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cannot be acquitted of a prominent share in what posterity has among the German states. There are few large estates, and the pronounced to be a judicial murder.

ground is mostly in the hands of small farmers, who enjoy the Oldenbarneveldt was married in 1575 to Maria van Utrecht. right of fishing and shooting on their holdings. Game is scarce, He leit two sons, the lords of Groeneveld and Stoutenburg, and but fishing is fairly productive. The mineral wealth of Oldenburg Iwo daughters. A conspiracy against the life of Maurice, in is very small. Woollen and cotton fabrics, stockings, jute and which the sons of Oldenbarneveldt took part, was discovered in cigars are made at Varel, Delmenhorst and Lohne; cork-cutting 1623. Stoutenburg, who was the chief accomplice, made his is extensively practised in some districts, and there are a few escape and entered the service of Spain; Groeneveld was iron-foundries. Trade is relatively of more importance, chiefly executed.

owing to the proximity of Bremen. The agricultural produce of BIBLIOGRAPHY.-L. v. Deventer, Gedenkstukken van Johan v. the duchy is exported to Scandinavia, Russia, England and the Oldenbarneteldt en zijn tijd (1577-1609; 3 vols., 1860-1865); J. van United States, in return for colonial goods and manufactures. Oldenbarneveldt, Historie Warachtige van de ghevanckennise ... kute sonder ende droevige doot van J. o. 0.... uyt de verklaringe

| Varel, Brake and Elsfleth are the chief commercial harbours. sex 2. E. dienaar Johan Francken (1620); Historie van het leven en

II. The principality of Lübeck has an area of 209 sq. m. ang Seren pan den Heer Johan van Olden Barneveldt (1648); Groen van shares in the general physical characteristics of east Holstein, Prinsterer, Maurice et Barneveld! (1875); J. L. Motley, Life and within which it lies. On the east it extends to Lübeck Bay of the Death of John of Barnevelde (2 vols., 1874).

(G. E.)

..) Baltic Sea, and on the south-east it is bounded by the Trave. OLDENBURG, a grand-duchy of Germany, with an area of The chief rivers are the Schwartau, a tributary of the Trave, and 2479 sq. m. It consists of three widely separated portions of the Schwentine, flowing northwards to the Gulf of Kiel. The territory-(1) the duchy of Oldenburg, (2) the principality of scenery of Lübeck is often picturesque, especially in the vicinity Lübeck, and (3) the principality of Birkenfeld. It ranks tenth of the Plön See and the Eutin See, the most important of the small among the states of the German empire and has one vote in lakcs with which it is dotted. Agriculture is practised here the Bundesrat (iederal council) and three members in the even more extensively than in the duchy of Oldenburg, about Reichstag.

75% of the area being cultivated. The population in 1905 was 1. The duchy of Oldenburg, comprising fully four-fisths of 38,583. the entire area and population, lies between 52° 29' and 53° III. The principality of Birkenfeld, 312 sq. m. in extent, lies in 44' N. and between 7° 37' and 8° 37' E., and is bounded on the N. the midst of the Prussian province of the Rhine, about 30 m. W. by the North Sea and on the other three sides by Hanover, with of the Rhine at Worms and 150 m. S. of the duchy of Oldenburg.

on the east, where it is conter. The population in 1905 was 46,484. (See BIRKENFELD.) minous with the territory of the free city of Bremen. It forms The total population of the grand-duchy of Oldenburg in 1880 part of the north-western German plain lying between the Wescr was 337,478, and in 1905 438,856. The bulk of the inhabitants and the Ems, and, except on the south, where the Dammerge are of the Saxon stock, but to the north and west of the duchy birge attain a height of 478 ft., it is almost entirely flat, with a there are numerous descendants of the ancient Frisians. The slight inclination towards the sea. In respect of its soil it is differences between the two races are still to some extent perceptdivided broadly into two parts—the higher and inland-lying ible, but Low German (Plall-deulsch) is universally spoken, except Geest, consisting of sandy plains intermixed with extensive in one limited district, where a Frisian dialect has maintained heaths and moors, and the marsh lands along the coast, con- itself. In general charac sisting of rich but somewhat swampy alluvial soil. The latter, the Dutch, and the absence of large landowners has contributed

bich compose about one-fifth of the duchy, are protected to make them sturdy and independent. The population of against the inroads of the sea by dikes as in Holland; and Oldenburg is somewhat unequally distributed, some parts of the beyond these are the so-called Watten, generally covered at high marsh lands containing over 300 persons to the square mile, tide, but at many points being gradually reclaimed. The while in the Geest the number occasionally sinks as low as 40. dimate is temperate and humid; the mean tenperature of the About 70% of the inhabitants belong to the “ rural” population. coldest month at the town of Oldenburg is 26° F. of the warmest | The town of Oldenburg is the capital of the grand-duchy. The 66°. Storms are numerous, and their violence is the more selt | war-harbour of Wilhelmshaven, on the shore of the lade Buscn. owing to the almost entire absence of trees; and (ogs and ague was built by Prussia on land bought from Oldenburg. The are prevalent in the marsh lands. The chief rivers are the chief towns of Birkenfeld and Lübeck respectively are Birkenfeld Hunte, fowing into the Weser, and the Hase and Leda Nowing and Eutin. into the Ems. The Weser itself forms the eastern boundary Oldenburg is a Protestant country, and the grand-duke is for 42 m., and internal navigation is greatly facilitated by a required to be a member of the Lutheran Church. Roman canal, passing through the heart of the duchy and connecting Catholicism, however, preponderates in the south-western prothe Hunte and the Leda. On the north there are several small vinces, which formerly belonged to the bishopric of Münster. coast streams conducted through the dikes by sluices, the only Oldenburg Roman Catholics are under the sway of the bishops of one of importance being the Jade, which empties itself into the Münster, who is represented by an official at Vechta. The Jade Busen, a deep gulí affording good accommodation for educational system of Oldenburg is on a similar footing to shipping. The duchy also contains numerous small lakes, the that of north Germany in general, though the scattered posichief of which is the Dümmer See in the south-east corner, tion of the farmhouses interferes to some extent with school measuring 4 m. in length by af in width. About 30% of the attendance. area of the duchy is under cultivation and 17% under pasture. The constitution of Oldenburg, based upon a decree of 1849, and meadows, while the rest consists mainly of marsh, moor and revised in 1852, is one of the most liberal in Germany. It probeath. Forests occupy a very small proportion of the whole, but vides for a single representative chamber (Landtag), elected there are some fine old oaks. In the Geest the principal crops are indirectly by universal suffrage and exercising concurrent rights rye, oats, potatoes and buckwheat, for which the heath is some of legislation and taxation with the grand-duke. The chamber times prepared by burning. Large tracts of moorland, however, which consists of forty members, one for every 10,000 inhabitants, are useful only as producing peat for fuel, or as afíording pasture is elected every three years. The executive consists of three to the flocks of small coarse-woollcd Oldenburg sheep. The rich ministers, who are aided by a committee of the Landtag, when soil of the marsh lands produces good crops of whcal, oats, rye, that body is not in session. The local affairs of Birkenfeld and hemp and rape, but is especially adapted for grazing. The Lübeck are entrusted to provincial councils of fifteen members cattle and horses raised on it are highly esteemed throughout cach. All citizens paying taxes and not having been convicted Germany, and the former are exported in large numbers 10 of selony are enfranchised. The municipal communities enjoy England. Bee-keeping is much in vogue on the moors. The live an unusual amount of independence. The finances of each stock of Oldenburg forms a great part of its wealth, and the ratio I constituent state of the grand-duchy are managed separately, d cattle, sheep and horses to the population is one of the highest i and there is also a fourth budget concerned with the joint administration. The total revenue and expenditure are each | the family, and in 1777 the county was raised to the rank of a about £650,000 annually. The grand-duchy had a debt in 1907 duchy. The bishop's son William, who succeeded his father of £2,958,409.

as duke in 1785, was a man of weak intellect, and his cousin History. The earliest recorded inhabitants of the district Peter Frederick, bishop of Lübeck, acted as administrator and now called Oldenburg were a Teutonic people, the Chauci, who eventually, in 1823, inherited the duchy. This prince is the were afterwards merged in the Frisians. The chroniclers delight direct ancestor of the present grand duke. in tracing the gencalogy of the counts of Oldenburg to the Saxon To Peter fell the onerous task of governing the duchy during hero, Widukind, the stubborn opponent of Charlemagne, but the time of the Napoleonic wars. In 1806 Oldenburg was occupied their first historical representative is one Elimar (d. 1108) who by the French and the Dutch, the duke and the regent being is described as comes in confinio Saxoniae et Frisiae. Elimar's put to flight; but in 1807 William was restored, and in 1808 he descendants appear as vassals, although sometimes rebellious joined the Consederation of the Rhine. However, in 1810 his ones, of the dukes of Saxony; but they attained the dignity lands were forcibly seized by Napoleon because he refused to of princes of the empire when the emperor Frederick I. dis- exchange them for Erfurt. This drove him to join the Allies, membered the Saxon duchy in 1180. At this time the county of and at the congres

and at the congress of Vienna his services were rewarded by the Delmenhorst formed part of the dominions of the counts of grant of the principality of Birkenfeld, an addition to his lands Oldenburg, but afterwards it was on several occasions separated due to the good offices of the tsar Alexander I. At this time from them to form an apanage for younger branches of the Oldenburg was made a grand duchy, but the title of grand-duke family. This was the case between 1262 and 1447, between was not formally assumed until 1829, when Augustus succeeded 1463 and 1547, and between 1577 and 1617. The northern and his father Peter as ruler. Under Peter's rule the area of Oldenwestern parts of the present grand-duchy of Oldenburg were in burg had been increased, not only by Birkenfeld, but by the the hands of independent, or semi-independent, Frisian princes, bishopric of Lübeck (secularized in 1802) and some smaller who were usually heathens, and during the early part of the pieces of territory. 13th century the counts carried on a series of wars with these | Oldenburg did not entirely escape from the revolutionary small potentates which resulted in a gradual expansion of their movement which swept across Europe in 1848, but no scrious territory. The free city of Bremen and the bishop of Münster disturbances took place thercin. In 1849 the grand-duke granted were also frequently at war with the counts of Oldenburg.

a constitution of a very liberal character to his subjects. Hitherto The successor of Count Dietrich (d. 1440), called Fortunatus, his country had been ruled in the spirit of enlightened despotism, was his son Christian, who in 1448 was chosen king of Denmark which was strengthened by the absence of a privileged class of as Christian I. In 1450 he became king of Norway and in 1457 nobles, by the comparative independence of the peasantry, king of Sweden; in 1460 he inherited the duchy of Schleswig and by the unimportance of the towns; and thus a certain and the county of Holstein, an event of high importance for amount of friction was inevitable in the working of the new order. the future history of Oldenburg. In 1454 he handed over Olden- In 1852 some modifications were introduced into the constitution, burg to his brother Gerhard (c. 1430-1499) a turbulent prince, which, nevertheless, remained one of the most liberal in Germany. who was constantly at war with the bishop of Bremen and other Important alterations were made in the administrative system neighbours. In 1483 Gerhard was compelled to abdicate in in 1855, and again in 1868, and church affairs were ordered by favour of his sons, and he died whilst on a pilgrimage in Spain. a law of 1853. In 1863 the grand-duke Peter II. (1827-1900), Early in the 16th century Oldenburg was again enlarged at the who had ruled Oldenburg since the death of his father Augustus expense of the Frisians. Protestantism was introduced into the in 1853. seemed inclined to press a claim to the vacant duchies county by Count Anton I. (1505-1973), who also suppressed of Schleswig and Holstein, but ultimately in 1867 he abandoned the monasteries; however, he remained loyal to Charles V. this in favour of Prussia, and received some slight compensation. during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and was able In 1866 he had sided with this power against Austria and had thus to increase his territories, obtaining Delmenhorst in 1547. | joined the North German Confederation; in 1871 Oldenburg One of Anton's brothers, Count Christopher (c. 1506-1560), became a state of the new German empire. In June 1900 won some reputation as a soldier. Anton's grandson, Anton Frederick Augustus (b. 1852) succeeded his father Peter as grandGünther (1583-1667), who succeeded in 1603. proved himself duke. By a law passed in 1004 the succession to Oldenburg the wisest prince who had yet ruled Oldenburg. Jever had been was vested in Frederick Ferdinand, duke of Schleswig-Holsteinacquired before he became count, but in 1624 he added Knyp-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, and his family, after the extinction of hausen and Varel to his lands, with which in 1647 Delmenhorst the present ruling house. This arrangement was rendered was finally united. By his prudent neutrality during the advisable because the grand-duke Frederick Augustus had only Thirty Years' War Anton Günther secured for his dominions an one son Nicholas (b. 1897), and his only brother George Louis immunity from the terrible devastations to which nearly all (1855) was unmarried the other states of Germany were exposed. He also obtained For the history of Oldenburg sce Runde, Oldenburgische Chronik from the emperor the right to levy tolls on vessels passing along

(Oldenburg, 1863); E. Pleitner, Oldenburg im 19 Jahrhundert

(Oldenburg, 1899-1900); and Oldenburgisches Quellenbuch (Olden. the Weser, a lucrative grant which soon formed a material

burg. 1903). Séc also the Jahrbuch für die Geschichte des Herzogtums addition to his resources.

Oldenburg (1892 seq.). · When Count Anton Günther died in June 1667 Oldenburg OLDENBURG, a town of Germany, and capital of the grandwas inherited by virtue of a compact made in 1649 by Frederick duchy of Oldenburg. It is a quiet and pleasant-looking town, III., king of Denmark, and Christian Albert, duke of Holstein- situated 27 m. by rail W. of Bremen, on the navigable Hunte Gottorp. Some difficulties, however, arose from this joint and the Hunte-Ems canal. Pop. (1905), including the suburbs, ownership, but eventually these were satisfactorily settled, and 28,555. The inner or old town, with its somewhat narrow from 1702 to 1773 the county was ruled by the kings of Denmark strecis, is surrounded by avenues laid out on the site of the only, this period being on the whole one of peaceful development. | former ramparts, beyond which are the villas, promenades Then in 1773 another change took place. Christian VII. of and gardens of the modern quarters. Oldenburg has almost Denmark surrendered Oldenburg to Paul, duke of Holstein- nothing to show in the shape of interesting old buildings. The Gottorp, afterwards the emperor Paul of Russia,' and in return

? To this branch belonged Adolphus Frederick, son of Christian Paul gave up to Christian his duchy of Holstein-Gottorp and his

| Augustus bishop of Lübeck (d. 1726), who in 1751 became king of claims on the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. 'At once Paul

Sweden. handed over Oldenburg to his kinsman, Frederick Augustus, Another branch of the Oldenburg family, descended from John, bishop of Lübeck, the representative of a younger branch of

son of Christian 111, of Denmark, is that of Holstein-Sonderburg.

This was subdivided into the lines of Sonderburg-Augustenburg and His father. Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp (1700-1739), I Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Christian, who married Princess a descendant of Christian I. of Denmark, married Anne, daughter of Helena of Great Britain, belongs to the former of them. To the Peter the Great, and became tsar as Peter III. in 1762.

latter belong the kings of Denmark, Greece and Norway.

Evangelical Lambertikirche, though dating from the 13th century, Old Forge was settled in 1830 and incorporated as a borough has been so transformed in the last century (1874-1386) as to in 1899. show no trace of its antiquity. The palaces of the grand-duke. OLDHAM, JOHN (1653–1683), English satirist, son of a and the old town-hall are Renaissance buildings of the 17th and | Presbyterian minister, was born at Shipton Moyne, near Tetbury, 18th centuries. Among the other prominent buildings-all Gloucestershire, on the oth of August 1653. He graduated modern-are the palace of the heir apparent, the new town- from St Edmund Hall, Oxford, in 1674, and was for three years hall, the theatre, the law-courts, the gymnasium, the com- an usher in a school at Croydon. Some of his verses attracted mercial school, the three hospitals and the new Roman Catholic the. attention of the town, and the earl of Rochester, with Sir church. The grand-ducal picture gallery in the Augusteum Charles Sedley and other wits, came down to see him. The includes works by Veronese, Velasquez, Murillo and Rubens, visit did not affect his career apparently, for he stayed at Croyand there are collections of modern paintings and sculptures don until 1681, when he became tutor to the grandsons of Sir in the two palaces. The public library contains 110,000 volumes Edward Thurland, near Rcigate. Meanwhile he had tried, he and the duke's private library 55,000. There is also a large says, to conquer his inclination for the unprofitable trade of natural history museum and a museum with a collection of poetry, but in the panic caused by the revelations of Titus antiquities. The industries of Oldenburg, which are of no Oates, he found an opportunity for the exercise of his gist for great importance, include iron-founding, spinning and the rough satire. Garnet's Ghost was published as a broadside in making of glass, tobacco, gloves, soap and leather. A consider- 1679, but the other Salires on the Jesuits, although written at able trade is carried on in grain, and the horse fairs are largely the same time, were not printed until 1631. The success of these frequented. According to popular tradition Oldenburg was dramatic and unsparing invectives apparently gave Oldham founded by Walbert, grandson of the Saxon hero, Widukind, hope that he might become independent of teaching. But bis and was named after his wife Altburga, but the first historical undoubted services to the Country Party brought no reward mention of it occurs in a document of 1108. It was fortified from its leaders. He became tutor to the son of Sir William in 1155, and received a municipal charter in 1345. The sub- | Hickes, and was eventually glad to accept the patronage of sequent history of the town is merged in that of the grand- / William Pierrepont, carl of Kingston, whose kindly offer of a duchy.

chaplaincy he had refused earlier. He died at Holme-PierreSce Sello, Historische Wanderung durch die Stadt Oldenburg (Olden- | point, ncar Nottingham, on the oth of December 1683, burg, 1896); and All-Oldenburg (Oldenburg. 1903); and Kohl,

of smallpox. Die Allwende der Stad! Oldenburg (Oldenburg, 1903).

Oldham took Juvenal for his model, and in breadth of treatOLDFIELD, ANNE (1683-1730), English actress, was born in London, the daughter of a soldier. She worked for a time

ment and power of invective surpassed his English predecessors.

He was original in the dramatic setting provided for his satires. as apprentice to a semptress, until she attracted George

Thomas Garnet, who suffered for supposed implication in the Farquhar's attention by reciting some lines from a play in his

Gunpowder Plot, rose from the dead to encourage the Jesuits bearing. She thereupon obtained an engagement at Drury

in the first satire, and in the third Ignatius Loyola is represented Lane, where her beauty rather than her ability slowly brought

as dictating his wishes to his disciples from his death-bed. Oldher into favour, and it was not until ten years later that she

ham wrote other satircs, notably one “addressed to a friend was generally acknowledged as the best actress of her time.

about to leave the university," which contains a well-known In polite comedy, especially, she was unrivalled, and even the

| description of the state of slavery of the private chaplain, and usually grudging Cibber acknowledged that she had as much as

another “dissuading from poetry," describing the ingratitude be to do with the success of the Careless Husband (1704), in

shown to Edmund Spenser, whose ghost is the speaker, to which she created the part of Lady Modish, reluctantly given

Samuel Butler and to Abraham Cowley. Oldham's verse is her because Mrs Verbruggen was ill. In tragedy, too, she won

rugged, and his rhymes often defective, but he met with a laurels, and the list of her parts, many of them original, is a long and varied one. She was the theatrical idol of her day.

| generous appreciation from Dryden, whose own satiric bent

was perhaps influenced by his efforts. He says (“To the Memory Her exquisite acting and lady-like carriage were the delight of her contemporaries, and her beauty and generosity found

of Mr Oldham,” Works, ed. Scoil, vol. xi. p. 99):innumerable eulogists, as well as sneering detractors. Alexander

"For sure our souls were near allied, and thine Pope, in his Sobet Advice from Horace, wrote of her

Cast in the same poetic mould with mine." "Engaging Oldfield, who, with grace and ease,

The real wit and rigour of Oldham's satirical poetry are unCould join the arts to ruin and to please."

deniable, while its faults-its frenzied extravagance and lack It was to her that the satirist alluded as the lady who detested of metrical polish-might, as Dryden suggests, have been cured being buried in woollen, who said to her maid

with time, for Oldham was only thirty when he died. “ No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace

The best edition of his works is The Compositions in Prose and Wrap my coid limbs and shade my lifcless face;

Verse of Mr John Olham ... (1770), with memoir and explanatory One would not, sure, be frightful when one's dead,

notes by Edward Thompson. And-Betty-give this cheek a little red."

OLDHAM, THOMAS (1816-1878) British gcologist, was born She was but forty-seven when she died on the 23rd of October in Dublin on the 4th of May 1816. He was educated there at 1730, leaving all the court and half the town in tears.

Trinity College, graduating B.A. in 1836, and afterwards studied She divided her property, for that time a large one, between engineering in Edinburgh, where he gained a good knowledge ter natural sons, the first by Arthur Mainwaring (1668–1712)- of geology and mineralogy under Jameson. On his return to who had left her and his son half his fortune on his death Ireland in 1839 he became chief assistant to Captain (afterwards and the second by Lieut.-General Charles Churchill (d. 1745). Major General) Portlock, who conducted the geological departMrs Oldfield was buried in Westminster Abbey, beneath the ment of the Ordnance Survey, and he rendered much help in monument to Congreve, but when Churchill applied for per- the field and office in the preparation of the Report on the Geology mission to erect a monument there to her memory the dean of of Londonderry, &c. (1843). Subsequently he served under Westminster refused it.

Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) James, the first local director OLD FORGE, a borough of Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, of the Geological Survey of Ireland, whom he succeeded in 1846. U.S.A., on the Lackawanna river, about 6 m. S.W. of Scranton. Meanwhile in 1845 he was appointed professor of Geology in Pop. (1900) 5630 (2494 foreign-born, principally Italians); (1910) the university of Dublin. In 1848 he was elected F.R.S. In 11.324. It is served by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 1840 he discovered in the Cambrian rocks of Bray Head the and the Lehigh Valley railways. The principal public buildings problematical fossil named Oldhamia. In 1850 he was selected are the town-hall and the high school. The borough is situated to take charge of the Geological Survey of India, which he in the anthracite coal region, and the mining of coal is the organized, and in due course he established the Memoirs, the principal industry, though there are also various manufactures. I Palacontologia Indica and the Records, to which he contributed many important articles. In 1864 he published an elaboratc (1714); and by other smaller writings. More important, howreport on the Coal Resources of India. He retired in 1876, and ever, although of a very partisan character, are Oldmixon's died at Rugby on the 17th of July 1878.

works on English history. His Crilical history of England (1724OLDHAM, a municipal county and parliamentary borough of 1726) contains allacks on Clarendon and a dcsence of Bishop Lancashire, England, 7 m. N.E. of Manchester, on the London & Burnet, and its publication led to a controversy between Dr North-Western, Great Central and Lancashire & Yorkshire Zachary Grey (1688-1766) and the author, who replied to Grey railways and the Oldham canal. Pop. (1891) 131,463; (1901) in his Clarendon and Whillock compared (1727). On the same 137,246. The principal railway station is called Mumps, but lincs he wrotc his History of England during thc Rcigns of the Royal there are several others. The town lics high, ncar the source of House of Stuart (1730). Hercin hc charged Bishop Atterbury and the small river Mcdlock. Its growth as a manufacturing centre other of Clarendon's editors with lampering with the text of the gives it a wholly modern appearance. Among several handsome History. From his exile Atterbury replied to this charge in a churches the oldest dates only from the later 18th century. Vindication, and although Oldmixon continued the controversy The principal buildings and institutions include the town hall, it is practically certain that he was in the wrong. He completed with tetrastyle portico copied from the Ionic temple of Cercs a continuous history of England by writing the History of England near Athens, the reference library, art gallery and muscum, during the Reigns of William and Mary, Anne and George 1.(1735); the Union Street baths, commemorating Sir Robert Peel the and the History of England during the Reigns of Henry VIII., statesman, and the county court. Of educational establishments Edward VI., Mary and Elizabeth (1739). Among his other the chief are the Lyceum, a building in Italian style, containing writings are, Mcmoirs of North Britain (1715), Essay on Criticism schools of art and science, and including an observatory; the (1728) and Memoirs of the Press 1710-1740 (1742), which was only largely-endowed blue-coat school founded in 1808 by Thomas published after his death. Oldmixon had much to do with Henshaw, a wealthy manufacturer of hats; the Hulme grammar cditing two periodicals, The Muses Mercury and The Medley, school (1895), and municipal technical schools. The Alexandra and he often complained that his services were overlooked by Park, opened in 1865, was laid out by operatives who were the government. He died on the oth of July 1742. thrown out of employment owing to the cotton famine in the OLD POINT COMFORT, a summer and winter resort, in years previous to that date. The site is picturesqucly undulating Elizabeth City county, Virginia, U.S.A., at the southern end and terraced. Oldham is one of the most important centres of a narrow, sandy peninsula projecting into Hampton of the cotton manufactures, the consumption of cotton being at the mouth of the James river), about 12 m. N. by W. of about one-fifth of the total importation into the United Kingdom, Norfolk. It is served directly by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, the factories numbering somc 230, and the spindles over 13 ) and indirectly by the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (Pennmillions, while some 35,000 operatives are employed. The sylvania System), passengers and freight being carried by principal manufactures are fustians, velvets, cords, shirtings, stcamer from the terminus at Cape Charles; by steamboat lines sheetings and nankeens. There are also large foundries and connecting with the principal citics along the Allantic coast, mill and cotton machinery works: and works for the construction and with citics along the James river; by ferry, connecting with of gas-meters and sewing-machines; while all these industries Norfolk and Portsmouth; and by electric railway (3 m.) to arc assisted by the immediate presence of collierics. There are Hampton and (12 m.) to Newport News. There is a U.S. garrison extensive markets and numerous fairs are held. Oldham was at Fort Monroe, one of the most important fortifications on the incorporated in 1849, and became a county borough in 1888. Atlantic coast of the United States. Old Point Comfort is The corporation consists of a mayor, 12 aldermen and 36 included in the reservation of Fort Monroe. The fort lies within

rliamentary borough has returned two the tract of 252 acrcs ceded, for coast defence purposes, to the members since 1832. Area of municipal borough, 4736 acres. Federal government by the state of Virginia in 1821, the survey

A Roman road, of which some traccs are still left, passes for the original fortifications having been made in 1818, and the through the site of the township, but it docs not appear to have building begun in 1819. It was named in honour of President been a Roman station. It is not mentioned in Domesday; but | Monroe and was first regularly garrisoned in 1823; in 1824 the in the reign of Henry III. Alwardus de Aldholme is referred to as Artillery School of Practice (now called the United States holding land in Vernet (Werncth). A daughter and co-heiress | Coast Artillery School) was established to pro of this Alwardus conveyed Werneth Hall and its manor to the officers of the Coast Artillery with instruction in professional Cudworths, a branch of the Yorkshire family, with whom it work and to give technical instruction to the non-commissioned remained till the early part of the 18th century. From the staff. During the Civil War the fort was the rendezvous for Oldhams was descended Hugh Oldham, who died bishop of Exctor several military expeditions, notably those of General Benjamin in 1519. From entries in the church registers it would appear F. Butler to Halleras Inlet, in 1861; of General A. E. Burnside, that linens were manufactured in Oldham as carly as 1630. to Norih Carolina, in 1862; and of General A. H. Terry, against Watermills were introduced in 1770, and with the adoption of Fort Fisher, in 1865; within sight of its parapets was fought the Arkwright's inventions the cotton industry grew with great famous duch between the “Monitor” and the “ Merrimac" rapidity.

(March 9, 1862). Jefferson Davis was a prisoner here for two OLD MAID, a game of cards. Any number may play, and the years, from the 22nd of May 1865, and Clement Claiborne Clay full pack is used, the Queen of Hearts being removed. The (1819-1882), a prominent Confederate, from the same date until cards are dealt out one by one until exhausted, and each player April 1866. Between Fort Monroe and Scwell's Point is Fort then sorts his hand and discards the pairs. The dealer then Wool, almost covering a small island called Rip Raps. The offers his hand, spread out face downwards to the next player, expedition which settled Jamestown rounded this peninsula who draws a card, which, if it completes a pair, is discarded, (April 26, 1607), opened its sealer instructions here, and named but otherwise remains in the hand. The process continues from the peninsula Poynt Comfort, in recognition of the sheltered player to player, until all the cards have been paired and discharbour. (The “Old " was added subsequently to distinguish carded excepting the odd queen, the holder of which is the "Old it from a Point Comfort settlement at the mouth of the York Maid."

river on Chesapeake Bay). On the site of the present fortibca. OLDMIXON, JOHN (1673-1742), English historian, was a son tion a fort was erected by the whites as early as 1630. of John Oldmixon of Oldmixon, near Bridgwater. His first OLD TOWN, a city of Penobscot county, Maine, U.S.A., on writings were poems and dramas, among them being Amores | the Penobscot river, about 12 m. N.E. of Bangor. Pop. (1890) Britannici; Epistles historical and gallant (1703); and a tragedy, 5312; (1900) 5763 (1247 foreign-born); (1910) 6317. It is The Governor of Cyprus. His carliest historical work was served by the Maine Central and the Bangor & Aroostook The British Empire in America (1708 and again 1741), which railways, and by an clectric line connecting with Bangor. The was followed by The Secret History of Europe (1712-1715); by city proper is on an island (Marsh, or Old Town Island), but Arcana Gallica, or the Secrel History of France for the last Century considerable territory on the W. bank of the river is included

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within the municipal limits. The manufacture of lumber is lumber, &c. The vicinity was settled in 1804, and this was the principal industry of the city On Indian Island (opposite the first township organized (1808), being then coextensive with the city) is the principal settlement of the Penobscot Indians, the county. Olean Creek was called Ischue (or Ischua); then an Abnaki tribe, now wards of the state. The abbé Louis Olean was suggested, possibly in reference to the oil-springs in Pierre Thury was sent here from Quebec about 1687 and built the vicinity. The village was officially called Hamilton for a a church in 1688–1689; in 1705 the mission passed under the time, but Olean was the name given to the post-office in 1817, control of the Jesuits. The first white settler in the vicinity and Olean Point was the popular local name. In 1909 several seems to have been John Marsh, who came about 1774, and who suburbs, including the village of North Olean (pop. in 1905, bought the island now known as Marsh Island. From 1806 to 1761), were annexed to Olcan, considerably increasing its arca 1840, when it was incorporated as a scparate township, Old and population. Town was a part of Orono. In 1891 it was chartered as a city. See History of Caltaraugus County, New York (Philadelphia, 1879). One of the oldest railways in the United States, and the first in OLEANDER, the common name for the shrub known to Maine, was completed to Old Town from Bangor in 1836. botanists as Nerium Oleander. It is a native of the Mediterranean

OLDYS, WILLIAM (1696–1761), English antiquary and biblio- and Levant, and is characterized by its tall shrubby habit and grapher, natural son of Dr William Oldys, chancellor of Lincoln, its thick lance-shaped opposite leaves, which exude a milky was born on the 14th of July 1696, probably in London. His juice when punctured. The flowers are borne in terminal father had also held the office of advocate of the admiralty, but clusters, and are like those of the common periwinkle (Vinca), but lost it in 1693 because he would not prosecute as traitors and are of a rose colour, rarely white, and the throat or upper edge pirates the sailors who had served against England under of the tube of the corolla is occupied by outgrowths in the James II. William Oldys, the younger, lost part of his small form of lobed and fringed petal-like scales. The hairy anthers patrimony in the South Sea Bubble, and in 1724 went to York adhere to the thickened stigma. The fruit or sced-vessel consists shire, spending the greater part of the next six years as the of two long pods, which, bursting along one edge, liberate a guest of the earl of Malton. On his return to London he found number of seeds, each of which has a tust of silky hairs like thistle that his landlord had disposed of the books and papers lest down at the upper end. in his charge. Among these was an annotated copy of Gerard The genus belongs to Langbaine's Dramatick Poets. The book came into the hands of the natural order Thomas Coxeter (1689–1747), and subsequently into Theophilus Apocynaccae, a family Cibber's possession, and furnished the basis of the Lives of that, as is usual where the Poets (1753) published with Cibber's name on the title page, the juice has a milky though most of it was written by Robert Shiels. In 1731 Oldys appearance, is marked sold his collections to Edward Harley, second earl of Oxford, by its poisonous prowho appointed him his literary secretary in 1738. Three years perties. .Cases are relater his patron died, and from that time he worked for the corded by Lindley of booksellers. His habits were irregular, and in 1751 his debts children poisoned by drove him to the Fleet prison. After two years' imprisonment | the flowers. The same he was released through the kindness of friends who paid his author also narrates how debts, and in April 1755 he was appointed Norroy king-at-arms in thecourseof the Peninby the duke of Norfolk. He died on the 15th of April 1761. sular War some French

Oldys's chief works are: The British Librarian, a review of scarce soldiers died in conseand valuable books in print and in manuscript (1737-1738); the quence of emploving Harleias Miscellany (1744-1746), a collection of tracts and pamphlets

Nerium Oleander. in the carl of Oxford's library, undertaken in conjunction with

indertaken in conjunction with skewers made from De Johnson; twenty-two articles contributed to the Biographia freshly-cut twigs of oleander for roasting their meat. The Britannica (1747-1760); an cdition of Raleigh's History of the World, oleander was known to the Greeks under three names, viz. with a Life of the author (1736); Life of Charles Cotion prefixed to rhododendron, nerion and rhododa pline, and is well described Sir John Hawkins's edition (1760) of the Compleal Angler. In 1727

hoby Pliny (xvi. 20), who mentions its rose-like flowers and Oldys began to annotate another Langbaine to replace the one he had lost. This valuable book, with a MS. collection of notes by poisonous qualities, at the same time stating that it was Ollys on various bibliographical subjects, is preserved in the British considered serviccable as a remedy against snakc-bite. The Museum.

name is supposed to be a corruption of lorandruni, lauridendrum OLEAN, a city of Cattaraugus county, in south-western New (Du Cange), influenced by olca, the olive-tree, lorandrum being York, U.S.A., on Olcan Creek and the N. side of the Allegheny itself a corruption of rhododendron. The modern Greeks still river, 70 m. S.E. of Buffalo. Pop. (1880), 3036; (1890), 7358; know the plant as podobáovn, although in a figure in the Rinuccini (1900), 9462, of whom 1514 were foreign-born and 122 were MSS. of Dioscorides a plant is represented under this name, negrocs; (1910 census), 14,743. The city is served by the which, however, had rather the appearance of a willow herb Eric, the Pittsburg, Shawmut & Northern, and the Pennsylvania (Epilobium). The oleander has long been cultivated in greenrailways (the last has large car shops here); and is connected houses in England, being, as Gerard says, "a small shrub of a with Bradford, Pa., Allegany, Pa., Salamanca, N Y., Little gallant shewe"; numerous varieties, differing in the colour of their Valley, N.Y., and Bolivar, N.Y., by electric lincs. Olean is flowers, which are often double, have been introduced. situated in a level vallcy 1440 st. above sca-level. The sur- OLEASTER, known botanically as Elacagnus hortensis, a rounding country is rich in oil and natural gas. Six miles from handsome deciduous tree, 15 to 20 ft. high, growing in the Olean and 2000 ft. above the sea-level is Rock City, a group of Mediterranean region and temperate Asia, where it is commonly immense, strangely regular, conglomerate rocks (some of them cultivated for its edible fruit. The brown smooth branches pure white) covering about 40 acres. They are remnants of are more or less spiny; the narrow leaves have a hoary look a bed of Upper Devonian Conglomerate, which broke along from the presence of a dense covering of star-shaped hairs; the joint planes, leaving a group of huge blocks. In the city the small fragrant yellow flowers, which are borne in the axils are a public library, a general hospital and a state armoury; of the Icaves, arc scaly on the outside. The genus contains other and at Allcgany (pop. 1910, 1286), about 3 m W of Olcan, is species of ornamental deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small St Bonaventure's College (1859; Roman Catholic). Olean's trees. E. argentea, a native of North America, has leaves and factory product was valued at $4,677,477 in 1905; the city is fruit covered with shining silvery scales. In E. glabra, from the terminus of an Ohio pipe line, and of a sea-board pipe line Japan, the cvergreen leaves are clothed beneath with rustfor petroleum; and among its industries are oil-refining and coloured scales; variegated forms of this arc cultivated, as the refining of wood alcohol, tanning, currying, and finishing also of E. pungens, another Japanese species, a spiny shrub leather; and the manufacture of flour, glass (mostly bottles), I with leaves silvery bencath.

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