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Bcar also a feeler upon each mandible; but their
eyes are immoveable; the head is distinct from the Body surrounded by jointed rings which answer ti:e purpose of a bony skeleton. Brain is placed lar, and are seated at the inner base of the feet,
trunk and of one piece; the branchiæ are vesicuupon the cesophagus, and furnishes those parts with the exception of the first pair. with nerves which adhere to the head. The two
Gammari. chords which embrace the æsophagus are continued
ORDER IV.-ISOPODA. along the belly, and unite from time to time into double knots or ganglia, whence the nerves are Mandibles without feelers, and the mouth alsent to different parts of the body. Each ganglion ways composed of several maxillæ, of which the seems to perform the function of the brain for the lower imitate a lip with two feelers. The branchiæ surrounding parts.
are commonly seated under the abdomen; all the Class I.- ANNELIDA.
feet are proper for locomotion or pretension.
Onisci. Body soft, more or less elongated, divided into a
ORDER V.-BRANCHIOPODA. very considerable number of segments.
Mandibles without feelers; the mouth is someORDER I.-TUBICOLA.
times in the form of a beak, sometimes of scGen. 1. Serpula.
veral maxillæ; but the two lower ones have the Gen. 2. Sabella.
appearance of a lip with two palpi; feet in form Gen. 3. Terebella.
of fins; the branchiæ are attached to a part beGen. 4. Amphitrite, &c.
tween them; the body is generally covered with a ORDER II.-BRANCHII SUPER DORSO.
shell with which the head is confounded.
Monoculi. Their organs, and particularly their branchiæ, are distributed nearly equally along the body, or at
Class III.-ARACHNIDA. least in the medial line.
Head destitute of antennæ ; the external orifices Group Nereides, including two or three genera. placed under the belly, or the posterior extremity
of the breast, lead in some genera to sacs which Gen, 1. Spio. Gen. 2. Aphrodita.
occupy the place of lungs; in other gencra there
exist true tracheæ, which are distributed to every Gen. 3. Amphinoma.
part of the body. Gen. 4. Arenicola.
Furnished with pulmonary sacs, and six or eight Without any apparent organ of respiration, and
eyes; they have a pair of mandibles, two maxillæ, they appear to respire by the surface of the skin.
two feelers, and one lip. Family 1. Setis INSPEUCTA.
Family 1. ARANEE. Gen. 1. Lumbricus.
Family 2. PEDIPALPA.
Organ of respiration ranged and ramified; eyes Gen. 2. Gordius.
from two to four. Class 11.-CRUSTACEA.
Family 1. SCORPIONES Falsi. The situation and form of their branchiæ, the
Chelifer. manner in which the head is pointed to the trunk, and the organs of mastication, will furnish founda
Family 2. PYCNOGONIDA. tions upon which we may erect the following
Trunk composed of four segments; truncated orders:
at each extremity by a tubular joint.
Family 3. PHALANGITA, PHALANGIUM, TIRO, Bear a feeler upon each mandible; have the
ACAREUS, &c. &c. eyes moveable and the head confounded with the trunk; the branchiæ pyramidal ; the leaflets or
ORDER I.-MYRIAPODA. Julus. plumose lacinia seated at the outer base of the nippers, and the feet properly so called, and are
Order II.—THYSANURA. Lepismæ. concealed under the edges of the shell : of the first
ORDER III.--PARASITA. Pediculus. family of this order the genus cancer may stand as
ORDER IV.-SUCTORIA. Pulex.
ORDER V.-COLEOPTERA. a sample.
ORDER VIII.-NEUROPTERA. eyes also moveable; but the head is distinct from
ORDER IX.-HYMENOPTERA. the trunk, and is divided into two parts, of
ORDER X.-LEPIDOPTERA: which the outer bears the antennæ and the eyes ;
ORDER XI.-RHIPIPTERA. the branchiæ, in form of pannicles or bundles, are
ORDER XII.-DIPTERA. suspended under the tail, which is very large, be As the subjects pertaining to this class have been hind each pair of finned feet with which it is fur- treated at considerable length, in the article Entonished underneath.
MOLOGY, the ingenuity of the reader it is trusted Squillæ.
by drawing supplies of matter thence will com
pensate our brevity, and will spare us a particular cross upon it, without any aperture for the interdiscussion of the elements which compose this mission of nutriment; but it will be expedient subdivision of the animal kingdom.
after the example of Cuvier to add the two follow
ing classes, which will render the enumeration comPART IV.
ORDER 1.-POLYPI NUDI.
ORDER II.-Polypi Pedatæ.
Flustrum. Class II.- ENTOZOA OR INTESTINALIA.
We have thus given a cursory outline of the lead-
ing divisions and sub-divisions of the animal kingActinia.
dom, unfolded the general principles of classification, ORDER II.-LIBERÆ.
and would gladly have dealt out our illustration with Medusa of Linné.
a more liberal hand had not our limits withheld us; Beroe.
but it is hoped that :he student of this department Porpita.
of science will, from a perusal of this article, deEudora.
rive some important hints towards the method of In conformity to our promise of regarding the integrating the gleanings of his daily experience, complexity of form as it graduated downwards, we and of acquiring the habit of generalising froin the might stop here, since the eudora present nothing principles or facts of natural history which jointly to our sight but the similitude of a crown with a constitute the logic of zoology.
ZOONIC Acid. • Berthollet,' says Dr. Thom- zoonic acid seems to be destroyed by the action of son, has obtained a peculiar acid by distilling heat during the distillation of the zoonate of lime animal and vegetable substances, to which he has with phosphoric acid ; for the liquor, which is in given the name of zoonic acid.-Ann. de Chim. ebullition, becomes brown, and grows black at the xxvi. 86. He procured it by distilling the gluten end of the operation. Hence Berthollet concludes of wheat, the yeast of beer, bones, and woollen rags; that the zoonic acid becomes carbon. The zoonate and concludes, therefore, that it may be produced of silver, when kept, becomes gradually brown: by the distillation of all animal substances. To hence he concludes that the acid contains hydroobtain this acid pure, he mixed lime with the dis. gen. Nothing more is at present known concerning tilled liquid, after having separated the oil, which this acid. Trommsdorf supposes it the same with it always contains (for the product of the distilla the sebacic acid; but this has not been proved, nor tion of animal substances is chiefly oil and carbo even rendered probable."-Syst. of Chem. Fol. ii
. nate of ammonia). He boiled this mixture till the p. 162, 163. Thenard indeed has demonstrated carbonate of ammonia was exhaled : he then filtered that this supposed new acid of Berthollet's is only a it, added a little more lime, and boiled it again till combination of acetic acid with animal matter. the smell had gone off entirely. The liquor, which ZOONOMIA (from Swov, an animal, and voues, now contained only zoonite of lime, he filtered a law; q. d. the laws of animated nature), the title again, and then added a little water, impregnated of an ingenious and admired work of leaming and with carbonic acid, in order to precipitate any lime fancy, by Dr. Darwin. which might happen to be dissolved in the liquid ZOOPHYTE, in natural history. See ZOOLOGY. without being combined with the zoonic acid. After ZOOTOMY, of (wov, animal, and reuve, I cut, concentrating the zoonate of lime, he mixed it with the art or act of dissecting animals, or living creaphosphoric acid, and distilled it in a retort. At a tures. It is therefore the same with anatomy, or heat nearly equal to that of boiling water, the zoo rather comparative anatomy. See AxaTONY. nic acid passes over in a state of purity. The zoonic ZOPARITUS, in ancient geography, a town of acid has an odor like that of meat when frying, and Asia, in Melitene, on this side of the Euphrates.it is actually formed during that process. It has an Ptolemy. austere taste. It gives a red color to paper tinged ZOPH, a town of Syria, twenty-five miles S.S.E. with turnsol. With alkalies and earths it produces of Jerusalem : also a district on the north part of salts which do not appear capable of crystallising. the government of Diarbekir. It forms a white precipitate in the solutions of ace ZOPHAR, the Naamathite, one of Job's three tite of lead and nitrate of mercury. Part of the uncharitable friends. See Elihu, and Job.