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modes are suggested by which the idea may be cl,thed ja different language, still, for the most part praserving ito identity. *

Example 1st.

The young should be diligent and industrious, and make a proper use of their time.

Diligence, industry, and proper improvement of time are material duties of the young.

Young men, be industrious; make the best use of your time ; an awful responsibility rests upon you.

Young persons should be made sensible, that it is their duty to be diligent and industrious, and to employ their time in useful pursuits.

To be diligent and industrious, and to employ their time in profitable occupations, are things which we expect from young persons.

In the morning of life, when the phantoms of hope are flitting before their sight, and the visions of fancy are decorating their prospects, the young

should not suffer themselves to be deluded by expectations which cannot be realized. The golden sands should not be wantonly wasted in their path, nor should the precious moments of life be suffered to take flight, without bearing on their wings some token of their value.

Duty addresses the young in an imperative tone, requiring them to apply themselves with diligence to their proper occupations, and forbidding them to pay one moment but in purchase of its worth. 6 And what is its worth? - Ask death. beds; they can tell.”

Young persons cannot be commended when they devote those hours to indolence, which should have been given in industry; for time is valuable, and should be properly employed.

* It is to be observed, that, in the practice of the principle involved in this exercise, the teacher should not be too rigid in noticing the faults of pleonasm, verbosity, or redundancy. The object of the exercise is to give a command of language, and it will be well, when this object is partially effected, to require the learner to take his own sentences and prune them on the principles explained in the preceding exercises.

'The young should be diligent and industrious, and properly improve their time.*

It is not only when duty addresses them with her warning voice that the young should practise the virtues of diligence and industry; a proper improvement of their time is at all times expected from them.

Example 2d. [The different modes of expressing the same idea give rise to the distinctions of style which have been mentioned in the Introduction. The subject of style will be more fully treated in the subsequent pages. The following sentence will exemplify to the student the effect of two of the varieties of style.]

Style of simple Narration. Yesterday morning, as I was walking in the fields, I saw John stab James through the heart with a dagger. Style of passionate exclamation, in which the prominent idea

is brought forward, and the circumstances are cast into the shade. james is murdered! I saw John stab him to the heart.


[The student must be careful to make use of his understanding and dis crimination, as well as his dictionary, in the performance of these exer cises.]

True friendship is like sound health, the value of it is seldom known til it is lost.

As no roads are so rough as those that have just been mended, so no sinners are so intolerant as those that have just turned saints.

When certain persons abuse us, let us ask ourselves what description of characters it is that they admire; we shall often find this a very consolatory question.

* In the Introduction to this book, notice was taken of the different forms, or style, of composition. In this model, an attempt has been made to imitate several of the diversities of style there mentioned; and it will be useful to the student, when he shall have become acquainted with the diversities of style, in the subsequent pages of this volume, to endeavor to designate them respectively by their peculiar characteristics. It may here be remarked, that the style of common conversation, called the colloquias style, allows the introduction of tems and expressions, which are not used in grave writing.


Conteniporaries appreciate the man rather than the merit; bus pos terity will regard the merit rather than the man.

All beyond enough is too much; all beyond nourishment is luxury all beyond decency is extravagance.

Form your taste on the classics, and your principles on the book of all truth.

Let the first fruits of your intellect be laid before the altar of Him who breathed into your nostrils the breath of life; and with that breath, your immortal spirit.

The love of learning, though truly commendable, must never be gratified beyond a certain limit. It must not be indulged in to the injury of your health, nor to the hindrance of your virtue.

What will the fame derived from the most profound learning avail you, if you have not learned to be pious and humble, and temperate and charitable.

There is nothing more extraordinary in this country, than the tran bition of the seasons. The people of Moscow have no spring. Winter vanishes, and summer is. This is not the work of a week, or of a day bat of one instant; and the manner of it exceeds belief.

On eagles' wings immortal scandals fly,
While virtuous actions are but born and die.




Poetry when literally translated makes in general but invipid prose. Prose is the language of reason, - poetry of feeling or passion. Prose is characterized by fulness and precision. Poetry deals largely in elliptical expressions, exclamations, exaggerations, apostrophes, and other peculiarities not usually found in prose. For the purpose, also, of accommodating them to the measure of a verse, the poets frequently alter or abbreviate words, and use expressions which would not be authorized in prose. Such abbreviations and alterations, together with other changes sometimes made, are called poetic licences, because they are principally used by poetical writers.

The following are some of the licences used by poetical writers.

1. ELISION, or the omission of parts of a word. When the elision 1 from the beginning of a word, it is called aphæresis, and consists in cæt

ang off the initial letter or syllable of a word; as, 'squire for esquire gainst for against, 'gan for began, &c. When the elision is from the body of the word, it is called syncope ; as, list'ning for listening, thund'ring for thundering, lov'd for loved, &c. When the elision is from the end of a word at is called apocope, and consists in the cutting off of a final vowel or syl lable, or of one or more letters; as, gi' me for give me, fro' for from, o' foi of, th' evening for the evening, Philomel for Philomela. ·

2. SYNÆRESIS, or the contraction of two syllables into one, by rapidly pronouncing in.one syllable two or more vowels which properly belong to separate syllables; as ae in the word Israel.

3. APOSTROPHE, or the contraction of two words into one; as, 't is f it is, can't for cannot, thou 'rt for thou art.

4. DIÆRESIS, or the division of one syllable into two; as, pu-is-sant for puissant.

5. PARAGOGE or the addition of an expletive letter; withouten for wh. out, crouchen for crouch.

6. PROSTHESIS, or the prefixing of an expletive letter or syllable u word; as, appertinent for pertinent, beloved for loved.

7. ENALLAGE, or the use of one part of speech for another; as in the following lines, in which an adjective is used for an adverb; as, Blue through the dusk the smoking currents shine.”

" The fearful hare limps awkward."

8. HYPERBATON, or the inversion or transposition of words, placing chat first which should be last; as,

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“And though, sometimes, each dreary pause between."

Him answered then his loving mate and true.” 9. PLEONASM, or the use of a greater number of words than are neces kary to express the meaning; as,

“My banks they are furnished with bees.”

10. TMESIS, or the separation of the parts of a compound word; as, Un which side soever, for, On whichsoever side.

11. ELLIPSIS, or the omission of some parts not absolutely essential texpress the meaning, but necessary to complete the grammatical construction.

The poets have likewise other peculiarities which are embraced under the general name of poetic diction. In order to accommodate their lan. guage to the rules of melody, and that they may be relieved, in somo measure, from the restraints which verse imposes on them, they are indulged in the following usages, seldom allowable in

prose. 1. They abbreviate nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, &c.; as, morn for morning, amaze for amazement, fount for fountain, dread for dreadful, lone for lonely, lure for allure, list for listen, ope for open, oft for often, haply for hap pily, &c., and use obsolete words * and obsolete meanings.

* Obsolete words are words which, although formerly current, are one pow in common use.

2. They make use of ellipses more frequently than prose writers omitting the article, the relative pronoun, and sometimes even its ante cedent; using the auxiliaries without the principal verb to which they be long; and on the contrary, they also sometimes make use of repetitions which are seldom observed in prose.

3. They use the infinitive mood for a noun; use adjectives for adverbs, and sometimes even for nouns; and nouns for adjectives ; ascribe quali. ties to things, to which they do not literally belong; form new compound epithets ; connect the word self with nouns, as well as pronouns; some. times lengthen a word by an additional letter or syllable, and give to the imperative mood both the first and third persons.

4. They arbitrarly employ or omit the prefixes; use active for neuter and neuter for active verbs; employ participles and interjections more frequently than prose writers; connect words that are not in all respects similar; and use conjunctions in pairs contrary to grammatical rule.

5. They alter the regular arrangement of the words of a sentence, placing before the verb words which usually come after it, and after the verb those that usually come before it, putting adjectives after their nouns, the auxiliary after the principal verb; the preposition after the objective case which it governs; the relative before the antecedent; the infinitive mood before the word which governs it; and they also use one mood of the verb for another, employ forms of expression similar to those of other languages, and different from those which belong to the English language

But one of the most objectionable features of poetic diction is the in terjection of numerous details, between those parts of a sentence which are closely combined by the rules of Syntax. Thus, in the following ex tract from one of the most celebrated poets of the language, generally characterized by the simplicity of his diction, the objective case is placed before the verb which governs it, while a number of circumstances are introduced between them.

But me, not destined such delights to share,
My prime of life in wandering spent and care,
Impelled, with steps unceasing, to pursue
Some fleeting good, that mocks me with the view,
That, likc the circle bounding earth and skies,
Allures from far, yet, as I follow, flies;
My fortune leads to traverse realms alone,
And find no spot of all the world my own.


[in the following, extracts, the student may point out the peculiarities of POETIC DICTION, which have now been enumerated. The words in Italu will assist him in recognizing them.]

The cottage curs at early pilgrim bark.
The pipe of early shepherd.
Affliction's self deplores thy youthful doom.
What dreadful pleasure, there to stand sublime,
Like shipwrecked mariner on desert coasi.
Ah! see! the unsightly slime and sluggish pool,
Have all the solitarv vule embroumed.

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