صور الصفحة
PDF

John

{. in 964 forced his way into ome and banished Leo.—John XXII. (1316–34) was one of the pes who reigned at Avignon. Hoti. affirms that he was the son of a cobbler, but that his education was undertaken by his uncle, the chancellor of Robert of Sicily. Clement v. bestowed on him the see of Aignon, and he was elected to the papal chair in 1316. He bent his whole energies to so out the policy of Gregory v11. and Innocent III. regardin the extension of the tempora wer... . In the dispute between rederick of Austria and Louis of Bavaria for the imperial crown he championed the , cause of , the former. During the contest which ensued, the papal party was expelled from Rome, John was declared deposed, and his legate had to leave the city. But Louis was unable to enforce his claims, and on his return to Germany things reverted to their former position; the anti-pope, Nicholas v., set u in opposition to John, went bac into retirement.-John XXIII. (1410–15) so disgraced the name of John that it has never been chosen by any other pope since. He became cardinal of Bologna (1402), then Pope, and was suspected of poisoning his §. sor to obtain the dignity. His life is said to have been very scandalous. Owing to there being two anti; popes in existence, he was induced to ‘summon the Čouncil of Čon. stance, on the understanding that all three pontiffs should resign their dignity. This was done; but in place of re-electing John XXIII. the council, deposed him, an elected Martin v. in his place. John (?1167–1216), king of England, born probably at Oxford, was the youngest son of Henry II., and ascended the throne in 1199. In 1189 he joined Philip , of France in a coalition against his father. . During Richard I.'s absence in the Holy Land he attempted to secure the crown; and when Richard, was in captivity, he allied himself with Richard's enemy, Philip of France. In 1203 John put to death Arthur, the son of his brother Geoffrey; and the death of John's, able mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, in 1204 was the signal for the conquest of Normandy Ajo, Maine, and Touraine by the French king. In 1205 a struggle o between the papacy and the English king over the election to the archbishopric of Canterbury. The Pope, Innocent III., put aside §. candidate, and consecrated tephen Fo (1208). On the refusal of John to receive Langton, Innocent laid England under an interdict, and in 1212 excommunicated the Énglish king. John then yielded, and agreed to hold

[ocr errors]

his kingdom as a fief of the o But the English barons and clergy now determined to resist John's tyranny, and the defeat of his forces at Bouvines on July 27, 1214, by Philip, an his own failure to hold Poitou, encouraged the English barons. On June 15, 1215, he was, compool to sign Magna Charta. alse and treacherous, John had no intention of keeping to his promises, and civil war broke out. . The reforming barons were aided by the French prince Louis, to, whom they offered the English crown. In the stru #. Hubert de Burgh ico ly defended Dover for John, who, however, died suddenly at Newark. See Stubbs's Constitutional Hio England (new ed. § The rly Plantagenets (1876), and the introductions to the Rolls Series (ed. by Hassall); other works by Miss Norgate, Sir James Ramsay, and J. R. Green. John, the name of several kings of Portugal. JoBN I. (1357– 1433), known as ‘the Great,’ founded the Aviz oy. His wife, was sister of Henry Iv. of England.-J9HN II. (1455–95) promoted the discoveries of Portugal in the East.—John III. (152157) established the Inquisition in Portugal, and sent St. Francis Xavier to convert the East.— #. IV. (1603–56) founded the raganza. dynasty, and fought successfully with Spain, for the independence of Portugal.—John v. (1689–1750) took an unsuccessful part in the war of the Spanish Succession.—John VI. (1769–1826) became regent in 1799. In 1807 he transferred his seat of government to Rio Janeiro. n his return in , 1822 he accepted the new constitution. John II. (1319–64), known as ‘the Good’—i.e. “the Generous’— became king of France in 1350. Being hard Fo by the king of Navarre and the English, and accused of maladministration of the finances, he surrendered the management of them to the Stateseneral. Defeated at Poitiers o he was taken prisoner to ngland, but returned after the treaty of Bretigny (1360). But the Duke of Anjou, whom he left as hostage, having fled, John thought it his duty to #. back to England, where he finished his days. John II., or HANS (1455–1513), king of Denmark, third son of Christian I., succeeded to the throne of Denmark (1481), and of Norway and Sweden (1483) though only generally recognized in the last mentioned. The collapse of his expedition against the Ditmarshers in, the south of Schleswig (1500) led to rebellions both in Norway and in Sweden. The Norwegians were ultimately subdued (1508); but in Sweden,

John of Gaunt

Sten Sture , and Svante Sture successive administrators, wrested the whole kingdom from the Danes, and, aided by the Hanseatic League, carried on the war till 1512, when a truce was made. . John III., SoBIESKI (1624–96), king of Poland, was born at Oles: ko in Galicia. By his brilliant yictories over the Swedes, Tartars Turks (at Chotin in 1673), an Cossacks he gained for himself the throne of . Poland (1674). Europe owes to him the relief of Vienna (1683), when, it was besieged for the last time by the Turks. He was a man of considerable culture, fond of books and of scientific research. John, EUGENIE. See MARLITT, EUGENIE. John Dory. See DoRY. John of Austria, Don (1546– 78), Spanish general, natural son of the Emperor Charles v., was born at Ratisbon, and passed as the son of a Spanish, nobleman named Quijada. ^o when only twenty-two Philip II. commander of the forces against the rebel Moors of Granada, he triumphantly subdued them. As §olio of the combined eets , of Spain and, Italy he ained a great naval victory over the Turkish fleet in the Gulf of Lepanto (1571). After the refusal by Philip to allow him to accept the proffered sovereignty of Albania, and Macedonia, he commanded an expedition against the Moors in Africa, and took Tunis and Biserta. In 1576 he became governor of the Netherlands, which were then in a state of rebellion. After o: Namur, Louvain, Nivelle, and other towns belonging to . the insurgents, he died, it is said, from the effects Qí poison. See Sir W. StirlingMaxwell's Don John of Austria (2 vols. 1883). John of Bohemia (1296–1346), the blind king, was son of the Emperor Henry VII., and became king of Bohemia through his marriage with the heiress to the throne. There was a fierce contest between the houses of Austria and . Bavaria for the , Bohemian empire, and John achieved the victory for Bavaria in 1322 at Mühldorf. He became an ally of the French king in the war against England, and was slain

[ocr errors]

was born at Douay, and became sculptor at the court of the Medici. Among his masterpieces are a splendid and impressive fountain of Neptune at Bologna (whence his name), a Mercury in bronze, airy and full of grace, and The Rape of a Sabine Woman. His miniature works in bronze won him much fame. John of Gaunt (1340-99), Duke John of Leyden

of Lancaster, the fourth son of Edward III., was born in Ghent. In 1359 he married Blanche (d. 1369), the heiress of the duchy of Lancaster, and was himself created Duke of Lancaster in 1362. After the close of the Black Prince's expedition to help Pedro the Cruel of Castile, John married Constance, daughter of Pedro, and in 1372 assumed the title of King of Castile, but in 1387 resigned all claims in favor of his daughter Catherine. In England, where he exercised great influence, he supported Wycliffe, but failed to gain the confidence of the House of Commons. After 1389 his influence was used to Fo peace between Richard II. and the nobles. In 1394 his wife Constance died, and in 1396 he married Catherine Swynford, by whom he had already three sons and one daughter, known as the Beauforts. These children were legitimatized by Richard II., and in the following century figured prominently in English affairs. His eldest son, Henry Bolingbroke, became king as Henry IV. John of Leyden, properly Johan N BEUckelszoon or Bockhold (1510–36), a notorious fanatic, was born in Leyden. Having joined the Anabaptists, he established himself in the city of Münster, where he set up a peculiar commonwealth in preparation for the new Zion which he prophesied as about to come. After committing gross excesses and cruelties for two years, he was captured by the bishop of the city, and with his followers put to death. See ANABAPTISTs. John of Salisbury (c. 1115– 80), English author, taught for a time in Paris, apparently returning to England about 1147. He acted as secretary successively to Archbishop Theobald and Thomas ā Becket; accompanied the latter on his virtual exile in France, and witnessed his assassination (1170). In 1176 he became bishop of Chartres. In his Polycraticus he sets forth his views on contemporary life, and in his Metalogicus deals with contemporary education and thought. Johns Hopkins University, one of the foremost educational institutions in America, situated in Baltimore, Md., was incorporated in 1867 and opened in 1876. Its establishment was made possible by Johns Hopkins (q.v.), who bequeathed more than $3,000,000 for its endowment. Since the beginning, the chief stress has been laid on advanced graduate work and original research. The work done in other insti

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

tutions by specialists trained at Johns Hopkins has had far-reaching effect in raising the standard of American education. In addition to the graduate courses, an undergraduate school is maintained leading to the degree of B.A. College courses for teachers (men and women) are offered during the regular session in the late afternoon hours and on Saturdays. The first summer session was held in July and August, 1911. The plan of the founder included a hospital in addition to the university, and for this an equal sum was bequeathed; it was opened in 1889—the establishment of the |. Hopkins Medical School ollowing in 1893. This marked an advance in standards of medical education as distinct as that which marked the work of the university in the fields of science and general scholarship. It was made possible by the raising of a “Woman's Fund' of $500,000, the bulk of which was given by Miss Mary E. Garrett, a condition of the gift being that women be admitted on equal terms with men. Women who possess, a baccalaureate degree are admitted to the graduate courses, as well as to the medical school. The influence of the university is extended by the journals issued from the Johns Hopkins Press. In 1901–2, the gift of 176 acres of land in the suburbs of Baltimore and an endowment fund of $1,000,000 was made to the university by friends. A third of this land was later deeded to the city for a public park. . The development of the new site is now (1911) in progress. A botanical laboratory and greenhouse have been erected, and a fine athletic field laid out; while a general scheme of arrangement of future buildings has been adopted. The State makes annual appropriations. In 1909 the General' Education Board offered to contribute $250,000 toward the endowment, on condition that a supplemental fund of $750,000 should also be secured by the university. In meeting this condition, $943,177 was actually raised. In 1910 the income-bearing funds had a “book value' of $4,580,000; the real estate and buildings, books, scientific apparatus, and general equipment a value of $1,900,000. The library contained 155,624 volumes. Dr. Ira Remsen (q.v.) is president. In 1910 there were 215 instructors and 815 students, besides 101 persons attending the college courses for teachers. Johnson, Alv IN J Ew ETT (1827–84), American publisher, was born in Wallingford, Vt. He

Johnson

received an ordinary education, and was engaged for some years in teaching school in Virginia. He removed to New York in 1853, where he became general agent for Colton's Atlas. He subsequently published Facts for Farmers; Analysis of the Bible; Johnson's Encyclopaedia, and other books which were successful. Johnson, ANDREw (1808–75), seventeenth President of the United States, was born in Raleigh, N. C., on Dec. 29, 1808. Owing to the poverty of his parents, he had no schooling. At the age of ten he was apprenticed to a tailor; and inspired, while still a boy, by some orations which he had heard read from The American Speaker, he learned to read and devoted his spare hours to study. About 1825 he became a journeyman tailor, and having married early, learned from his wife in the evenings to write and cipher. Johnson's political career began in 1828 with his election, by a workingmen's party, as alderman of Greenville, Tenn.; he was then mayor (1830–3), and was a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives (1835–39) and Senate (1841). From 1843 to 1853 he was a Democratic Representative in Congress, and from 1853 to 1857 governor of Tennessee. He then (1857) became a member of the U. S. Senate. Though a States' Rights Democrat in politics, he joined Brownlow and others in ardent support of the Union on the approach of the Civil War. From 1862 to 1864 he was the military governor of Tennessee, a position of extreme difficulty, the duties of which he discharged with such efficiency and courage that he attracted the attention of the whole North. In 1864, though still essentially a Democrat, he was nominated for the Vice-Presidency on the ticket with Lincoln by the Republicans, who wished thus to recognize the Unionist element in the South. Johnson's succession to the Presidency (1865), upon the assassination of President Lincoln, was regarded with considerable misgiving. Within two weeks of his inauguration the Civil War was virtually brought to a close by the surrender of the Confederate General Johnston (April 26, 1865). Upon the President, in conjunction with Congress, devolved the reconstruction of the Southern States. At first, Johnson's attitude toward the South and the late leaders of the Confederacy was intensely bitter —"traitors must be punished and Johnson

impoverished,” he said. Within less than two months, however, this attitude was completely changed, becoming one of tolerance, leniency, and conciliation. His policy was now substantially what Lincoln's had been, but he was without Lincoln's shrewdness and consummate tact. Moreover, he was a Southern Democrat among Northern Republicans, and inevitably came into conflict with Congress, which contended that reconstruction belonged properly to the legislative branch of the government. Bill after bill passed by Congress was vetoed by the President, often in messages of great power and of remarkable cogency of reasoning. These bills were usually passed over his veto. President Johnson further weakened his position both in Congress and in the country at large by a speechmaking tour (1866), during which he made bitter, indiscreet, and undignified speeches, attacking at times by name his political opponents. Eventually he wasimpeached, chiefly for having disregarded the Tenure of Office Act, (q.v.), passed primarily to compel his retention of Secretary of War Stanton in the Cabinet. After a sensational trial before the Senate he was acquitted (May 26, 1868), the vote of 35 to 19 for conviction failing by one of the requisite two-thirds. Among the events of President Johnson's administration were the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (1865); the passage of the Civil Rights Bill

(1866) (see Civil RIGHTS ACTs); .

the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment (1866–68); the admission of Nebraska into the Union (1867); the purchase of Alaska from Russia (1867); and the adoption in Congress of the Fifteenth Amendment (1869), proclaimed part of the Constitution in Grant's administration. After the expiration of his term of office, Johnson was defeated as a candidate in turn for U. S. Senator and for Representative in Congress, but was elected to the Senate in 1875. He died on July 31, 1875, before taking his seat. Though Johnson was opinionated, stubborn, and lacking in personal magnetism, he was a man of the strictest integrity, and of considerable ability, who sincerely and earnestly wished to subserve the best interests of his country. The position taken by him in his contest with Congress has been defended by leading scholars and authorities on the Constitution. Consult Ross' History of the

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson; Dunning's Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction; DeWitt's Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1903); Dunning's ‘More Light on Andrew Johnson' in American Historical Review, vol. ii. (1906); Hill's Decisive Battles of the Law (1907). Johnson, BRADLEY TYLER (1829–1903), American soldier and lawyer, was born in Frederick, Md. He was graduated at Princeton (1849); studied law at Harvard (1850–1), and became a prominent member of the Maryland bar. He supported the Breckinridge and Lane ticket in 1860; during the Civil War won distinction as a Confederate officer, rising from the rank of captain (1861) to that of brigadiergeneral (1864); and afterward practised law in Richmond, Va. (1865–79), and Baltimore, Md. (1879–90). Among his publications were a military biography of Gen. Washington, and a Life of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. Johnson, BUSHROD RUST (1817–80), American soldier, was born in Belmont county, O. He was graduated at West Point in 1840, and after having served in the Florida and Mexican wars resigned from the army (1847). When the Civil War broke out he entered the Confederate Army as brigadier-general, and advanced to the rank of major-general. He was taken prisoner at Fort Donelson, but escaped; he was badly wounded at the battle of Shiloh (April, 1862). As a major-general under Lee he had command of a division. At the close of the war he was appointed superintendent of the military department and chancellor of the University of Nashville. Johnson, CAVE (1793–1866), American legislator, was born in Robertson county, Tenn. He practised law at Clarksville, Tenn.; was a Representative in Congress (1829–37 and 1839–45); was Postmaster-General of the United States in the Cabinet of President Polk (1845–9), and was president of the State Bank of Tennessee (1850–9). During the Civil War he was a Unionist. Johnson, CHARLEs FLETCHER (1859), American legislator, was born in Winslow, Me. He was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1879. He studied law, was admitted to the bar (1886), and engaged in practice at Waterville. He has held public office as mayor of Waterville and member of the Maine House of Representatives, and was twice Democratic candidate for governor. He was elected U. S. Senator for the term 1911-17.

Johnson

Johnson, EASTMAN (1824– 1906). American painter, was born in Lovell, Me. He began work in black and white at an early age. After some experience as a portrait painter in Washington and Boston, he studied abroad at Düsseldorf, Rome, and The Hague (1849– 56). Returning, he achieved his first success with the Old Kentucky Home (1858). He became an academician in 1860, and lived in New York after 1858. His genre paintings of New England country life appealed to professionals and laymen alike, and his portraits of distinguished men in many cases became the standard likenesses of their subjects. Among his other paintings are, The Husking Bee (1876); Cranberry Harvest, Nantucket (1880); The Funding Bill (1881). Johnson, EMORY RICHARD (1864), American economist, was born in Waupun, Wis. He was graduated at the Universities of Wisconsin (1888) and of Pennsylvania (1893). From 1893 to 1896 he was instructor in economics at Haverford College; since 1896 he has been professor of transportation and commerce at the University of Pennsylvania. He was a member of the U. S. Isthmian Canal Commission (1899–1904); editor of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science since 1901. He is the author of Inland Waterways (1893); American Railway Transportation (1903); Ocean and Inland Water Transportation (1906); Elements of Transportation (1909); Railroad Traffic and Rates, with G. G. Huebner (2 vols., 1911); also numerous papers on economics and transportation. Johnson, FRANKLIN (1836), American theologian, was born in Frankfort, O. He was graduated from Colgate Theological Seminary in 1861, and studied in Germany. In 1862 he was ordained in the Baptist ministry, and subsequently held pastorates in Michigan, New Jersey, and Massachusetts. From 1890 to 1892 he was president of Ottawa University, and in the latter year became professor of church history and homiletics in the University of Chicago. Besides publishing expository notes on parts of the Bible, he has written New Psychic Studies in Their Relation to Christian Thought; The Christian's Relation to Evolution; The Quotations of the New Testament from the Old. Johnson, HERSCHEL VESPAsIAN (1812–80), American lawyer and legislator, was born in Burke county, Ga. He was graduated The death, following a surgical operation, of Governor John A. Johnson of Minnesota, on September 21, 1909, removes from American public life, one of its most interesting figures. The son of a poor Swedish immigrant who was never able to adjust himself to his new environment, he spent his early years struggling with poverty and hardships which would have broken the spirit of a rsonality less vigorous. His ormal schooling ended at the age of thirteen, though he never ceased to be a student both of books and of men. Two years later, the entire support of his mother and her four other children devolved upon him. For ten years he was a drug or a grocery clerk, and then for a short time paymaster of a railway construction o: #"o. man nature all the while. hen in 1886, with the encouragement of some friends, he purchased a half interest in the St. Peter Herald, his public career may be said to have begun. Though he had had absolutely no newspaper experience, he was a success and his editorials on local and state topics began to be quoted through: out the state. The greater part of his energy, however, was devoted to the routine work of his paper, on which he was news-gatherer, advertising solicitor, and collector, as well as a writer of editorials. His political convictions developed slowly. Beginning as a Republican, as would be expected from his Swedish ancestry, he was converted to Democracy by the tariff policy of Grover Cleveland, but he was never bitterly partisan. Even to the end of his life he was not given to abstract reasoning. The bearing of all questions upon everyday life was his chief concern. His motto apparently, was to do well the thing nearest his hand. In 1898 he was elected to the state Senate, though the district was normally Republican. In his i.P. he talked chiefly of local issues in which the farmers were immediately interested, and secured their votes. . In the legislature, he was a valuable though not an especially conspicuous member. As % member of the minority party his opportunities were somewhat o and he

TEMPORARY PAGES FOR NELSON'S L. L. ENCYCLOPAEDIA

Insert in Volume VII at page 9, after biography of JoHNSON, JOHN ALBERT

Governor John A. Johnson, of Minnesota.

was too little of a partisan to give himself up to obstructive tactics or to abuse of the majority. In 1902 he was defeated in a very close vote, so close that his election was at first conceded. This apparent disaster was however a blessing in disguise, as it made him #1. for the governorship two years later. he constitution of the state forbids a member of the legislature to hold any other office during, the term for which he was elected. In 1904, the Republican party was divided. Each element charged the other with extreme friendliness to corporations, and the element in control nominated for governor a man obnoxious to the other wing. The normal majority was so large, however, and the popularity of President Roosevelt so great, that no one dreamed of the possibility of defeat in a Presidential year. The Democratic party, hopin to take advantage of the factiona divisions on the other side, nominated Johnson, hoping to reduce the overwhelming majority against them, but not even the most sanguine expected success: Mr. Johnson at once entered into a vigorous campaign; speaking, in every section of the state, discussing chiefly state affairs. The fact that he was of Swedish descent drew some votes to him, the ill-advised Republican at: tempt to make political capital of his father's weakness and of his own early poverty proved a boomerang and brought him more supporters; but his own magnetic personality was most effective of all. Wherever he spoke crowds flocked to hear him, and were moved by his evident honesty, fairness, and kindliness. The election gave him a plurality of 7,800, though Roosevelt carried the state by the remarkable plurality of 161,000, and all the other Republican candidates on the state ticket were elected by large majorities. Minnesota had elected as governor a comparatively unknown man only fortythree years old, and the second Democratic governor within forty years. It was a personal, not a party triumph. Immediately he set himself to the task of giving Minnesota the

best administration in his power. Wor: old 3. were e . they were generally re-appointed. Gov. †.. it 3. i. refused to make the educational appointments a part of politics, and was always glad to get advice from one who knew more than he about ****

Thou the legislature was nominally hostile, his relations with it were pleasant and a surprisingly large number of his recommendations were adopted. Feeling that the tax laws were unjust, , he recommended the establishment of a Tax Commission, and the recommendation was adopted. His appointments were recognized as so admirable that they were unanimously confirmed by the Senate without reference to a committee, and the lower house passed a resolution of apprecia

On. Through the recommendations of commission taxation was equalized and the assessments of foreign corporations were greatly increased. For example, the valuation of the property of the United States Steel Corporation was increased from $32,000,000 to $190,000,000. The assessment of sleeping car companies was adjusted, to the advantage of the state, and a o: tax law was passed, though the suggestion of an inheritance tax failed to be approved. he exposures of abuses in the life insurance companies were filling the public mind with a distrust of all companies when Governor Johnson , was inaugurated. He

appointed as insurance com: missioner, a man of honesty and ability who soon reported that

there had been grave mismanagement of the affairs of a Minnesota company. Calling the officials of the o before him, he met their defiance by a demand for immediate , resignation, under penalty of having a receiver apointed. . The resignations were orthcoming, the company was reorganized, and some of the officials were successfully prosecuted. Probably before this time Gov. Johnson had given no particular attention to insurance. As a result of his study he suggested to President Roosevelt that a conference of governors and insurance comJohnson, John A.

missioners be called. This convention was held in , Chicago, Governor Johnson presided, an complete code of insurance law was recommended by , the body. This code was adopted almost in its entirety by Minnesota and to a greater or less extent by a number of other states. In 1906, he was a candidate for re-election. and made his campaign on the issue that “one good term deserves another.” he Republicans put up one of their strongest men against him and were hopeful of success. Again the governor went through the state explaining his record and telling of his plans for his next term. This time there was no Hool election to draw party ines close and he was elected by Polio of 72,000, though again ls the other Republican candiates were elected by large majorities. ailroad legislation , was the chief interest during the second term. On this Governor Johnson took advanced ground. He felt that the railroads had been greatly aided by the Government and that their policy toward the state was unjust. §, the maximum freight rate and the two cent a mile Ho! er, rate bill were passed. hese had been demanded by the §.". in the campaign and had een adopted by the Republican party. . In order to escape litigation, the penalties for failure to observe the law were made especially heavy and extended to minor employees of the road. Suits were, however, brought to test the legality of the acts and in March, 1908, they were declared unconstitutional, by the Supreme Court of the United States on the ground that they were confiscatory and that the penalties for failure to obey were too o Other important legislation included the abolition of railway es, a free state employment ureau, and a plan for #. drainage of swamp sands. A law permitting municipal ownership of public utilities was also passed: On this subject of municipal ownership and operation, , the governor was conservative, however, preferring to attempt to control by regulation and ko the idea of public operation as a check to insure good behavior. The manner in which the disturbance at the Mesaba Mines was handled shows the unique power of the man. The strike broke out in July, 1907, when 16,000 men quit work, and 30,000 more on

[ocr errors]

the railroads and the lake vessels were thrown out of employment. Violence was feared as the strikers were restless and both the operators and the mayors of various towns began to telegraph for troops. overnor o nson first went upon a tour of inspection. Without escort he went from town to town talking with strikers, operators, officers of the law and citizens enerally. At Hibbing he had a ong talk with the leader of the strike and got his point of view. He encountered a strikers' parade in one town and was warned that the men would resort to violence if opposed in * way., Calling a meeting at the little town of Eveleth he addressed it, saying among other things: “I do not see any occasion for the State to interfere at this time, and hope there will not be any. The men have a right to quit work, They have a right to organize and to persuade others to quit, work: But if a man wants to work, an he and his employer agree that he shall work, no one has any right to jF him. If necessary, the State will protect him in this right. I hope you will all keep cool, however, and, regardless of your politi; cal beliefs, will respect the law and the o: as they exist.” . The speech was effective. There was no violence and the dispute was soon adjusted. After his second election as governor, his success began to make him a national figure, though his views upon national questions except upon the tariff were to a large extent unknown. His interests were so centered on what appeared to him the more immediate affairs of his state that he did not seek wider prominence. He did not avoid expressing himself, however, and strongly announced himself as in favor of a revision of the tariff, to which he attributed the principal evils of , trusts, and monopolies. He objected also to the constant encroachment of the national government upon the province of , the states. In his view. Federal regulation was not justified except in interstate relations and then only when the states concerned could not agree. On this issue he was outspoken and inclined to emphasize its importance. Before the Democratic National Convention of 1908, many were disposed to look upon Governor Johnson as a man upon whom all the elements might rally. He seemed little concerned, however, and only announced a few weeks

Johnson, John A.

before the convention that he would accept the nomination for President if tendered him. By that time, however, uncertainty and apathy had given a majorit of the delegates to William Bryan. Though his name was presented to the convention he received only forty-six votes, though it was freely predicted that in 1912 he would receive the nomination.

o he had emphatically declared that he would not again be a candidate for governor, the state convention of his party refused to regard the refusal as final. He was unanimously renominated and when confronted with this evidence of trust and loyalty of his fellows yielded and accepted. It is now known that he was then a sick man, and though he spoke less than in the two preceding campaigns, the strain was detrimental to his physical welfare. The result was again a personal triumph. Though Taft carried the state by a plurality of 85,000, Governor Johnson was again elected by a. o 28,000, in spite of the fact that his opponent was also of Scandinavian o The voters rebuked the idea that they preferred him only for racial reasons, and showed that they voted not for Johnson, the Swede, but for Johnson, the man.

In the summer of 1909 it became known that Governor Johnson was far from well. He was removed to ... the hospital at Rochester, Minnesota, where a delicate and o operation was performed, but his system, weakened perhaps by his early hardships, and his unceasing labor to make up his lack of early training, could not rally from the shock.

Governor Johnson represented the best type of the American selfmade man, recalling the days of łoś. or Lincoln. Without in

uential family connections, and

almost without formal education, be became a prominent figure in state and nation. . . His winning personality, his evident sincerity and his forceful oratory gave him unusual power over an audience. His speech at the Commencement of the University of Pennsylvania in 1907, when he received the degree of LL.D., and a few magazine articles showed also considerable ability as a writer of clear, vigorous prose. In his own words, he “always tried to make good,” and he succeeded. Finally unlike so many self-made men he was willing to learn, and , remained simple and modest to the end.

« السابقةمتابعة »