhaps no man in modern times to whom literature and gathering over his head, continued as active as ever. In 1547 he learning are more indebted than to Robert Stephens. His unbiassed published his Editio princeps of the 'Antiquitates Romanæ' of Diony. contemporaries not only place him on a level with the greatest scholars, sius of Halicarnassus, which is still highly valued as a very beautiful but declare that he excelled them all. and correct edition. It was soon followed by the Editio princeps of CHARLES STEPHENS appears to have been about a year younger than Dionysius of Alexandria, 'De Situ Orbis, with the Greek scholia of his brother Robert. His education was sound and classical, but he Eustathius.

also applied himself to the physical sciences, and took his degree of In this year (1547) King Francis I. died, and Stephens lost his Doctor of Medicine, which he practised for some time. He wrote greatest patron and protector. His successor, Henry II., was at first several treatises on subjects connected with medicine, natural history, favourable to Stephens, and required the divines of the Sorbonne and agriculture, which however are less scientific than historical, for

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he treated his subjects chiefly in relation to antiquity. His earliest 1566, and also in his . Homeri et Hesiodi Certamen,' 1573. At Naples productions are abridgements of works by Lazarus Baifius, such as and Venice he examined several manuscripts. At Rome he was very

De Re Vestiaria ;' De Vasculis ;' and 'De Re Navali,' which were kindly received by Cardinal Sirlet, who communicated to him a
published by Robert Stephens (1535 and 1537). Lazarus Baifius manuscript of Athenagoras, and corrections of several passages in
(Lazare Baif) engaged Charles Stephens as tutor to his son, and in Xenophon, of which he subsequently made use in his edition of
1540 took him with his son to Germany, and afterwards to Italy, to Xenophon, 1561. It appears that during this journey he also made a
which countries he was sent as ambassador of the King of France. In collation of a manuscript of Athenæus in the Farnesian library, the
Italy Stephens became acquainted with Paulus Manutius, who in one various readings of which he communicated to I. Casaubon, who used
of his letters (v. 17) speaks of him in bigh terms. On his return to them in his edition of Athenæus (1597). At the same time he made
Paris he appears to have continued the practice of medicine, but in the acquaintance of the most distinguished scholars of the age, such
1551, when Robert removed to Geneva, the whole of his printing as Muretus, P. Manutius, C. Sigonius, P. Vettori, Cardinal Maffeo, and
establishment, with the exception perhaps of the department for many others. On his return, in the year 1549, he brought with him
printing Hebrew, which appears to have been undertaken by Martinus the treasures which he had discovered and collected. This was just
Juvenis, passed into the hands of Charles Stephens, for the Editio at the time when his father was finishing his folio edition of the
princeps of Appiani Alexandrini Historiarum Romanarum Celtica, Greek Testament, for which Henry wrote sixty Greek verses which
Libyca vel Carthaginiensis, Illyrica, Syriaca, Parthica, Mithridatica, were prefixed to it. About the same time he wrote notæ and
Civilis quinque libris distincta,' which appeared at Paris in 1551, argumenta for the edition of Horace, which Robert published in 1549.

Cura ac Diligentia Caroli Stephani,' is probably the first book which In 1550 Henry Stephens set out on a journey to England, where he
he printed, though it had been prepared or commenced by Robert was kindly received by Edward VI. Šis stay was not long, but he
Stephens. It is a beautiful specimen of typography. There is a appears to have paid great attention to everything that came in his
French translation of a treatise of Plutarch, called "Traicté sur la way, and turned it to good account. He himself mentions some
Honte vicieuse,' by F. Legrand, which is by some referred to the year interesting circumstances connected with his visit to England in his
1514, and is supposed to be the first book printed by Charles Stephens; Apologia pro Herodoto,' and in the preface to his edition of the
but it probably belongs to the year 1554. Soon after Robert left 'Poetæ Heroici Græci.' On his return from England he visited
Paris, Charles appears to have been appointed Royal Printer, for this Flanders, Brabant, and the University of Louvain (Loewen). During
title is mentioned on his last two publications of the year 1551. his short stay in the Netherlands, he made himself master of the
Henceforth he continued to be very active in his new sphere till the Spanish language. On his return to Paris towards the end of the
year 1561, for in these ten years there issued from his press 97 works, year 1551 his father was preparing to quit France, and it is not
on a great variety of subjects, some of which he had written himself. improbable that Henry accompanied him to Geneva. This is however
Charles Stephens seems to have been a man who knew something of not quite certain, for in 1554 we find him at Paris, where he published
everything, but nothing very well. His character as a man has been the Editio princeps of Anacreon, in 4to, with a Latin translation and
attacked in a letter of Maumontius addressed to J. Scaliger, in which notes by himself. Whether at this time he had a printing establish.
he is called a "malus" and a "male volens homo," and is charged ment of his own, or whether he printed his book in that of his uncle
with unkind conduct towards his nephews, the sons of Robert. But Charles, is uncertain, although the latter is more probable, for in the
as we hear of no accusations of this kind from any other quarter, the same year he edited Dionysii Halicarnassei Responsio ad Cn. Pompeii
impartiality of the writer may be doubted. Charles Stephens died in Epistolam,' &c., the title-page of which expressly states that it was
the year 1564. Some say that he was persecuted for his religious printed by Charles Stephens.
opinions, and died in prison; others state that he was imprisoned for The first indication of a printing establishment belonging to Henry
deht in the Châtelet, and that he remained there for the last three Stephens occurs towards the end of the year 1556, when ‘Davidis
years of his life. It may be that both causes combined to bring this Psalmi aliquot Latino Carmine expressi à Quatuor Illustribus Poetis,
misery upon him; for we know that he lost a great deal of his capital quos Quatuor Regiones, Gallia, Italia, Germania, Scotia, genuerunt,' &c.
in 1557, by the publication of his “Thesaurus Ciceronianus,' which appeared, with the addition, ' Ex officina Henrici Stephani.' Towards
was a very expensive undertaking, and did not sell. It is also certain the end of the year 1554 he made a second journey to Italy, and dis-
that during the last three years of his life no work appeared from his covered at Romo a considerable part of the historical work of Diodorus
press. He left one daughter of the pame of Nicole, who was no less Siculus, which had not then been printed, and which he afterwards
celebrated for her beauty than for her talents and accomplishments. inserted in his edition of 1559. În 1555 he went from Rome to

Lists of the works wbich were written or printed by Charles Naples in search of something which appears to have been of import-
Stephens are given by Maittaire and Renouard. All the works of c. ance to the king of France, and to his ambassador at Venice, Odet de
Stephens are very beautifully printed.

Selve, but it is not stated what the object of his search was. The
HENRY STEPHENS 11., the greatest of the whole family, was the son of circumstance that the king of France was then at war with the Emperor
Robert and grandson of Henry. He was born at Paris in 1528. Even as Charles V., brought H, Stephens into great danger at Naples, for he
a child he showed extraordinary talents. The numerous engagements was there discovered by some Italian who had met him at Venice in
of his father did not allow him to spend much time upon the education the house of the French ambassador, and when Stephens was on the
of the boy; but he carefully watched and regulated it. Latin he point of being arrested, he only saved himself by insisting upon his
learnt naturally, as it was constantly spoken in the family, but before being an Italian, and he spoke the language so well that the Italian was
he seriously studied it the father made him learn Greek. He received at last persuaded, and let him go. On his return to Venice he ren.
his first instruction in Greek from a schoolmaster, who while reading dered an account of his mission to the ambassador, who was well
the 'Medea' of Euripides with his boys, made it the practice to assign pleased with the manner in which he had executed his instructions.
a part to each of them; and as soon as Henry had made sufficient At Venice Stephens made a collation of a manuscript of Diogenes
progress to join them, he read this play with the greatest avidity, and Laertius in the library of St. Mark, which had originally belongedi o
soon knew it all by heart. After he had spent some time at this Cardinal Bessarion, and which he used for his edition of Diogenes or
school, he was instructed in Greek by Petrus Danesius, who was then, 1570. He also examined two manuscripts of Xenophon, one of which
next to Budæus, perhaps the ablest Greek scholar of the time; and he made use of in his edition of 1561.
who, on account of his intimate friendship with Robert Stephens, took During the year 1557, when Stephens was in the full possession of
great interest in the progress of his pupil. At the age of about fifteen printing establishment, he published seven new works, some of which
Henry also enjoyed the instruction of Jacobus Tusanus (Jacques bad never been printed before ; among them are the Editio princeps of
Toussain); and subsequently, when this scholar died (1547), that of Maximi Tyrii, Philosophi Platonici, Sermones, sive Disputationes
Adrianus Turnebus, who succeeded Tusanus in the professorship of XLI., Græce, nunc primum editæ,' with a Latin translation; Æschy,
Greek in the Royal College. Although he had been chiefly instructed lus, with notes by P. Victorius and H. Stephens ; ' Ex Ctesia, Agathar-
in Greek by these men, he did not neglect Latin; for even when a boy chide, Memnone excerptae Historiæ ; Appiani Iberica. Item, de Gestis
he is said to have known by heart the first book of Horace's 'Epistles.' Annibalis: Græce. Omnia nunc primum edita, cum H. Stephani
He also studied mathematics; and as soon as he heard something of Castigationibus;' and 'Ciceronianum Lexicon Græco-Latinum, &c.
astrology, he conceived a strong desire to become acquainted with Henry adopted the emblem (an olive-tree) and the device of his
it, and in taking lessons in it wasted much money and time, but he father, 'noli altum sapere,' to which is sometimes added, 'sed time.'
soon became aware of the futility of these pursuits, and gave them up Another device of his which sometimes occurs is, ut ego insererer,
altogether.

defracti sunt rami,' which contains an allusion to the branches which In 1546 Robert Stephens thought his son qualified to assist him are represented as engrafted upon the olive-tree. The travels of in bis printing establishment, and in this year Henry collated a Stephens and the printing of expensive books had embarrassed his manuscript of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, whose works Robert was affairs, and after the year 1557 he found himself in great difficulties, preparing for publication. In the year following, when the death of but he was assisted by Ulrich Fugger, a wealthy merchant of AugsFrancis I. deprived Robert of his chief patron, Henry undertook a burg, who, besides a large sum which he gave or advanced to him, journey to Italy, the main object of which was to search the libraries gave him an annuity of 150 thalers. Stephens from gratitude for and examine the manuscripts in that country. Three years were this munificent liberality, benceforth called himself Typographus spent in visiting the various places of Italy. In several towns his Huldrici Fuggeri, or Fuggerorum Typographus, which appears on exertions were rewarded with discoveries ; at Florence he found in a most of his publications down to the year 1568. The Fuggers manuscript of the Medicean library a number of Greek poems pot assisted Stephens also in other respects; they had an excellent known before, which were the Epitaphia Homericorum Heroum.' | library and some valuable manuscripts, which they allowed him to He afterwards printed them in his Florilegium Epigram, Græc., use for his editions of ancient works, as in that of 'Imperatorum

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STEPHENS. Justiniani, Justini, Leonis, Novellæ Constitutiones,' &c., Græce, the It appears to have been owing to the pecuniary difficulties in which only work that he edited in the year 1558. After a series of years Stephens was involved after the publication of his Thesaurus,' that, the Augsburg merchants appear to have become tired of supporting in order to divert his mind, he made various excursions in France and the great printer. In a collection of letters of Stephens, published by Germany, but he always took the opportunity of exploring libraries Passow in 1830, there are some which show that Stephens wanted and comparing manuscripts, and thus collected vast quantities of them to advance bim a small sum of money which they had promised, materials for works which he was publishing or projecting. In 1573 and that at length after much correspondence they did not keep their he published an edition of all the extant works of M. Terentius Varro promise. In consequence of this his connection with the Fuggers in 8vo, and a collection of the fragments of the philosophical poets of ceased in 1576.

Greece. The year following he produced an excellent edition of In the year 1559 H. Stephens published his edition of Diodorus Apollonius Rhodius with the ancient scholia and a commentary by Siculus in fol., in which ten books of this historian were printed for himself. In 1575 there appeared his collection of the Greek orators, the first time. The manuscript which he used for this edition is now some of which are accompanied by a Latin translation; and Arrian's in the public library of Geneva. Other publications of this year are, Expeditio Alexandri Magni,' &c., with a Latin translation. In 1577 Appian's 'Hispanica et Annibalica,' with a Latin translation by Beral- he published, among other books, an edition of Cicero's Epistolæ ad dus. in 8vo, and 'Gentium et Familiarum Romanarum Stemmata,' &c., Familiares,' in 2 vols. Svo; the second volume contains the comin fol. In this year his father Robert died at Geneva, and Henry was mentaries of P. Manutius, Lambinus, Sigonius, Canter, and of Stephens appointed executor of his will, in which he was also enjoined to take himself. In 1578 he brought out his magnificent edition of Plato's care of his brothers. Robert, one of his brothers, had been, as it works, in 3 vols. folio; and in the same year he wrote a little French appears, disinherited by the father because he would not abandon the work, 'Deux Dialogues du Nouveau Langage François, Italianizé et Roman Catholic faith and follow his father to Geneva. Accordingly autrement desguizé, principalement entre les Courtisans de ce Temps,' the printing establishment of Robert, the father, came into the hands &c. (printed without name and date). This was an attack upon the of Henry, who continued to publish theological works and several fashion, very common at the time, of introducing Italian words into editions of the Bible. H. Stephens appears now to have given up his French. Stephens, after the manuscript had received the 'imprimatur' establishment at Paris, and to have devoted bimself to the manage from the state-council of Geneva, had taken the liberty of making ment of that at Geneva,

some additions, for which he was severely reprimanded by the council. In the year 1555 H. Stephens married for the first time, but in 1564 Not thinking himself quite safe, or wishing to escape the annoyance or 1565 he himself states that his wife died. He afterwards married to which this affair subjected him, he went towards the end of 1578, again, for the letters published by Passow show that about the year to Paris, where he remained during the whole of 1579. Henry III. 1581 he became a widower a second time. On his death in 1598, he received bim very kindly, and interested himself so much on Stephens's left a wife surviving, from which it appears that he was married thrice. behalf, that he demanded of the council of Geneva permission for By his three wives he had altogether 14 children, ten of whom died Stephens to return, and to clear himself from the charges which were at an early age.

brought against him. Stephens returned to Geneva, and was placed In 1560 he published a collection of the lyric poets of Greece at the bar of the consistory, where he was treated with rigour and with a Latin translation in 16mo, which has been often reprinted. harshness, and for some days was put into prison. When Stephens at In the year following appeared his edition of Xenophon in fol., for last owned that he had acted wrong, he was set at liberty. which he had collated a great number of manuscripts, and to which During the stay wbich H. Stephens had made at Paris in 1579 he he added a commentary and a Latin translation. An improved edi- had a conversation with the king, in which he expatiated very ingetion was published in 1581. During the last two years H. Stephens niously on the superiority of the French language over other modern was in bad health and subject to melancholy, arising from over tongues; and the king, delighted with this eulogy on the French lanexertion and the heavy cares that devolved upon him after his guage, persuaded him to write a book on the subject. This book was father's death. In this state he scarcely worked at all; he almost published in the course of the same year, De la Precellence du Lanconceived a disgust for literary occupations, and could not bear the gage François,' 8vo, Paris, 1579. The king, pleased with the persight of a book. But the renewed activity into wbich he was drawn formance, ordered 3000 francs to be paid to Stephens from the public unconsciously in 1562, restored him to health. The work which treasury, and also granted him an annual pension of 300 francs ; but roused bim to fresh exertion was a Latin translation of "Sexti Philo- from the manner in which Stephens, in his . Musa Principum Monitrix,' sophi Pyrrhoniarum Hypoty poseon Libri Tres.' The Greek original of speaks of this affair, it appears that he never received anything at all, this work was not printed until 1621. It must have been soon after for the treasurer at that time was a person of much more consequence bis recovery that Stephens began his greatest work, the Thesaurus in such matters than the king. Linguæ Græcæ,' upon which he spent ten years. In 1564 he wrote In 1581 Stephens published 'Juris Civilis Fontes et Rivi,' &c., in and published a Dictionarium Medicum, vel Expositiones Vocum 8vo; and, as is commonly supposed, also Sigonii Fasti Consulares.' Græcarum Medicinalium, ad Verbum, excerptæ ex Hippocrate, Are The latter he printed without the sanction of the Council of Geneva, tæo, &c., cum Latina Interpretatione, in 8vo. In this work he and was in consequence fined 25 thalers. This edition of the 'Fasti' received some assistance from J. M. Gesner; it was highly spoken of of Sigonius, if it was really published by Stephens, must have been by contemporary scholars, with the exception of Jos. Scaliger, who suppressed, for there is no trace of it now. H. Stephens spent the censured it severely, but he appears to have had a personal pique year 1585 again at Paris, where he published an excellent edition of against Stephens. In this year Stephens edited a still-useful collec: A. Gellius and of Macrobius, both in 8vo. The former is preceded by tion of "Fragmenta Poetarum Latinorum, quorum Opera non extant,' a very interesting letter to his son Paul, from which, besides many &c. in 8vo, and an edition of Thucydides with the Scholia, and a other things, we learn that about this time his country house had been Latin translation by L. Valla. In 1566 he published, among other destroyed by an earthquake, a loss which he bore with stoical indifferbooks, bis Florilegium' of Greek Epigrams; Poetæ Græci Principes ence. In 1588 he published an edition of the 'Iliad' and 'Odyssey,' Heroici Carminis et alii nonnulli,' &c., in fol., which is most beautifully with a Latin translation. printed, and his edition of Herodotus with Valla's translation and his During the time that Stephens enjoyed the friendship of the King own Apologia pro Herodoto,' which he himself afterwards translated of France, he spent a great part of his time at Paris. His publiinto French. Passing over a great number of valuable publications cations during this period greatly decreased in number, and some of which appeared from 1566 till 1572, we proceed to the year 1572, in them were executed by Paris printers. His own establishment at which the Greek Thesaurus was published under the title Thesaurus Geneva was neglected. He was constantly travelling about, and he Græcæ Linguæ ab Henrico Stephano constructus. In quo præter alia published his works wherever he happened to be, as at Paris, Frankplurima quæ primus præstitit (paternæ in Thesauro Latino Diligentiæ furt, Basel, &c. From this fact it has been erroneously supposed that æmulus) Vocabula in certas Classes distribuit, multiplici Derivationum he had separate printing-establishments in these places. He often Serie ad Primigenia tanquam ad Radices unde pullulant revocata,' resolved to give up this wandering life, and was seriously exhorted by with the appendix and index, 5 vols. fol. This work made an epoch his friends to attend to his business; but the charms of a court life in the history of Greek philology, as well as in the life of the author, and the habit of travelling had now become strong, and he was who had embarked in it nearly all his property. The price of this dazzled by splendour and deceived by the hopes which he placed in prodigious work was necessarily high, and accordingly it could not the great. The years 1588 and 1585 he appears however to have have many purchasers. When Seapula some years afterwards pub- spent at Geneva, and several works again issued from his press; but lished his cheap abridgement (SCAPULA), the sale was nearly stopped, in 1590 no work came out at Geneva, and only one (*Principum and Stephens became involved in great difficulties. It has been sup Monitrix Musa") at Frankfurt, where he appears to have spent some posed by some that Stephens soon after published a second edition of time. In this year Henri III. of France was murdered. T'he affairs his Thesaurus, but this opinion has merely arisen from the fact that he of Stephens now grew worse and worse : his warehouses were full of cancelled a number of pages of the original edition, and inserted new books which he could not sell. In the year 1597 he left Geneva for ones in their place. In 1745 Daniel Scott published, in 2 vols. fol., France. He first stayed for some time at Montpellier, where Florence, * Appendix ad Thesaurum ab H. Stephano constructum.'. A new one of his daughters, resided, who was married to Isaac Casaubon. edition of the Thesaurus was published in London (1815-28) in 7 vols. Casaubon was just preparing his edition of Athenæus, and Stephens fol., with numerous additions by Barker, which however have not offered his assistance, which was refused. He then proceeded through incrensed the value of the book. A new edition is now in course of various other places to Lyon, where he was taken ill; and feeling publication at Paris, which is edited by Hase, and L. and W. Dindorf, solitary and forlorn, and having no friends there, he was carried to a and of wbich 7 vols. fol. and some parts of an 8th vol. have been public hospital, where he died, in the beginning of March 1598, at the published. (1857.)

age of nearly seventy years. Some writers say that he died out of

705

STEPHENS.

STEPHENS

706

his mind, a statement which, if true, can only apply to the last few making Latin verses, but his poetry is stiff and unanimated. His days of his life. It is a mistake to suppose that Stephens died in best is perhaps the poem on the death of his father. poverty because he died in an hospital; for the proceeds of his books After the death of his father, wben the affairs of the family were alone, which were publicly sold and fetched low prices, were sufficient settled, and Casaubon had left Geneva, Paul was placed at the head of to pay his creditors and to leave something for his wife and children. his father's printing establishment (1599), which he conducted with Stepheus died without a will; and Casaubon, who went to Geneva to great energy. He first reprinted a number of classical authors which receive his wife's dowry, which was still owing, together with her had been edited by his father, and were then out of print, such share of the inheritance, was generous enough to leave Henry's as Virgil, Horace, the letters of Pliny, and the Latin panegyrists and library, manuscripts, and printing-establishment, in the hands of his others. The two works which do him most credit are "Euripidis son Paul.

Tragædiæ quæ extant, cum Lat. Guil. Canteri Interpretatione,' &c., There is no scholar to whom the Greek language and literature is containing the Greek scholia and commentaries of several scholars, under greater obligations than it is to Henry Stephens. He knew his 2 vols. 4to, 1602; and Sophoclis Tragoediæ Septem, unà cum omnibus superiority, and sometimes showed that he felt it. The number of Græcis Scholiis et Latina Viti Windemii ad verbum Interpretatione, books which he printed, edited, or wrote, is immense; and it is truly &c., likewise containing the scholia, and also notes by H. Stephens. astonishing that, even during the rambling life of his latter years, In 1619 he printed a folio edition of Herodotus, founded upon that of he was continually producing new works. During the earlier part of his father, with a Latin translation and notes by Sylburg. No other his life he was a man of inflexible resolution, and never rested till he publication issued from his press till 1626, when he published a fifth had effected bis purpose ; and he was always planning something, edition of the lyric Greek poets : ‘Pindari et ceterorum Octo Lyrieven to the last days of his life. He has often been censured for his corum Carmina. This was his last publication. The inactivity in alteration of passages in ancient writers without being supported by his establishment during the last years appears to have been the conthe authority of manuscripts, and without even assigning a reason for sequence of his want of capital, to which we may perhaps also attribute his alterations. This has been said more especially in regard to his the fact that most of his works are printed on very bad paper. In edition of Plutarch, which came out in the same year that he pub- 1626 or 1627 he sold his whole establishment to the brothers Clouet. lished his Thesaurus; but Wyttenbach, on examining several manu. It is not known what became of him after this, but it is believed he scripts for his own edition, found that H. Stephens was in most cases died soon after. He had eight children, two of whom only, Anthony supported by manuscript authority.

and Joseph, survived their father. ROBERT STEPHENS IT., the youngest son of Robert Stephens 1., and FRANCIS STEPHENS IL, son of Robert Stephens I., and an elder brother brother of Henry Stephens II., was born at Paris in 1530. The first of Henry Stephens II, followed his father to Geneva, and is said to have time that we find him taking part in the publication of a work was in been a good Greek and Latin scholar. After the death of his father 1556, when he and Morel, who was then royal printer, published the he established at Geneva a printing-office of his own, which he con. edition of Anacreon prepared by H. Stephens. The title of royal ducted from 1562 to 1582, with an interruption however of nearly ten printer' was conferred upon Robert in 1561, as appears from some years. Even during the remaining ten years he printed very few books printed by him in this year, at the same time that he came into books, and most of them for publishers : this appears to have been possession of the printing-office of Charles Stephens. In this office he owing to his want of capital. The first work, and almost the only continued till his death. In activity and accurate and beautiful one that he printed on his own account, was Calvin's Commentaries printing he was worthy of his father, but this is all that we know of on the Psalms, fol., 1563. His last publication was Amyot's French him. As royal printer he was much employed in printing edicts and translation of the Moralia' of Plutarch, 2 vols. fol., 1581-82. After ordonnances, as may be seen from the list of bis publications by this time he gave up printing and settled in Normandy, and we hear Renouard. He died in 1570. Among his publications we only no more about him. mention the following:- a reprint of the Historical Dictionary ('Dic ANTHONY STEPHENS, son of Paul Stephens, was born at Geneva in tionarium Propriorum Nominum Virorum, Mulierum, Populorum, 1592. He studied at Lyon, and afterwards finished his education at &c.') of Charles Stephens, 4to, 1560; 'Josephi Scaligeri Conjectanea in Paris, where he abjured Protestantism before Cardinal du Perron. M. Terent. Varronem,' 1565; and several editions of Donatus, 'De In 1612 he obtained letters-patent of naturalisation in France, and at the Partibus Orationis.'

same time the office of huissier de l'assemblée du clergé, with a salary After his death his wife married again, and kept up the printing of 500 francs, which he held until the year 1635. Long before this establishment. There are publications down to the year 1588, 'Ex time however he had been in the possession of a printing establishofficina Roberti Stephani.'

ment. Some writers mention a work by Perron, which Anthony ROBERT STEPHENS III., son of Robert Stephens II., was educated Stephens is said to have printed in 1605. But this cannot possibly be by the poet and abbé Desportes, who inspired him with a love for correct, as Anthony was then only thirteen years old. The earliest poetry, and with whom he appears to have stayed at least till 1584. I work which he printed belongs to the year 1613, and henceforth he He did not commence printing till 1006, so that eighteen years elapsed conducted his establishment with an activity worthy of his great without a publication appearing from the press of Robert Stephens. ; ancestors until the year 1664. He was also honoured

with the title of His first publication was • D. Gregorii Nysseni ad Eustathiam, Ambro- royal printer, through the influence of Cardinal Perron, and he siam, Basilissam, Epistola, Græce. I. Casaubonus nunc primum pub- received a pension of 600 francs, but the time when he first received it licavit, Latine vertit et notis illustravit,' 8vo, Lutetiæ, 1606. He is uncertain. The pension was stopped when Perron died, and probably worked in the printing establishment which had belonged to Anthony after this was several times in great pecuniary difficulties. his father, and printed till his death in 1630. He distinguished him. Among his numerous publications, which comprise all the works of self also by his Latin, Greek, and French verses, and by a French Perron, there are several valuable editions of ancient authors, such as translation of the first two books of Aristotle's 'Rhetoric,' which was Casaubon's edition of Strabo, 1620; of Plutarch's Works, with printed in 8vo, 1630. In his publications he generally added to his Xylander's translation, 2 vols. fol., 1624; Leunclavius's edition of name the letters R. F. R. N., that is Roberti Filius, Roberti Nepos, to Xenophon,' 1625; Aristotle's Works, 2 vols. fol., 1629. For many distinguish himself from his father and grandfather. He printed a years after the death of his patron Anthony was in very straitened great number of books; the principal are, Menandri et Philistionis circumstances, and was supported by his son Henry, who, from the Sententiæ Comparatæ, Græce, ex Bibliotheca Regia; cum notis, cura year 1646, had a printing office of his own, where, among other works, N. Rigaltii,' 8vo, Lutetiæ, 1613; D. Junii Juvenalis Satyrarum Libri Montaigne's " Essays' were printed. When his son died in 1661, and v. Sulpiciæ Satyra, Cura Rigaltii, &c.,' Lutet., 1616; Dictys Creten. Anthony was deprived of his last and only support, he sank rapidly : sis, De Bello Trojano, et Dares Phrygius De Excidio Trojæ,' &c., he became infirm, and at last lost his sight. In this state he dragzed 16mo, 1618.

on a wretched existence until the year 1674, when he died in the HôtelThere are several other members of the Stephens family of the name Dieu at Paris, at the age of eighty-two. He had six children, all of of Robert, but none of them were distinguished. During the last whom died before him. century there was a French writer of the name of Robert Stephens Besides the members of the Stephens family whom we have men(Robert Etienne), who claimed a descent from the illustrious family of tioned above, there are two more, who however were never engaged in printers.

printing. The one is Henry Stephens, a son of Robert Stephens II., PAUL STEPHENS, a son of Henry Stephens 11., by his second wife, who was treasurer of the royal palaces; the other likewise called was born at Geneva in 1566. He received his early education at home, Henry, and a son of the former, acquired some reputation as a poet, and was then sent out by his father to visit the principal towns of and also wrote some other works in French. Europe, and the distinguished scholars with whom his father was Respecting the lives of the Stephens, see Th. Jansonii ab Almeloveen, acquainted. Lipsius, whom he visited at Leyden, was much pleased Dissertatio Epistolica de Vitis Stephanorum,' Amsterdam, 1685; with him, and in one of his letters calls him mitis adolescens.' On Maittaire, Stephanorum Historia,' 2 vols. in 4 parts, London, 1709, his return to Geneva he assisted his father in printing and editing. which contains a list, though not complete, of their publications ; He afterwards made several other journeys, partly perhaps in connec Greswell, A. View of the early Parisian Greek Press, including the tion with the business of his father. In 1594 he spent some time in lives of the Stephani,' Oxford, 1833 ; Ant. Aug. Renouard, 'Annales London, where, among other distinguished men, he made the acquaint- de l'Imprimerie des Etienne, ou Histoire de la Famille des Etienne et ance of John Castolius. In 1595 he was at Heidelberg, and in 1596 de ses éditions,' 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1837. This last work contains in at Frankfort, where he stayed in the house of the jurist Dionysius the first volume a very complete list of all the publications of the Gothofredus. He bad married in 1589. His first literary production Stephens, and various unpublished and important facts, derived from was Pauli Stephani Versiones Epigrammatum Græcorum Antho- the public records of Paris and Geneva. See also Firmin Didot, Essai logiæ, Latinis versibus,' Sro, Genevee, 1593. He was always fond of sur la Typographie'; and Gaullieur, Typographie Genevoise,' 1855. BIOG. DIV. VOL. V.

22

707

STEPHENS, JAMES FRANCIS.

STEPHENSON, GEORGE.

708

STEPHENS, JAMES FRANCIS, & distinguished British ento. having been accidentally scalded and blinded by a discharge of steam mologist, was born at Shorebam, Sussex, on the 16th of September let in upon him while repairing an engine. Stephenson paid his 1792. He was for many years a clerk in the Admiralty Office in father's debts at the expense of more than half his savings, and settled Somerset House. Whilst holding this position he devoted his leisure his parents in a cottage, where they lived during many years entirely bours to the study of natural history, and was a remarkable example supported by him. He was immediately re-engaged in his old position of the knowledge that may be gained by the cultivation of the small at Killingworth, but being drawn for the militia, the obtaining a subportion of time allotted for rest in a government office. In the course stitute absorbed the remainder of the produce of his economy, and of a long life he made one of the most complete collections of British he seriously contemplated emigrating to America, whither his wife's insects extant. This collection was the admiration of foreigners and sister and her husband went; but he could not raise money enough the constant resort of the British entomologist. Mr. Stephens's taste to accompany them. He therefore continued his various labours, for entomology led early to his employment in the British Museum, attending the engine, mending clocks, making and mending shoes, where he assisted Dr. Leach in commencing the present collection of and studying mechanics. His acquired knowledge and mechanical insects in that institution. The literature of entomology is largely skill enabled him to suggest improvements to his employers, and in indebted for his contributions. In 1829 he commenced the publication 1810 a new engine in the neighbourhood having failed in its work, of his "Illustrations of British Entomology,' which was produced in Stephenson was called in to mend it, which he did most effectually. parts and completed in 10 vols. This is one of the largest and most He received for this job a present of 101., and was promoted to the comprehensive works on British entomology, and must secure for its post of engineman at good wages. Whilst thus engaged he formed author a lasting name amongst the cultivators of the natural history an intimacy with a farmer named Wigham, at Long Benton, whose of his own country. In addition to this splendid work, he published son John proved of great assistance to him by increasing his acquaintseveral papers on entomological subjects, which appeared in the ance with arithmetic, and with some of the principles of mechanism *Transactions of the Entomological Society.' He also was engaged at and chemistry; and in 1812 his merit was so far recognised that he the time of his death in writing a catalogue of the British Lepidoptera was appointed engineer of the colliery, at a salary of 1001. a year. He in the collections of the British Museum. He also published sepa- was now elevated above the rank of a mere labourer, but he was not rately "The Systematic Catalogue of British Insects,

' and 'A Manual less busy. He projected and carried out many improvements, and of the British Coleoptera. Although distinguished as an entomolo- among others constructed at the coal-loading place at Willington, the gist, he took an interest in all branches of natural history, and was first self-acting incline used in that district, by which the descending the author of a continuation of Shaw's Zoology' comprising an laden waggons on the tram-road were made to draw up the empty account of the Birds, published in 1827. He was a fellow of the waggong, Linnæan Society, and president of the Entomological Society. He The most important epoch of Stephenson’s life was now approaching. died on the 22nd of December 1852, at his house in Kennington, Many attempts had been made to construct a locomotive steam-engine, after a few days' illness of inflammation of the lungs.

and some had attained a certain degree of success, but none had sucSTEPHENSON, GEORGE, the inventor of the locomotive steam- ceeded in uniting economy with efficiency. Mr. Stephenson carefully engine, was the son of Robert Stephenson and Mabel Carr, and was examined all within his reach, and at length declared his conviction born June 9th, 1781, at Wylam, a village in Northumberland, where that he could make a better than any yet produced. He comhis father was employed as fireman at a colliery; he afterwards municated his proposal to his employers : one of them was Lord removed to Dewley Burn in the same county, where George's first Ravensworth, who, after giving him a patient hearing, commissioned employment was to herd cows, occupying his leisure in modelling him to make a trial of his skill

. His object at first was only to clay engines, and even constructing a miniature windmill. He soon make an engine for the colliery tramways, but even thus early he told began to be employed about the colliery, during which time he dis- bis friends that there was no limit to the speed of such an engine, if played a great affection for birds and animals, particularly rabbits, the works could be made to stand it." The difficulties he encountered of which he acquired the reputation of having a fine breed. At were great; the engine was built in the workshops at West Moor, fourteen years of age he was appointed assistant fireman to his father, Killingworth ; the chief workman was the colliery blacksmith, tools who soon after removed to another colliery at Jolly's Close, where had to be made, and everything rested upon the designer of the George, then only fifteen, was engaged as fireman to an engine in the machine. In ten months it was completed, and on July 25, 1814, it neighbourhood. 'Ambitious of becoming an efficient workman, he was placed on the railway, and was decidedly successful, drawing eight strove to attain a thorough knowledge of the engine, and he succeeded loaded carriages, weighing thirty tons, at the rate of four miles an BO well that at seventeen he was promoted to be a 'plugman,' whose hour. It was however a cumbrous affair, and he speedily saw in how duty it was to see that the engine was in proper working condition, many parts it could be improved. Accordingly, in February 1815, he and that the pumps drew off the water effectually, repairing such took out a patent for a locomotive, and in the same year constructed accidental defects as might occur. To do this he felt required an inti- an engine, which (with certain mechanical improvements, that though mate knowledge of its construction, and at his leisure hours he would conceived by him to be necessary, could not be supplied by the manutake the machinery to pieces, that he might the better understand it. factories at that time,) may be considered as the model of all that His father, who had six children, of whom George was the second, had have been since produced. been unable to give them any education, though by example a sound From Mr. Stephenson's connection with collieries he could scarcely foundation of good principles and morals had been laid, and at avoid having his attention painfully excited, by the frequent exploeighteen, whilst employed for twelve hours a day in his labours, and sions arising from fire-damp, and in 1894 one of the collieries under earning only twelve shillings a week, George Stephenson commenced a his care having taken fire, he, at great risk of his life, and with the course of self-culture. He attended a small night-school at Walbottle, assistance of the workmen, who trusted to his knowledge and skill, where in a year he learnt to read, and to write his own name, for succeeded in extinguishing it by bricking up the passage where the foul which instruction he paid threepence a week. He next, in 1799, air was accumulated. The constant danger from the use of exposed placed himself under a Scotchman named Robertson, at Newburn, candles in coal-mines was so well known, that many inventors had who, for fourpence a week, taught him arithmetic, which he acquired attempted to produce lamps to meet the difficulty; and as early as with remarkable facility. At twenty he had been advanced to the 1813 a safety lamp was invented by Dr. Clanny, but it was found to be superior office of brakesman, with increased wages, to which he added, unmanageable. Sir Humphry Davy was invited to attempt something; in bis leisure hours, by learning to make and mend shoes. At that for which purpose, among others, he visited Newcastle in August time he was a big, raw-boned fellow, fond of displaying his strength 1815, and on November 9 he read a paper on the construction of his and activity at the village feasts, but remarkable for his temperance, lamp before the Royal Society of London. Mr. Stephenson was at sobriety, industry, and good-temper, yet on one occasion he fought a the same time occupied on the same subject. In August he made a bully who would have oppressed him, and his victory on that occasion drawing for a lamp, which on October 21 had been made and tested; a secured him ever after from a repetition of the offence.

second and a third were made, for the purpose of increasing the When by the most rigid economy Stephenson had saved sufficient amount of light; and on November 30, before he could by any possimoney to furnish a small home, he determined to settle, and on the bility have heard of Davy's invention, his third lamp was finished 28th of November 1800 he married Fanny Henderson, with whom he and tried in Killingworth pit, where it was found thoroughly effective, removed to Willington, where he had been appointed brakesman to and has ever since been in use. A controversy has arisen, into which the engine employed for lifting the ballast brought by the return we shall not enter, as to priority of invention. There is however collier ships to Newcastle. In his new abode, at the Ballast Hills, every reason to believe that Stephenson invented his lamp and tried it he continued to occupy himself with mechanical experiments, expend a few days previous to Davy having announced his discovery; and the ing much time and great ingenuity in a fruitless effort to obtain natural conclusion is, that, urged by the want of a safety-lamp, and perpetual motion ; until an accident having obliged him to repair his reasoning from the same facts, the inventors arrived at the results own clock, he became the general clock-cleaner and mender for the independently of each other; for the two lamps, although different in neighbourhood, thus improving his own mechanical skill whilst adding construction, are founded upon identical principles, but arrived at by to his income. On the 16th of December 1803 bis only child Robert different trains of thought. was born, and soon after he removed to Killingworth, where his wife We cannot attempt to trace all the improvements in details which died. In 1804 he was engaged to superintend the working of one of Mr. Stephenson introduced in the locomotive, but he very early Boulton and Watt's engines at Montrose; but after continuing there a perceived that, for its proper working, the railway required equal year-during which time he saved about 281., a considerable sum in attention, and that a firm bed and a regular level were essential his circumstances, and during a period of war-prices of provisions requisites. Very little attention had hitherto been paid to this, and he returned to Killingworth to find his father in extreme distress, the trarroads were carelessly laid out and not kept in good repair.

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