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and his successors, it is evident that the city was far from having recovered its previous importance, and continued to play bat a subordinate part. (Diod. xiv. 46, 88, xv. 17, xvi. 9 ; Plut. Dion, 25, 26, 49.) In the general settlement of the affairs of Sicily by Timoleon, after his great victory over the Carthaginians on the Crimissus, B. C. 340, he found Agrigentum in a state of such depression that he resolved to recolonise it with citizens from Velia in Italy (Plut. Timol. 35.): a measure which, combined with other benefits, proved of such advantage to the city, that Timoleon was looked upon as their second founder: and during the interval of peace which followed, Agrigentum again attained to such great prosperity as to become once more the rival of Syracuse.

Shortly after the accession of Agathocles, the Agrigcntines, becoming apprehensive that he was a-piring to the dominion of the whole island, entered into a league with the Geloans and Messenians to oppose his power, and obtained from Sparta the assistance of Acrotatus the son of Cleomenes as their general: but the character of that prince frustrated all their plans, and after his expulsion they were compelled to purcliase peace from Syracuse by the acknowledgement of the Hegemony or supremacy of that city, B_c. 314. (Diod. xix. 70,71.) Some years afterwards, in B. C. 309, the absence of Agathocles in Africa, and the reverses, sustained by his partisans in Sicily, appeared again to offer a favourable opening to the ambition of the Agrigentines, who chose Xenodocus for their general, and openly aspired to the Hegemony of Sicily, proclaiming at the same time the independence of the several cities. They were at first very successful: the powerful cities of Gela and Enna joined their cause, Herbessus and Echetla were taken by force; but when Xenodocus ventured on a pitched battle with Leptines and Demophilus, the gt'iicrals of Agathocles, ho sustained a severe defeat, and was compelled to shut himself up within the walls of Agrigentum. Agathocles himself shortly afterwards returned from Africa, and quickly recovered almost all that he had lost: his general Leptines invaded the territory of Agrigentum, totally defeated Xenodocus, and compelled the Agrigentines once more to sue for peace. (Diod. xx. 31, 32, 56, 62.)

After the death of Agathocles, Agrigentum fell under the yoke of Pluntias, who became despot of the city, and assumed the title of king. We have very little information concerning the period of his rule, but he appears to have attained to great power, as we find Agyrium and other cities of the interior subject to his dominion, as well as Gela, which he destroyed, in oilier to found a new city named after himself. [gela.j The period of his expulsion is unknown, but at the time when Pyrrhus landed in Sicily we find Agrigentum occupied by Sosistratus with a strong force of mercenary trtx>ps, who however hastened to make his submission to the king of Epeirus. (Diod. xxii. Exc. Hoesck. p. 495—197.)

On the commencement of the First Punic War, Agrigentum ('soused the cause of the Carthaginians, and even permitted their general Hannibal to fortify their citadel, and occupy the city with a Carthaginian garrison. Hence after the Romans had secured the alliance of Hieron of Syracuse, their principal efforts were directed to the reduction of Agrigentum, and in B. C. 262 the two consuls L. Postuinius and Q. Mamilius laid siege to it with their whole force. The siege lasted nearly as long

as that by the Carthaginians in B. C. 406, and the Romans suffered severely from disease and want of provisions, but the privations of the besieged were still greater, and the Carthaginian general Hanno, who had advanced with a large army to relieve the city, having been totally defeated by the Roman consuls, Hannibal who commanded the army within the walls found it impassible to hold out any longer, and made his escape in the night with the Carthaginian and mercenary troops, leaving the city to its fate. It was immediately occupied by the Romans who carried off 25,000 of the inliabitants into slavery. The siege had lasted above seven months, and is said to have cost the victorious army more than 30.000 men. (Diod. xxiii. Exc. Hoesch. p. 501 —503; Polyb. i. 17—19; Zonar. viii. 10.) At i later period of the war (b. C. 255) successive losses at sea having greatly weakened the Roman power in Sicily, the Carthaginian general Carthalo recovered possession of Agrigentum with comtjarativcly little difficulty, when he once more laid the city in ashes and razed its walls, the surviving inhabitants having taken refuge in the temple of the Olympian Zeus. (Diod. J. c. p. 505.)

From this time we hear no more of Agrigentum till the end of the First Punic War, when it passed under the dominion of Rome: but it must have in some degree recovered from its late calamities, as it plays no unimportant part when the contest between Rome and Carthage was renewed in the Second Punic War. On this occasion it continued steadfast in its adherence to the Romans, but was surprised and taken by Himilco, before Marcellus could arrive to its support (Liv. xxiv. 35.): and from henceforth became the chief stronghold of the Carthaginians in Sicily, and held out against the Roman consul Laevinus long after the other cities in the island had submitted. At length the Numidian Murines, to whose courage and skill the Carthaginians owed their protracted defence, having been offended by their general Hanno, betrayed the city into the hands of Laevinus, B. c. 210. The leading citizens were put to death, and the rest sold as slaves. (Liv. xxv. 40, 41, xxvi. 40.)

Agrigentum now became, in common with the rest of the Sicilian cities, permanently subject to Rome: but it was treated with much favour and enjoyed many privileges. Three years after its capture a number of new citizens from other parts of Sicily were established there by the praetor Mamilius, and two years after this the municipal rights and privileges of the citizens were determined by Scipio Africanus in a manner so satisfactory that they continued unaltered till the time of Verres. Cicero repeatedly mentions Agrigentum as one of the most wealthy and populous cities of Sicily, the fertility of its territory and the convenience of its port rendering it one of the cliicf emporiums for the trade in corn. (Cic. Verr. ii. 50, 62, in. 43, iv. 33, 43.) It is certain, however, that it did not in his day rank as a Roman colony, and it is very doubtful whether it ever attained this distinction, though we find that it was allowed to strike coins, with the Latin inscription Aghigentitm, as late as the time of Augustus. (Eckhel, D. N. vol. i. p. 193.)* If it really obtained the title and privileges of a colony under that emperor, it must have soon lost them, as neither Pliny

* Mommsen {Pas Romische Muns- Wescn, p. 237) considers Agrigentum to have been on the footing of a Colonia Latina, like Nemausus in Gaul. onr Ptolemy reckon it among the Roman colonies in Sicily. From the time of Augustus we find no historical mention of it under the Roman empire, but its continued existence is attested by the geographers and Itineraries, and as long as Sicily retrained subject to the Greek empire, Agrigentum is still mentioned as one of its most considerable cities. (Strab. Ti. p.272; Pfin. II. X. Hi. 8. § 14; Ptol. hi. 4. § 14; Itin. Ant. p. 88; Tab. Pent..; Const Porph. dt Prov. H. 10.) It was one of the first places that fell into the hands of the Saracens on their invasion of Sicily in 827, and was wrested from them by the Normans under Roger Guiscard in 1086. The modern city of Girgetiti still contains about 13,000 inhabitants, and is the see of a bishop, and capital of one of the seven districts or Intendenze into which Sicily is now divided.

The situation of Agrigentum is well described by Poly bins (ix. 27). It occupied a hill of considerable extent, rising between two small rivers, the Acragas and Hyjt-as, of which the southern front, though of small elevation, presented a steep escarpment, running nearly in it straight line from E. to W. From hence the ground sloped gradually upwards, though traversed by a cross valley or depression, towards a much more elevated ridge which formed the northern portion of the city, and was divided into two summits, the north-western, on which stands the modern city of Girgtnti, and the north-eastern, which derived from a temple of Athena, that crowned its height, the name of the Athenacan hill (o 'Afriraio? K6<pos, Diod. xiii. 85). This summit, which attains to the height of 1200 feet above the sea, and is the most elevated of the whole city, is completely precipitous and inaccessible towards the N. and E., and could be approached only by one steep and narrow path from the city itself. Hence, it formed the natural citadel or acropolis of Agrigentum, while the gentle slopes and broad valley which separate it from the southern ridge.—now covered with gardens and fruit-trees,—afforded ample space for the extension and development of the city itself. Great as was the natural strength of its position, the whole city was surrounded with walls, of which considerable portions still remain, especially along the southern front: their whole circuit was about 6 miles. The peculiarities of its situation sufficiently explain the circumstances of the two great sieges of Agrigentum, in both of which it will be observed that the assailants confined all their attacks to the southern and south-western parts of the city, wholly neglecting the north and east. Diodorus, indeed, expressly tells us that there was only one quarter (that adjoining the river Hypsas) where the walls could be approached by military engines, and assaulted with any prospect of success. (Diod. xiii. 85.)

Agrigentum was not less celebrated in ancient times for the beauty of its architecture, and the splendour and variety of its buildings, both public and private, than for its strength as a fortress. Pindar calls it "the fairest of mortal cities" (Utah- XStrra pportuy Toa«w, Ptfth. xii. 2), though many of its most striking ornaments were probably not erected till after his time. The magnificence of the private dwellings of the Agrigentines is sufficiently attested by the saying of Emjedocles already cited: their public edifices are the theme of admiration with many ancient writers. Of its temples, probabJr the most ancient were that of Zeus Atabyrios, whose worship they derived from Rhodes, and that of Athens, both of which stood on the highest

I summit of the Athenaean hill above the city. | (Polyb. /. c.) The temple of Zeus Polieus, the I construction of which is ascribed to Phalaris (Polyacn. v. 1. § 1), is supposed to have stood on the hill occupied by the modern city of Girgetiti, which appears to have formed a second citadel or acropolis, in some measure detached from the more lofty summit to the east of it. Some fragments of ancient walls, still existing in those of the church of Sta Maria aV Greet, are considered to have belonged to this temple. But far more celebrated than these was the great temple of the Olympian Zeus, which was commenced by the Agrigentines at the period of their greatest power and prosperity, but was not quite finished at the time of the Carthaginian invasion in B. C. 406, and in consequence of that calamity was never completed. It is described in considerable detail by Diodorus, who tells us that it was 340 feet long, 160 broad, and 120 in height, without reekfiiiug the basement. The columns were not detached, but engaged in the wall, from which only half of their circumference projected: so gigantic were their dimensions, that each of the flu tings would admit the man's bod}', (Diod. xiii. 82; Polyb. ix. 27.) Of this vast edifice nothing remains but the basement, and a few fragments of the columns and entablature, but even these suffice to confirm the accuracy of the statements of Diodorus, and to prove that the temple must not only have greatly exceeded all others in Sicily, but was probably surpassed in magnitude by no Grecian building of the kind, except that of Diana at Ephesus. A considerable portion of it (including several columns, and three gigantic figures, which served as Atlantes to support an entablature), appears to have remained standing till the year 1401, when it fell down: and the vast masses of fallen fragments were subsequently employed in the construction of the mole, which protects the present port of Girgetiti. (Fazcll. vol. i. p. 248; Smyth's Sicily, p. 203.)

Besides these, we find mention in ancient writers of a temple of Hercules, near the Agora, containing a statue of that deity of singular beauty and excellence (Cic. Verr. iv. 43), and one of Aesculapius without the walls, on the south side of the city (Cic. /. c.; Polyb. i. 18), the remains of which are still visible, not far from the bank of the rivet Acragas. It contained a celebrated statue of Apollo, in bronze, the work of Myron, which Verres in vain endeavoured to carry oil'. Of the other temples, the ruins of which are extant on the site of Agrigentum, and are celebrated by all travellers in Sicily, the ancient appellations cannot be determined with any certainty. The most conspicuous are two which stand on the southern ridge facing the sea: one of these at the S. E. angle of the city, is commonly known as the temple of Juno Lacinia, a name which rests only on a misconception of a passage of Pliny (II. N. xxxv. 9- § 36): it is in a half ruined state, but its basement is complete, and many of its columns still standing. Its position on the projecting angle of the ridge, with a precipitous bank below it on two sides, gives it a singularly picturesque and striking character. A few hundred paces to the W. of this stands another temple, in far better preservation, being indeed the most perfect which remains in Sicily; it is commonly called the temple of Concord, from an inscription said to have been discovered there, but which (if authentic) is of Roman date- while both this temple and that just described must certainly be referred to the most flourishing period of Agrigentine history, or the fifth century n. c. They are both of the Doric order, and of much the same dimensions: both are peripteral, or surrounded with a portico, consisting of 6 columns in front, and 13 on each side. The existing vestiges of other temples are mud less considerable: one to the W. of that of Concord, of which only one column is standing, is commonly regarded as that of Hercules, mentioned by Cicero. Its plan and design have been completely ascertained by recent excavations, which have proved that it was much the largest of those remaining at Agrigentum, after that of the Olympian Zeus: it had 15 columns iu the side and 6 in front. Another, a little to the north of it,

of which considerable portions have been preserved, and brought to light by excavation on the spot, bears the name, though certainly without authority, of Castor and Pollux: while another, on the opposite side of a deep hollow or ravine, of which two columns remain, is styled that of Vulcan. A small temple or aedicula, near the convent of S. Nicola, is commonly known by the designation of the Oratory of Fhalaris: it is of insignificant size, and certainly of Roman date. The church of St. Blast, or S. Biagia, near the eastern extremity of the Athenaean hill, is formed out of the cella of an ancient temple, which is supposed, but without any authority, to have been dedicated to Ceres and Proserpine. (For full details concerning these temples, and the other ruins still

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visible at Girgentt, see Swinburne's Travels, vol. ii. p. 280—291; Smyth's Sicily, p. 207—212; D'Orville's SictUdy p. 8*9—103; Siefert, Akragas, p. 24 —38; and especially Serra di Falco, A ntichita delta Sir-ilia. vol. iii., who gives the results of recent labours on the spot, many of which were unknown to former writers.)

Next to the temple of the Olympian Zeus, the public work of which Diodorus speaks with the greatest admiration (xi, 25, xiii. 72), was a piscina, or reservoir of water, constructed in the time of rheron, which was not less than seven stadia in circumference, and was plentifully stocked with fish, and frequented by numerous swans. It had fallen into decay, and become filled with mud, in the time of the historian, but its site is supposed to be still indicated "by a deep hollow or depression in the S. western portion of the city, between the temple of Vulcan and that of Castor and Pollux, now converted into a garden. Connected with this was an extensive system of subterranean sewers and conduits for water, constructed on a scale far superior to those of any other Greek city: these were called Phaeaces, from the name of their architect Phae&x.

It was not only in their public buildings that the AgTigeutines, during the flourishing period of their city, loved to display their wealth and luxury. An ostentatious magnificence appears to have characterised their habits of life, in other respects also: and showed itself especially in their love of horses and chariots. Their territory was celebrated for the excellence of its breed of horses (Virg. Aen. iii. 704), an advantage which enabled them repeatedly to bear away the prize in the chariot-race at the Olympic games: and it is recorded that after one of these occasions the victor Exaenetus was accompanied on his triumphant entry into his native city by no less than three hundred chariots, all drawn by white horses. (Diod. xiii. 82.) Not less conspicuous and splendid were the hospitalities of the more wealthy citizens. Those of Theron are celebrated by Pindar (OL iii. 70), but even these probably fell short of those of later days. Gelh'as, a citizen noted even at Agrigentum for his wealth and splendour of liwng, is said to have lodged and feasted at once five hundred knights from Gela, and Antisthenes, on occasion of his daughter's marriage, furnished a banquet to all the citizens of Agrigentum in the several quarters they inhabited. (Diod. xiii. 83, 84.) These luxurious habits were not unaccompanied with a refined taste for the cultivation of the fine arts: their temples and public buildings were adorned with the choicest works of sculpture and painting, many of which were carried off by Himilco to Carthage, and some of them after llM fall of that city restored to Agrigentum by Scipio African us. (Diod. xiii. 90; Cic. Kerr. iv. 43; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 9. s. 36.) A like spirit of ostentation was displayed in the magnitude and splendour of their sepulchral monuments; and they are said to have even erected costly tombs to favourite horses and to pet birds. (Diod. xiii. 82; Plin. H. N. 42. 64; Sotin. 45. § 11.) The plain in front of the city, occupying the space from the southern wall to the confluence of the two rivers, was full of these sepulchres and monuments, among which that of Theron was conspicuous for its magnitude (Diod. xni. 86): the name is now commonly given to the on]/ structure of the kind which remains, though it is of inconsiderable dimensions, and belongs, in all

For this extraordinary wealth Agrigentum was indebted, in a great measure, to the fertility a. its territory, which abounded not only in corn, as it continued to do in the time of Cicero, and still does at the present day, but was especially fruitful in vines and olives, with the produce of which it supplied Carthage, and the whole of the adjoining parts of Africa, where their cultivation was as yet unknown. (Diod. xi. 25, xiii. 81.) The vast multitude of slaves which fell to the lot of the Agrigentines, after the great victory of Ilimera, contributed greatly to their proepe ity, by enabling them to bring into careful cultivation the whole of their extensive and fertile domain. The rallies on the banks of its river furnished excellent pasture for sheep (Pind. Fifth, xii. 4), and in later times, when the neighbouring country had ceased to be so richly cultivated, it was noted for the excellence of its cheeses. (Plin. H.N. xi. 42.97.)

It is difficult to determine with precision the extent and boundaries of the territory of Agrigentum, which must indeed have varied greatly at different times : but it would seem to have extended as far as the river Himcra on the E., and to have been bounded by the Halycus on the W.; though at one time it must have comprised a considerable extent of country beyond that river; and on the other hand Heraclea Minos, on the eastern bank of tha Haiyeus, was for a long time independent of Agrigentum. Towards the interior it probably extended as far as the mountain range in which those two rivers have their sources, the Nebrodes Mons, or Monte Madonia, which separated it from the territory of Himera. (Siefert, A hragas, p. 9—11.) Among the smaller towns and places subject to its dominion are mentioned Motyum and Erbessus, in the interior of the country, CAMICUS, the ancient fortress of Cocalus (erroneously supposed by many writers to have occupied the site of the modern town of Girgentt), Ecnomcs on the border! of the territory of Gela, and subsequently Phintias, founded by the despot of that name, on the site d the modern Alicata,

Of the two rivers which flowed beneath the walls of Agrigentum, the most considerable was the Ackagas, from whence according to the common consent of most ancient authors, the city derived its name. Hence it was worshipped as one of the tutelary deities of the city, and statues erected to it by the Agrigentmes, both in Sicily and at Delphi, in which it was represented under the figure of a young man, probably with horns on his forehead, as we find it on the coins of Agrigentum. (Pind. OL ii. 16, Pyth. xii. 5, and Schol. ad locc.; Empedocles ap. IHog. Laert viii. 2. § 63; Steph. Byz. v. 'Ajcpttyoi; Aelian. V. If. ii. 33; Castell. Numm. Sic. Vet. p. 8.) At its mouth was situated the Port or Emporium of Agrigentum, mentioned by Strabo and Ptolemy; but notwithstanding the extensive commerce of which this was at one time the centre, it had little natural advantages, and must have been mainly formed by artificial constructions. Considerable remains of these, half buried in sand, were still visible in the time of Fazello, but have since, in great measure disappeared. The modem port of Girgentt is situated above three miles further west. (Strab. vi. pp. 266, 272; PtoL iii. 4. § 6; Fazell. vi. 1. p. 246; Smyth's Sicily, pp. 202, 203.) Among the natural productions of the neighbourI hood of Agrigentum, we find no mention in ancient | authors of the mines of sulphur, which are at the

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