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2. What is meant by “ to all intents and purposes ” ? “ reached forty dollars ” ? “ was doled out”? “the world of artists "? What do you know of Queen Elizabeth and her times? Is silver used as a pencil point? Where is Siberia? Florida ?

XI. WHAT MIGHT BE DONE.

1. What might be done if men were wiseWhat glorious deeds, my suffering brother,

Would they unite

In love and right,
And cease their scorn of one another!
2. Oppression's heart might be imbued
With kindling drops of loving-kindness ;

And knowledge pour,

From shore to shore,
Light on the eyes of mental blindness.
3. All slavery, warfare, lies, and wrongs,
All vice and crime, might die together;

And wine and corn,

To each man born,
Be free as warmth in summer weather.

4. The meanest wretch that ever trod, The deepest sunk in guilt and sorrow,

Might stand erect

In self-respect,
And share the teeming world to-morrow.

5. What might be done? This might be done, And more than this, my suffering brother

More than the tongue

E'er said or sung,
If men were wise and loved each other.

1. Oppression's, imbued, teeming, wretch, knowledge.

2. What one rule obeyed would bring all these things to pass ? What is the cause of “slavery, warfare, lies, and wrongs"?

XII. THE UNITED STATES.

1. “Westward the course of empire takes its way,” sang the poet Berkeley, and history shows that this has always been true.

2. Migrations have universally been toward the west, and it was only when the migrating people of the Old World reached the limit of land migration westward that the mighty drawing of nature brought venturesome men across the great waters to found the grandest nation the world had ever known.

3. In 1492 the sun looked down on a strange land whose eastern shores even, washed by the waves of the great Atlantic, had never been trodden by the foot of the white man, and which stretched away through almost unbroken solitudes of forests and rivers, lakes and deserts, many thousands of miles,

to greet the waters of the broad Pacific as they rolled in lonely grandeur on its sands.

4. If some prophet in 1492, or even in 1776, had foretold that before the end of the nineteenth century a nation of more than seventy millions of people would cover this immense stretch of wilderness with cities and homes and busy factories ; would bind the oceans, the lakes, and the gulf with bonds of iron and steel; would produce generals, statesmen, orators, and inventors greater than the history of the past had recorded ; and which would be, above all, a liberty-loving nation, whose people through hardships and wars and fearful sufferings had learned the art of self-government—his prophecy would have been laughed at as the ravings of a madman.

5. Yet all this is true, and the truth but partly told; for Americans cannot receive and comprehend in its fulness the greatness of the work done here in these few centuries, nor the grandeur of this nation in its freedom and power.

6. It is customary to speak of the pioneers as coming from the "overflowing nations” of Europe, but it is not true that the most of Europe was overcrowded; it was not half settled. There was room for millions more among its mountains and valleys.

7. It was rather the great hearts filled with that mysterious western instinct that forced the best spirits to come from the greatest nations to this

land as soon as the “trackless paths” of the Atlantic were known. And so our ancestors came men and women of strong, resolute minds, of determined will, and with vigorous bodies—to bear the hardships of new settlements.

8. They startled the rocky hillsides of New England with their songs and their deeds. They built quaint homés on the shores of Manhattan. They spread along the Jersey coasts, and with the crown of peace and justice made Pennsylvania renowned forever. In Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, the Carolinas, and Florida the smoke of household fires rose through the trees, telling of the settlements which, scattered along the southern coasts, produced the Marions and Sumters and Jeffersons and Clays and the one Washington.

9. The period before the Revolution is full of deeds of more heroic daring, of more fearful sufferings, and of grander triumphs than the pen of the novelist dare venture to portray,—all eclipsed by the long and terrible war of the Revolution, whose battlefields were stained with the blood of patriots.

10. The history of the century since the Revolution grows ever broader in its scope and grander in its results. Our land has passed through one war with “ The Mistress of the Seas,” and our infant navy won notable victories, which have been immortalized in story and in song.

11. The country has been cruelly tried by fraternal strife, the memories of whose animosities and terrible battles, softened by time, begin to blend in one common pride for the heroism and love of a united land. Its future will be even the more glorious for its sufferings; and to-day it stands in the full pride of its glory and strength, with new stars on its flag, with its North and South, and its East and West, filled with a deeper devotion and a heartier love than ever before.

12. The victories of peace have been even greater than those of war; and the happiest homes, the best of schools, the most enlightened citizens, tell better than words the grand results of leaving the government in the hands of a free people.

13. We cannot honor our country with too deep a reverence. In our schools, in our homes, in our churches, everywhere,—love, reverence, honor, and devotion to our beloved land should be taught and cherished ; for our great nation is surely first in freedom, first in power, and first in future possibilities.

1. Migrations, venturesome, solitudes, grandeur, prophet, comprehend, customary, pioneers, mysterious, quaint, eclipsed, fraternal, animosities, enlightened, possibilities, immortalized.

2. Explain the difference between migrate, emigrate, and immigrate. What was the limit of land migration westward "? What countries does the Pacific touch ? What “bonds of iron "

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