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fore humbly ask, whether, instead of dispatching malefactors as usual, the end of punishment might not be better answered by making them living, Banding, visible examples, as the wisdom of the legilos lature shall judge proper? Not putting them out of fight by sending them abroad, or hiding them in gaols or Bridewells at home; but exposing them to public view, conhning them to hard labour, in mending the roads, clearing wood, heath, or furze-lands for till. age, making navigable canals, &c. &c. all under such inspection and management, as on due confideration hall be judged requisite and necessary. And whereas the difficulty of keeping them to their work, and preventing their doing further mischief may be objected :fuppose a finger were cut off, not only as a part of their punishment, but a mark to facilitate their discovery in case of desertion.-Suppose too they were informed, that they are on their good behaviour ; that if they conduct themselves as they ought--are quiet, obedient, diligent ;-they may expect favour, and in time their liberty may be granted them. And may not the hope of this have a happy influence, and make some good impression upon them? or their prefent disagreeable situation dispose them to bethink themselves, and make penitent reflections on their past conduct?
One part of the pamphlet speaks of a certain writer who tells us, o that he was much affected with the execution of a youth of fifteen years of age, for robbery, which, he says, is an age that our laws do not consider as of maturity in acting in other affairs for ourselves; he thinks such an offender might have reformed in the plantations so as to have become a useful member of society, and therefore withes, that at such an age, they were considered accordingly,- and indeed the Church of England seems in general not to think persons arrived to years of discretion 'till they are of the age of fixteen years.'
There must doubtless have been some very extraordinary circumsances attending the case, which occasioned the passing and executing so severe a sentence at that tender age ; yet it may be questioned whether transportation at that time of life is likely to reform the criminal, or whether, considering with what associates they are to be united, there is not great danger of their being rendered utterly hardened and abandoned.
The reflections here offered are not indeed new, but they are important; the arguments are collected into one view, and they sufficiently thew that it is greatly desirable that the point should be maturely considered by those who have it in their power to effect fome alteration in the present method. If the writer's style and manner are not always the most accurate and judicious, every one must be pleased with the apparent goodness of his heart, and the benevolence of his present design. Must not all sober persons assent to such observations as the following ? ' It were highly to be wished that legislative power would direct the law rather to reformation than severity: that it would appear convinced that the work of eradicating crimes is not by making punishments familiar, but formidable, Initead of our present prisons which find or make men guilty, which inclose wretches for the commission of one crime, and return them, if returned alive, fitted for the perpetration of thousands; it were to be wished we had, as in other parts of Europe, places of penitence
and solitude, where the accused might be attended by such as could give them repentance if guilty, or new motives to virtue if innocent. And this, not the increafing punishments, is the way to mend a itate : nor can. I avoid even questioning the validity of that right which focial combinations have assumed of capitally punishing offences of a flight nature. Whether is it from the number of our penal laws, or the licentiousness of our people, that this country İhould shew more convicts in a year, than half the dominions in ExTope united ? Perhaps it is owing to both; for they mutually produce each other. When by indiscriminate penal laws a nation beholds the same punishment afixed to diflimilar degrees of guilt, from perceiving no distinction in the penalty, the people are led to lofe all sense of distinction in the crime, and this distinction is the bulwark of all morality :-it were to be wished then that power, instead of contriving new laws to punish vice,-instead of cutting away wretches as useless, before we have tried their utility, initead of converting correction into vengeance,-would try the retrictive arts of government, and make law the protector, but not the tyrant of the people. We should then find that creatures, whose souls are held as dross, only wanted the hand of a refiner; we should then find that wretches now stuck up for long tortures, lett luxury Mould feel a momentary pang, might, if properly treated, serve to finew the itate in times of danger; that, as their faces are like ours, their hearts are so too; that few minds are so base as that perseverance cannot amend ; that a man may see his last crime without dying for it; and that very little blood will serve to cement our security.”
Should it be thought that these sentiments are in any particular extended rather too far, it must also be allowed that they contain much truth, humanity, and equity.
Hi. Art. 37. The Key to Absurdities ; containing the Author's prie
vate Thoughts of some late Proceedings. 8vo. ! s. Davenhill.
The Author profeffes himself to be a small freeholder of Effex, and his profession is probably true. He appears to be a plain, anlettered man, of a good natural understanding, of a laudable public fpirit, and, in political matters, zealous, for government, in opposition to the adherents of Mr. Wilkes, the Gentlemen who ftyle themselves Supporters of the Bill of Rights, and all the outs in general, whom he confiders as a set of wicked factious people, who have onl, their own private intereits and party-ends in view. The avowed prin. ciples of these fons of jedition, as he deems them, and the arguments that have been brought in support of their proceedings, are what he means by absurdities ; and his own ítrictures upon those principles and arguments are the Key which is to unlock or lay open the said absurdities, and expose them to public view, contempt, and abhorrence. He talks like an honelt man, though his language is not elegant, nor always grammatical; nor is there any thing nuw in his remarks.- Ac the end of his pamphlet we find an account of the opposition that has been made by the wicked spirit of party, to a very good scheme, as he fates it, for rebuilding the jail at Chelmsford, on a more convenient and more wholesome spot of ground than that on which the present old building stands. If the case be really as he represents it, and we see no realon to question the vera
city of his report, the Efexians who opposed, and frustrated, fa
especially to Members of Parliament, and the Inhabitants of the
Although this schemer is a very bad writer, he appears to be a sensible observer of what passes in the world, and to have thrown out fome hints that might be highly useful to the public, if duly attended to, and improved upon. His schemes are I. For removing the public executions of criminals for the county of Middlesex, from Tyburn; and for several useful regulations of the same. II. A general act of parliament for making openings, and rendering more commodious the different streets, lanes, alleys, &c. in London, Westminster, and Southwark, &c. to save the expence of so many Separcle acts, for every trivial improvement. III. An act for regulating and prescribing the rates of land-carriage, and porterage of goods from the Inns; and for preventing provisions, game, and other commodities from being spoiled or loft, for want of being speedily and duly delivered. The Author says, he is informed that not less than 20 tons of provisions are annually spoiled at the different inns in this metropolis. IV. A new road from the bridge, near Clapton, to the Oxford road, between Shepherd's Bush and Acton. V. A new regulation of militia, chiefly with a view to the security of London, in case of an invasion. VI. An enlargement of Billingsgate fish-market: this seems a very proper scheme, and the execution of it may be highly expedient. VII. The removal of Smithfield market out of the city : equally necessary. VIII. A new regulation of St. James's Haymarket. IX. Improvements relating to St. James's Park, with a plan for opening certain communications through it, to accommodate the inhabitants of the environs of the Park. X A new regulation of the nightly watch, in the capital; in order to lessen the frequency of house-breaking and street-robberies. XI. A scheme for putting a stop to the transportation of convicts, and for 'employing them on the public roads of this kingdom. Ari. 39. A Collection of the Protesis of the Lords of Ireland, from 1634 to 1770.
8vo. 2 s. 6 d. sewed. Almon. 1771.
In a Letter to the Right Honourable Lord Anson. By a Sea
The proposals in this letter are highly chimerical and romantic. It is, surely, very necessary, that those, who enter into the navy, should be properly instructed in every branch of knowledge, which has a reference to the marine. But, for this purpote, we must not
# In 2 voluines 8vo. 12 S.
erect universities on board our fhips of war. The speculations of philosophy do not suit with the din of arms; and lectures on astronomy and optics will not support our naval superiority.” St. Art. 41. The Squire and the Parson, with the Interlude of the Poulterer.
wherein the utmost Power of Nature, Reason, Virtue, and the
Philanthropos says, he was once a ftrenuous advocate for the dignity, and purity of human nature, and expected to obtain the Divine Favour, by a conformity to the rules of natural religion ; but being brought under fome long and very severe exercises of the mind, and being in a wonderful, and gracious manner brought to the knowledge of Christ, and the joys of his salvation; he thinks it his duty to give some account of these things, and to bear his testimony to the glorious truths of that Gospel, which once was his aversion; but now the delight and joy of his soul. As he delights in postical productions, he hath attempted the subject in rhime: and being advised to publish it by some persons of knowledge and experience in the ways of God; he sends it into the world, not wholly without hopes, that it may be made useful to persons of similar experiences with his own : and be a means of administering comfort to the dejected soul.'
The foregoing passage may serve to give an idea of the Author's principles; those that follow may be taken as specimens of his poetry. Speaking of the Redeemer, he styles 'him
With wrath he drives them, or with love he draws,
• To laugh, were want of goodness and of grace;
But to be grave, exceeds all power of face."
Whitefield. 4to. 6. Miller,
And grief fincere instructs the shell
With misery is in unison.
I love thee, maid of folemn eye ;
Thy cheek with briny sorrows worn,
To me is amiably forlorn,
Though there no tints of purple lie. There is a singular elegance and happiness in the amiably forlorn ; but then the following itanza has more faults, than the preceding one has beauties :
Thy leaden lid, thy sober brow,
Thy trefies darkly brown,
Thy ivory neck adown.
Thee in the silent tomb impal'd. The word impaľd is here wrested from its common sense and ac-. ceptation ; nor will every reader easily discover what the Author means by it. He describes the archangel's trumpet in a manner which cannot perhaps be exceeded, when he says
the clangors loud and long Mock the soft thunder's puny tongue.
L. Art. 44. An Elegiac Poem on the Death of the Rev. Mr. George
Whitefield. 4to. 6 d. Wills. The Author of this poem professes that he does not care a pin for the Reviewers; and the Reviewers, for their part, are under no little concern that they do not stand in a more respectable light with so