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the boundaries of the new state and provided for their delimitation by a European commission, which was " to take into consideration the necessity for H.I.M. the Sultan to be able to defend the Balkan frontiers of Eastern Rumelia." Arts. III. to XII. provide for the election of a prince for Bulgaria, the machinery for settling the new constitution, the adjustment of the relations of the new Bulgarian government to the Ottoman empire and its subjects (including the question of tribute, the amount of which was, according to Art. XII., to be settled by agreement of the signatory powers "at the close of the first year of the working of the new organization ")'. By Art. X. Bulgaria, so far as it was concerned, was to take the place of the Sublime Porte in the engagements which the latter had contracted, as well towards Austria-Hungary as towards the RustchuckVarna Railway Company, for working (he railway of European Turkey in respect to Ihc completion and connexion, as well as the working of (he railways situated in its territory.

By Art. XIII. a province was formed south of the Balkans which was to take the name of " Eastern Rumelia," and was to remain " under the direct military and political control of H. I. M. the Sultan, under conditions of administrative autonomy." It was to have a Christian governor-general. Arts. XIV. to XXIII. define the frontiers and organization of the new province, questions arising out of the Russian occupation, and the rights of the sultan. Of the latter it is to be noted tha t the sultan retained the right of fortifying and occupying the Balkan passes (Art. XV.) and all his rights and obligations over the railways (Art. XXI.).

Art. XXV., which the events of 1008 afterwards brought into special prominence, runs as folloxvs: " The provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be occupied and administered by AustriaHungary. The government of Austria-Hungary, not desiring to undertake the administration of the sanjak of Novi-Bazar, . . . the Ottoman administration will continue to exercise its functions there. Nevertheless, in order to assure the maintenance of the new political state of affairs, as well as freedom and security of communications, Austria-Hungary reserves Ihc right of keeping garrisons and having military and commercial roads in the whole of this part of the ancient vilayet of Bosnia."

By Art. XXVI. the independence of Montenegro was definitively recognized, and by Art. XVIII. she received certain accessions of territory, including a strip of coast on the Adriatic, but under conditions which tended to place her under the tutelage of Austria-Hungary. Thus, by Art. XXIX. shewastohave neither ships of war nor a war flag, the port of Antivari and all Montenegrin waters were to be closed to the war-ships of all nations; the fortifications between the lake and the coast were to be razed; the administration of the maritime and sanitary police at Antivofri and along the Montenegrin littoral was to be carried on by Austria-Hungary "by means of light coast-guard boats"; Montenegro was to adopt the maritime code in force in Dalmatia, while the Montenegrin merchant flag was to be under Austro-Hungarian consular protection. Finally, Montenegro was to "come to an understanding with Austria-Hungary on the right to construct and keep up across the new Montenegrin territory a road and a railway."

By Art. XXXIV. the independence of Scrvia was recognized, subject to conditions (as to religious liberty, &c.) set forth in Art. XXXV. Art. XXXVI. defined the new boundaries.

By Art. XLIII. the independence of Rumania, already proclaimed by th« prince ('june" 1877), was recognized. Subsequent articles define the conditions and the boundaries.

Arts. LI ( to LVII. deal with the question of the free navigation of the Danube. All fortifications between the mouths and the Iron Gates were to be razed, and no vessels of war, save those of light tonnage in the service of the river police and the customs, were to navigate the river below the Iron Gates (Art. LII.). The Danube commission, on which Rumania was to be tepresented, was maintained hi its functions (Art. LIII.) and provision made for the further prolongation of its powers (Art. LIVJ.

Art. LvlII. cedes to Russia the territories of Ardahan, Kars and Batoum, in Asiatic Turkey. By Art. LIX. "H.M. the emperor of Russia declares that it is his intention to constitute Batoum a free port, essentially commercial."

By Art. LXI. " the Sublime Porte undertakes to carry outj without further delay, the improvements and reforms demanded by local requirements in the provinces inhabited by the Armenians, and to guarantee their security against the Circassians and Kurds." It was to keep the powers informed periodically of" the steps taken to this effect"

Art. LXII. made provision for the securing religious liberty in the Ottoman dominions.

!• m..]K . Art. i M U. declares that "the treaty of Paris of 30th March 1856, as well as the treaty of London of ijth March 1871, are maintained in all such of their provisions as are not abrogated or modified by the preceding stipulations."

For the full text of the treaty in the English translation see E. Hertslct, Afap of Europe by Treaty, vol. iv. p. 2759 (No. 530); for the French original sec Stale Papers, vol. Uix. p. 749. (W. A. P.)

BERLIN, a city of Coos county, New Hampshire, U.S.A., on the Androscoggin river, in the N. part of the state, about 98 m. N.W. of Portland, Maine. Pop. (1890) 3739; (1000) 8886, of whom 4643 were foreign-born; (1910 census) njSo*. The area of the city in 1006 was 57-81 sq. m. Berlin is served by the Grand Trunk and Boston & Maine railways. It is situated in the heart of the White Mountains and 16 m. from the base of MI. Washington. Berlin Falls, on the picturesque Androscoggin river, furnishes an immense water-power, the development of which for manufacturing purposes accounts for the rapid growth of the city. The forests of northern New England and of the province of Quebec supply the raw material for the extensive saw-mills and planing-mills, the pulp- and paper-mills, and the sulphite fibre mills, said to be the largest in existence. In 1005 the city's factory products were valued at $5,989,119, of which 78-5 % was the value of the paper and wood pulp manufactured. Berlin was first settled in 1821, was incorporated as a township in 1839. and was chartered as a city in 1807.

BERLIN, a city and port of entry, Ontario, Canada, and capital of Waterloo county, 58 m. W. of Toronto, on the Grand Trunk railway. It if the centre of a prosperous farming and manufacturing district, inhabited chiefly by German immigrants and their descendants. An electric railway connects it wilh the town of Waterloo (pop. 4100) 2 m. to the north, which has important flour and woollen mills and distilleries. Berlin is a flourishing manufacturing town, and contains a beet sugar refinery, automobile, leather, furniture, shirt and collar, felt, glove, button and rubber factories. Pop. (1881) 4054; (1001) 9747

BERLIN, a four-wheeled carriage with a separate hooded seat behind, detached from the body of the vehicle; so called from having been first used in Berlin. It was designed about 1670, by a Piedmontcsc architect in Jhe service of the elector of Brandenburg. It was used as a travelling carriage, and Swift refers to it in his advice to authors " who scribble in a berlin." As an adjective, the word is used to indicate a special kind of goods, originally made in Berlin, of which the best known is Berlin wool. A Berlin warehouse is a shop for the sale of wools and fancy goods (cf. Italian warehouse). The spelling " berlin" is also used by Sir Walter Scott for the "Mrlinn," a large Gaelic rowing-boat.

BERLIOZ, HECTOR (1803-1869), French musical composer, was born on the, nth of December 1803 at Cdte-Saint-Andrf, a small town near Grenoble, in the department of Isere. His father, Louis Berlioz, wr\s a physician of repute, and by his desire Hector for some time devoted himself to the study of medicine. At the same time he had music lessons, and, in secret, perused numerous theoretical works on counterpoint and harmony, with little profit it seems, till the hearing and subsequent careful analysis of one of Haydn's quartets opened a new vista to his unguidcd aspirations. A similar work written by Berlioz in imitation of Haydn's masterpiece was favorably received by his friends. From Paris, where, be had been sent to complete bis medical studies, be at last nude known to his lather the unalterable decision of devoting himself entirely to art, the answer to which confession was the withdrawal of all further pecuniary assistance. In order to support life Berlioz had to accept the humble engagement of a singer in the chorus of the Cymnase theatre. Soon, however, he became reconciled to his father and entered the Conservatoire, where he studied composition under Reicha and Lesueur. His first important composition was an opera called Let Pratics-Jttga, of which, however, only the overture remains extant. In 1825 he left the Conservatoire, and began a course of scLf-education, founded chiefly on the works of Beethoven, Cluck, Weber and other German masters. About this period Berlioz saw for the first time the talented Irish actress Henrietta Smithson, who was then charming Paris by her impersonations of Ophelia, Juliet and other Shakespearean characters. The enthusiastic young composer became deeply enamoured of her at first sight, and tried, for a long time in vain, to gain the love or even the attention of his idol. To an incident of this wild and persevering courtship Berlioz's first symphonic work, fcpitode ic la tit d'un artiste, owes its origin. By the advice of his friends Berlioz once more catered the Conservatoire, where, after several unsuccessful attempts, his cantata Sardanapalus gained him the first prize for foreign travel (1830), in spite of the strong personal antagonism of one of the umpires. During a stay in Italy Berlioz composed an overture to King Lear, and Le Relour a la vie—a sort of symphony, with intervening poetical declamation between the single movements, called by the composer a melologuc, and written in continuation of the £pisodc de la tie d'un artiste, along with which work it was performed at the Paris Conservatoire in 1837. Paganini on that occasion spoke to Berlioz the memorable words: " Vous commencezparou lesautrcsont fini." Miss Smithson, who also was present on the occasion, consented to become the wife of her ardent lover in 1833. The marriage was a tempestuous mistake. In 1840 be separated from his wife, who died in 1854. Six months later Berlioz married Mademoiselle Recio. His second wife did not live very long, nor was there much that was edifying in this marriage. Between the date of his first marriage and i84OcameoulhisdramaticsymphoniesH<u-oU en Italic, Funebre el Iriompliale, and Romeo el Juliette; his opera Bcntenuto Cellini (1837); his Requiem, and other works. In the course of time Berlioz won his due share of the distinctions generally awarded to artistic merit, such as the ribbon of the Legion of Honour and the membership of the Institute. But these distinctions he owed, perhaps, less to a genuine admiration of his compositions than to his successes abroad and his influential position as the musical critic of the Journal del Dcbals (a position which he held from 1838 to 1864, and which he never used or abused to push his own works). In i * 12 Berlioz went for the first time to Germany, where he was hailed with welcome by the leading musicians of the younger generation, Robert Schumann foremost amongst them. The latter paved the way for the French composer's success by a comprehensive analysis of the £puodc in his musical journal, the Neue Zeilukrijl far Uusik. In 1846 he produced his magnificent cantata La Damnation de Faust. Berlioz gave successful concerts at Leipzig and other German cities, and repeated his visit on various later occasions—in 1852 by invitation of Liszt, to conduct his opera, Benmiuto Cellini (hissed off the stage in Paris), at Weimar; and in 1855 to produce his oratorio-trilogy, L'Enfance du Christ, in the same city. This latter work had been previously performed at Paris, where Berlioz mystified the critics by pretending to have found the last chorus amongst the manuscript scores of a composer of the 17th century, Pierre Ducr£ by name. In 1855 his Te Dcum was written for the opening of the Paris exhibition. Berlioz also made journeys to Vienna (1866) and St Petersburg (1867), where his works were received with great enthusiasm. In 1861 he produced his work Bealriee el Benedict, and in 1863 Les Troyens. He died in Paris on the 8th of March 1860. 1794 and incorporated in 1797; and Hamilton, on the Main Island, founded in 1790 and incorporated in 1793. St George was the capital till the senate and courts of justice were removed by Sir James Cockbum to Hamilton, which being centrally situated, is more convenient. Hamilton, which is situated on the inner part of the Great Sound, had a population in 1901 of 2346, that of St George being 985. In Ireland Island is situated the royal dockyard and naval establishment. The harbour of St George's has space enough to accommodate a vast fleet; yet, till deepened by blasting, the entrance was so narrow as to render it almost useless. The Bermudas became an important naval and coaling si.i lion in 1869, when a large iron dry dock was towed across the Atlantic and placed in a secure position in St George, while, owing to their important strategic position in mid-Atlantic, the British government maintains a strong garrison. The Bermudas are a British crown colony, with a governor resident at Hamilton, who is assisted by an executive council of 6 members appointed by the crown, a legislative council of 9 similarly appointed, and a representative assembly of 36 members, of whom four are returned by each of nine parishes. The currency of the colony, which had formerly twelve shillings to the pound sterling, was assimilated to that of England in 1842.. The English language is universal. The colony is ecclesiastically attached to the bishopric of Newfoundland. In 1847 an educational board was established, and there are numerous schools; attendance is compulsory, but none of the schools is free. Government scholarships enable youths to be educated for competition in the Rhodes scholarships to Oxford University. The revenue of the islands shows a fairly regular increase during the last years of the iQlh century and the first of the 2Oth, as from £37,830 in 1895 to £63,457 in 1004; expenditure is normally rather less than revenue. In the year last named imports were valued at £589,979 and exports at £130,305, the annual averages since 1895 being about £426,300 and £112,500 respectively. The population shows a steady increase, as from 13,948 in 1881 to 17.535 'n IIi 6383 were whites and 11,152 coloured in the latter year.

It is not only as a composer that the life of Berlioz is full of interest, although in this respect his achievement is singularly significant for the comprehension of the modern spirit in music.

But it b as the symbol of French romanticism in the domain of aesthetic perception that hi* pre-cminenc* has cone to be recognized. His Uemeiret (begun in London in 1848 and finished in 1865) illustrate this romantic spirit at its highest elevation as well as at its lowest depths. Victor Hugo was a romantic, Musset was a romantic, but Berlioz was romanticism itself. As a boy he is in despair over tbc despair of Dido, and his breath is taken away at Virgil's "Quaesivit cede lucrtn ingemuitque reperta." At the age of twelve be is in love with "Estelle," whom be meets fifty yean afterwards. Tbc scent is described by himself (1865) with minute fidelity—a seme which Flaubert must have known by heart when he wrote ixa parallel in the novel L'£d»<Glion irntimentale. The romance of this meeting between the man—old, isolated, unspeakably sad. with the halo of public fame burning round him—And the woman—old also, a mother, a widow, whose beauty be had worshipped when she was eighteen—is striking. In a frame of chastened melancholy and joy at the sight of Estelle, Berhoz goes to dine with Patti and her family. Palti, on the threshold of her career, pets Berlioz with such uncontrollable affection, that as the composer wrote a description of his feelings he was overwhelmed at the bitterness of fate. What would be not have given for Estellc to show him such affection 1 Patti seemed to him like a marvellous bird with diamond wings flitting round his head, resting on his shoulder, plucking his hair and singing her most joyous songs to the accompaniment of beating wings. "1 was enchanted but not moved. The fact is that the young, beautiful, dazzling, famous virtuoso who at the age of twenty-two has already seen musical Europe and America at her feet, does not win the power of love in me; and the aged woman, sad, obscure, ignorant of art, possesses my soul as she did in the days gone by, as she will do until my last day." If this episode touches the sublime, it may be urged with almost equal truth that his description of the exhumation of his two wives and their rcburi.il in a single tomb touches the ridiculous. And yet the scene is described with a perception of all the detail which would call for the highest praise in a novelist. Perhaps some parallel between the splendid and the ridiculous in this singular figure may be seen in the comparison of Nadar's caricature with Charpentier's portrait of the composer.

The profound admiration of Berlioz for Shakespeare, which rose at moments to such a pilch of folly that he set Shakespeare in the place of God and worshipped him, cannot be explained simply on the ground that Henrietta Smilhson was a great Shakespearean actress. Unquestionably the great figures in English literature hid a profound attraction for him, and while the romantic spirit is obvious in his selections from Byron and Scott, it can also be traced in the quality of his enthusiasm for Shakespeare. It is in his music more than in his literary attitude, however, that a disclosed something in addition to the pure romanccof Schumann —something that places him nearer in kind to Wagner, who recognized in him a composer from whose works he might learn something useful for the cultivation of his own ideals. As a youth the power of Beethoven's symphonies made a deep impression on Berlioz, and what has been described as. the "poetical idea " in Beethoven's creations ran riot in the young medical student's mind. He thus became one of the most ardent and enlightened originators of what is now known aj "programme music." Technically he was a brilliant musical colourist, of ten extravagant, but with the extravagant emotionalism of genius. He was a master of the orchestra; indeed, his treatment of the orchestra and his invention of unprecedented effects of timbre give him a solitary position in musical history;, he had an extraordinary gift for the use of the various itistru-' mcnts, and himself propounded a new ideal for the force to be employed, on an enormous scale.

His literary works include the TraM d'tntlrumuxlalion (1844); Voyage mutual en AUemagne et en Italic (1845); La Smiles d'orcneilre (1853); Les Grotesques de la nuuiqat (1859); A tracers chant (1862); Memoiret (1870); Lctlres in/into (iSSiX For a full list of his musical works, Grove1* Ditliaury should b* consulted.


History.— The discovery of the Bermudas resulted from the shipwreck of Juan Bermudez, a Spaniard (whose name they now bear), when on a voyage from Spain to Cuba with a cargo of hogs, early in the i6th century. Henry May, an Englishman, suffered the same fate in 1593; and lastly, Sir George Somers shared the destiny of the two preceding navigators in 1609. Sir George, from whom the islands took the alternative name of Somers, was the first who established a settlement upon them, but he died before he had fully accomplished his design. In 1612 the Bermudas were granted to an offshoot of the Virginia Company, which consisted of 120 persons, 60 of whom, under the command of Henry More, proceeded to the islands. The first source of colonial wealth was the growing of tobacco, but the curing industry ceased early in the iSth century. In 1726 Bishop George Berkeley chose the Bermudas as the scat of his projected missionary establishment. The first newspaper, the Bermuda Gazette, was published in 1784.

Sec Godct, Bermuda, its Hilary, Geology, Climate, ffc, (London, i860); Lcfroy, Discovery and Settlement of Ike Bermudas (London, 1877-1879); A. Herlprm. Bermuda Islands (Philadelphia, 1889); Stark, Bermuda Guide (London, 1808); Cole, Bermuda . . . BiUioZrc.fihy (Boston, 1907!; and for geology see also A. Acassiz, " Vi^it to the Bermudas in March 1894," Bull. Mus. Camp. Zocl. Harvard, vol. xxvi. No. 2, 1895; A. E, Vcrrill, " Notes on the Geology of the Bermudas," Aincr. Joitrn. Sci. ser. 4, vol. ix. (1900), pp. 313-340; "The Bermuda Islands; Their Scenery, &c.," Trans. Conn, Acad. Arts and Sci. vol. xi. pt. 2 (1901-1902).

BERMUDEZ, a N.E. state of Venezuela, between the Caribbean Sea and the Orinoco river, bounded E. by the gulf of Paria and the Delta-Amacuro territory, and W. by the states of Guarico and Miranda. Pop. (cst. 1905) 364,158. It was created in 1881 by the union of the states of Barcelona, Cumanfi. and Malurm, dissolved in 1901 into its three original states, and reorganized in 1904 with a slight modification of territory. The stale includes the oldest settlements in Venezuela, and was once very prosperous, producing cattle and exporting hides, but wars and political disorders have partly destroyed its industries and

impeded their development. Its pri net pal prod actions arr coffee, sugar, and cacao, and—less important—cotton, tobacco. cocoanuts. timber, indigo and dyewoods. Its more important towns arc the capital, Barcelona, Maturin (pop. 14,47.5), capital of a district of the same name, and Cumana (10,000), on, the gutf of Cariaco, founded in 1520 and one of the oldest towns of the continent.

BERN (Fr. /'-..', after the Orisons, the largest of the Swta cantons, but by far the most populous, though politically Beta ranks after that of Zurich. It extends right across Switzerland from beyond the Jura to the snow-dad ranges that separate Bern from the Valais. Its total area is 2641-9 sq. in., of which 2081 sq. iii. are classed as "productive " (including 591 s<j m of forests, and 2*1 m. of vineyards), while of the remainder 111-3 sq. ms arc occupied by glaciers (the Valais and the Grisons alone surpass it in this respect). It is mainly watered by the river Aar (?.?.)» with its affluents, the Kandcr (left), the Saaoe or Sarinc (left) and the Emme (right); the Aar forms the two lakes of Bricnz and Thun (?.».). The great extent of this camon accounts for the different character of the regions therein connprised. Three are usually distinguished:—(i) The Obcrlamd or Highlands, which is that best known to travellers, for it includes the snowy Alps of the Bernese Oberland (culminating in the Finslcraarhorn, 14,026 ft., and the Jungfrau, 13,669 ft.), as well as the famous summer resorts of Grindclwald, Murnrn, La.mcrbrunnen, Intcrlakcn, Mciringcn, Kandcrstcg, Adclboden, Thun and the fine pastoral valley of the Simmc. (2) The MiUcU&rA or Midlands, comprising the volley of the Aar below Thun, and that of the Emmc, ihn . taking in the outliers of the high Alps and the open country on every side of the town of Bern, (ji The Sccland (Lakeland) and the Jura, extending from Btetme and its lake across the jura to Porrentruy in the plains and to the upper course of the Birs. The Oberland and Mittelland forn the " old " canton, the Jura having only been acquired in 1815, and differing from the rest of the canton by reason of its Frenchspeaking and Romanist inhabitants.

In 1900 the total population of the canton was 589,433, of whom 483,388 wure German-speaking, 97,789 French -speaking, and 7167 Italian-speaking; while there were 506,699 Protestant*, 80,489 Romanists (including the Old Caiholics), and 1543 Jews. The capital is Bern (q.v.), while the other important towns arc Bicnnc (q.v.), Burgdorf (q.v.)t Dclemont or Delsbcrg (50^3 inhabitants), Porrcntruy or Pruntrut (6959 inhabitants), Thta (7.9.). and 1-angcnthal (4799 inhabitants). There is a university (founded in 1834) in the town of Bern, as well as institutions for higher education in the principal towns. The onion u divided into 30 administrative districts, and contains 50; communes (the highest number in' Switzerland}. From 1803 to 1814 the canton was one of the six " Directorial " cantons of the Confederation. The existing cantonal constitution dates from 1893, but in 1906 the direct popular election of the executjve of 9 members (hitherto named by the legislature) .was introduced. The legislature or Grossratft is elected for four years (like tfie executive), in the proportion of i member to every 2500 dr fraction over 1250) of the resident population. The Referendum obtains in the case of all laws, and of dec to an expenditure of over half a million francs, while i;: citizens have the right of initiative in the case of legislative projects, and 15,000 may demand the revision of the cantonaJ constitution. The 2 members sent by the canton to the federal Stdnderath are elected by the Grossratht while the 29 member* sent to the federal Pfationalrath are chosen by a popular vole. In the AJpine portions cf the canton thu breeding of cattle (those of the Simmc vaUcy arc particularly famous) is the chief industry; next come the elaborate arrangements for summer IravdUeis (the Frcmdenirulustrit'). It is reckoned that there -are 54:0 "Alps" or mountain pastures in the canton, of which 1474 are in the Oberland, 627 in the Jura, and 280 in the Emmc valley; they can maintain 95,478 cows and arc of the estimated value of 46! million francs. The cheese of the Emme valley is locally much esteemed. Other industries in the Alpine region are wood-carving (at Bricnz) and wine manufacture (on the shores of the lakes of Biennc and of Thun). The MittcIIand is the agricultural portion of the canton. Watchmaking is the principal industry of the Jura, Bicnne and St Imier being the chief centres of this industry. Iron mines are also worked in the Jura, while the Heimberg potteries, near Thun, produce a locally famous ware, and there arc both quarries of building stone and tile factories. The canton is well supplier) with railway lines, the broad gauge lines being 228 ra. in length, and the narrow gauge lines 157} m.—in all 385} m. Among these are many funicular co^-wheel lines, climbing up to considerable heights, so up to Mtirren (5368 ft.), over the Wcngern Alp (6772 ft.), up to the Schynige Platte (6463 ft.), and many others still in the state of projects. All these are in the Obcrland where, too, is the so-called Jungfrau railway, which in 1906 attained a point (the Eismeer station) in the south wall of the Eiger (13,042 ft.) that was 10,371 ft. in height, the loftiest railway station in Switzerland.


The canton of Bern is composed of the various districts which the town of Bern acquired by conquest or by purchase in the course of time. The more important, with dates of acquisition, arc the following:—Laupen (1324), Hasli and Meiringen (1334), Thun and Burgdorf (1384), Untcrsecn and the Upper Sim me valley (1386), Frutigen, &c. (1400), Lower Simme valley (14391449), Interlaken, with Grindelwald, Lautcrbrunnen and liricnz (1528, on the suppression of the Austin Canons of Intcrlakcnj, Saancn or Gcssenay (1555), Koniz (1729), and the Bernese Jura with Bicnne (1815, from the bishopric of Basel). But certain regions previously won were lost in 1708—Aargau (1415), Aiglc and Grandson (1475), Vaud (1536), and the Pays d'En-Haut or Chateau d'Oex (1555). From 1798 to 1803 the .Oberland formed a separate canton' (capital, Thun) of the Helvetic Republic. (W. A. B. C.)

BERN (Fr. Bernr), the capital of the Swiss canton of the same name, and, by a Federal law of 1848, the political capital of the Swiss confederation. It is most picturesquely situated on a high bluff or peninsula, round the base of which flows the river Aar, thus completely cutting off the old town, save to the west. Five lofty bridges have been thrown over the Aar, the two most modern being the Kirchfcld and Kornhaus bridges which have greatly contributed to create new residential quarters near the old town. Within the town the arcades (or Laubcn) on either side of the main street, and the numerous elaborately ornamented fountains attract the eye, as well as the two remaining towers th.it formerly stood on the old walls but are now in the centre of the town; the Zcttghcketif/nirrn (famous for its singular 16thcentury clock, with its mechanical contrivances, set in motion when the hour strikes) and the Kaftehtfiurm. The principal medieval building in Bern is the (now Protestant) Miinstcr, begun in 1421 though not completed till 1573. The tower, rising conspicuously above the town, has recently been well restored, but the church was never a cathedral church (as is often stated), for there has never yet been a bishop of Bern. The federal Houses of Parliament (Bundeshaus) were much enlarged in 1888-1892, the older portions dating from 1852-1857, and also contain the offices of the- fedcr.il executive and administration. The town-hall dates from 1406, while some of the houses belonging to the old gilds contain much of interest. The town library (with which that of the university was incorporated in 1905) contains a vast store of MSS. nnd rare printed books, but should be carefully distinguished from the national Swiss library, which, with the building for the federal archives, is built in the new Kirchfcld quarter. There arc a number of museums; the historical (archaeological and medieval), the natural history (in which the skin of Barry, the famous St Bernard dog, is preserved), the art (mainly modern Swiss pictures), and the Alpine (in which nrc collections of all kinds relating to the Swiss Alps), Bern possesses a university (founded in 18.54) and two admirably organized hospitals. The old fortifications (Srlianzcn) have been converted into promenades, which command wonderful views of the snowy Alps of the Bernese Obcrland. Just across the Nydcck bridge is the famous bear pit in which live bears arc kept, as they are supposed to have given the name to the town;

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