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IK?' 706

dates, and their own, without conclusive evidence. In the absence of the evidence which they had before them, however, it appears to us that the proper verdict for history to pronounce is the intermediate one of not proven.

BOLGRAD', a t. in Moldavia, 28 m. n.n.w. of Ismail; pop. 6100. B. was formerly in Bessarabia, but was ceded to Moldavia by Russia in the Paris treaty.

BOXI, or Bolt, a t. of Asia Minor, in the pashalic of Anatolia, on the left bank of the river Bo'i, and on or near the site of the Roman Hadrianopolis, 136 m. e. from Constantinople. The town occupies an eminence, at the extremity of a fertile, plain. It has several mosques. There are mineral springs near the town, and baths much frequented by the Turks. B. is on the caravan route from Constantinople to Erzerum. Pop. 10,000.

E0LINGBR0KE, Henry St. John, Viscount, b. at Battersea, Oct. 1, 1678, was educated at Eton and Oxford, after which he traveled for about two years on the continent, and in 1700, shortly after his return, married the daughter of Sir Henry Aviachcomb, from whom, however, he soon separated. Up to this period, he was chiefly notable for his extreme dissipation; but having entered parliament in 1701, he devoted himself to

Politics, and joining the tory parly, soon made himself prominent as an orator. In 704, lie was made secretary at war. This office he retained till 1708, when the whigs came into power, after which he retired from politics, and gave himself up to study, but still retained great influence as the queen's favorite couuselor. On the fall of the whig party in 1710, he was made secretary of state for foreign affairs. In 1712, he was called to the house of lords by the title of viscount Bolingbroke, and in 1713, against the wish of nearly the entire nation, concluded the peace of Utrecht. Having previously quarreled with his old friend Harley—now earl of Oxford, and his most powerful rival—he contrived his dismissal in July, 1714, and immediately proceeded to form a strong Jacobite ministry, in accordance with the well-known predilections of his royal mistress, whose death, however, a few days after, disconcerted his dangerous and unprincipled schemes. The accession of George I. proved a death-blow to his prospects. On the 28th of Aug., he was deposed from office; in Mar., 1715. he fled to France; Mid in Aug. of the same year was attainted. For some time he held the office of secretary of state to the pretender; but his restless and ambitious spirit yearned for the "large excitement" of English politics. His efforts to obtain a pardon not proving in the mean time successful, he retired to a small estate which he had purchased near Orleans. In 1718, his first wife died, and in 1720 he married the rich widow of the marquis de Vilette. A

i'udicious use of this lady's wealth enabled him to return to England in Sept., 1724. lis property was restored to him, but he was never permitted to take his seat in parliament, lie therefore betook himself to his villa at Dawley, near Uxbridge, where be occasionally enjoyed the society of Swift, Pope, and others of his old friends with whom he had corresponded in his exile, and where he diversified his moral and metaphysical studies by his attacks on the ministry in his periodical, the Craftsman, in which the letters forming his Dissertation, on Parties first appeared. In 1735, finding his political hopes clouded forever, he went back to France, in deep chagrin, and continued there till 1743. During this second residence abroad, he wrote his Letters on the Study of History, in which he violently attacked the Christian religion. He died, after a long illness, 1751. His talents were brilliant and versatile; his style of writing was polished and eloquent; but the fatal lack of sincerity and honest purpose which characterized him, and the low and unscrupulous ambition which made him scramble for power with a selfish indifference to national security, hindered him from looking wisely and deeply into any question. His philosophical theories are not profound, nor his conclusions solid, while his criticism, of passing history is worthless in the extreme. He was one of those clever, unscrupulous men, unhappily too common, who forget that God has something to do with the government of this world as well as themselves, and who, in spite of all their ability, can never see that swift destruction treads, like Nemesis, on the heels of those who dare to trifle with the interests and destinies of a great people. His collected writings were published by Mallet (5 vols., Lond. 1753-54).

BOLIVAR, aco. in Mississippi on the M. river, 800 sq.m.; pop. '80, 18,652—15,958 colored. The land is low and swampy, and little cultivated. Co. seat, Rosedale.

BOLIVAR, one of the United States of Colombia, lying on the Caribbean sea; 21,345 Bq.m.; pop. '81, 54,422 s chief town and capital, Carthagena. The country is level and covered with forests. Magdalena river forms its w. boundary.

BOLIVAR CITY. See Augostura.

BOLIVAR, Simon (named El Libertador, for having rescued South America from the Spanish yoke), was born at Caracas, July 25, 1788, descended from a noble and wealthy family. Having studied law at Madrid, he traveled extensively on the continent, married, and returned to his native country, where his wife soon after died. On her death, he again visited Europe, and in 1809 the United States, from which he returned with the determination to free his country from foreign despotism. Arriving at Venezuela, he at once associated himself with the patriots there; and after the insurrection of Caracas, April 19,1810, he was sent to London with a view to interest the British cabinet in their aims. The British government, however, declaring its neutrality, B. speedily returned.

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