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Lafayette, (1757-1834,) one of the most conspicuous characters in France during the Revolution. He went, in 1777, to take part in the war of independence in America. He there raised and equipped a body of men at his own expense; fought as a volunteer at the battle of Brandy wine, in 1777; at that of Monmouth, in 1778, and received the thanks of Congress. He then proceeded to France, in order to obtain reinforcements; returned with the armaments under General Rochambeau, and commanded Washington's vanguard at the time of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, in 1782. The capitulation of Yorktown followed, and, on the peace with the mother country, the general returned to France. He was elected a member of the assembly of the notables, in 1787, and, on the breaking out of the Revolution, he took part with the friends of liberty, though with wise moderation. In 1792 he was obliged to escape from France, but fell into the hands of the Austrians, who imprisoned him at Olmlitz. There he remained five years. His noble wife wrote to Washington in his behalf, which proving in vain, she joined her husband in his prison in 1795, and there remained with him till after Bonaparte's first campaign in Italy, when, on the special demand of the latter, Lafayette was set at liberty, in 1797. Lafayette, however, was consistent: he voted against the "consulate for life," and withdrew from public affairs. But, after the battle of Waterloo, he reappeared, to protest against a dictatorship; and, having subsequently protested against the dissolution of the legislative body by Prussian bayonets, again withdrew to his estates, till he was returned, in 1818, deputy. On all occasions, in the chamber of deputies, and elsewhere, he proved himself the friend of real liberty. In 1821 he made a visit to America, and was received with distinction and popular enthusiasm, as joint founder of American independence with Washington and Franklin. The unconstitutional ordinances of Charles X., in June, 1830, which caused his own expulsion, brought Lafayette on the stage again, in the character in which he commenced his career, that of commander-in-chief of the national guard, and the advocate and supporter of a citizen king. He soon after resigned the command; and, having seen Louis Philippe recognized as king of the French, he once more retired to the tranquil scenes of domestic life. Died, 1834.
La Hogue, Battle of, (1692 A. D.) After William of Orange had been placed on the throne of England, (1689,) he yet found himself exposed to
the treachery of the men from whom he might reasonably have expected support. Among those who were ready to betray the cause of the prince whom they had recently placed on the throne, and to enter into correspondence with the exiled monarch, were Lords Halifax, Godolphin, Shrewsbury, and Marlborough. Information secretly sent by the latter to the court of France led to the failure of an attempt, made on the part of the English, in 1694, to destroy the arsenal at Brest. The cause of the adherents of James was, at the same time, strengthened by the occurrence of the massacre of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, in virtue of a warrant signed by William, to gratify the private revenge of a Scotch nobleman, Lord Breadalbane. A plan for a rising by the Jacobites, in concert with a French fleet, was arranged. The attempt to re-establish James on the throne of England might have succeeded, had it not been for the victory of La Hogue, where the French fleet was defeated by Admiral Russell.
Latin War. See Appendix, page 185.
Law, John, (1681-1729,) a celebrated financial projector. He was bred to no profession, but studied mathematics, and particularly excelled as an accountant. For the purpose of remedying the deficiency of a circulating medium, he projected the establishmenTof a bank, with paper issues, to the amount of the value of all the lands in the kingdom; but this scheme was rejected. Being obliged to leave England, he went to France, where he secured the patronage of the regent duke of Orleans, and established his bank at Paris. To this was joined the Company of the Mississippi, a pretended scheme for paying off the national debt, and for enriching the subscribers. The project became extravagantly popular, and every one converted his gold and silver into paper. In 1720, Law was made comptroller of the finances. The bubble, however, burst; the people, enraged, besieged the palace of the regent, and Law was exiled to Pontoise, whence he escaped to Italy, and died at Venice, in 1729.
Laws of the Twelve Tables. See Appendix, page 181.
League of Augsburg. Sec Augsburg.
Leo I., surnamed the Great, Pope. Leo, like most of his great predecessors and successors, was a Roman. He was early devoted to the service of the Church. At the decease of Pope Sixtus, Leo was absent on a civil mission, to reconcile the two rival generals, Aetius and Albinus, whose fatal quarrel hazarded the dominion of Rome in Gaul. There was no delay; all Rome, clergy, senate, people, by acclamation, raised the absent Leo to the vacant see. With the self-confidence of a commanding mind, he assumed the office in the pious assurance that God would give him strength to fulfil the arduous duties so imposed. Leo was a Roman in sentiment as in birth. All that survived of Rome, of her inflexible perseverance, her haughtiness of language, and in her indefeasible title to universal dominion, might seem concentred in him alone. The union of the churchman and the Roman is singularly displayed in his sermons. They are brief, simple, severe ; without fancy, without metaphysic subtlety, without passion; it is the Roman censor animadverting with nervous majesty on the vices of the people; the Roman praetor dictating the law and delivering with authority the doctrine of the faith. They are singularly Christian —Christian as dwelling almost exclusively on Christ, his birth, his passion, his resurrection. Leo condemns the whole race of heretics, from Arius down to Eutyches; but the more immediate, more dangerous, more hateful adversaries of the Roman faith were the Manicheans. That sect was constantly springing up in all quarters of Christendom with a singularly obstinate vitality. Leo wrote to the bishops of Italy, exhorting them to search out these pestilent enemies of Christian faith and virtue. The emperor Valentinian III., by the advice of Leo, issued an edict by which the Manicheans were to be banished from the whole world. They were to be liable to all the penalties of sacrilege. The cause of the severity of the law was their flagrant and disgraceful immorality. When Attila invaded Italy, Leo was sent by the Emperor Valentinian to dissuade him from his threatened march on Rome, and Rome was saved. Leo afterward saved the city from being burned by Genseric. Leo is the first Pope of whom we possess any written works. Died, 4G1.
Leonard da Vinci. See Vinci.
Leasing, Gotthold Ephraim, (1729-1781,) a distinguished German critic, dramatist, and miscellaneous writer. Lessing's great aim was to infuse new spirit into the literature of his country, and to refine and polish its style, and he succeeded. His writings are among the classics of German literature, and are especially distinguished for masterly criticism, forcible
reasoning, and clear, nervous style. "He thinks," says Carlyle, "with the clearness and piercing sharpness of the most expert logician; but a genial fire pervades him, a wit, a heartiness, a general richness and fineness of nature, to which most logicians are strangers." Among his dramatic works are " Miss Sara Samson," "Minna von Barnholm," "Emilia Galotti," and "Nathan the Wise." Coleridge was a diligent student of Lessing's works, and some passages in the " Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit " were made the ground of a charge of plagiarism from Lessing.
Leyden, Siege of, (1574 A. D.,) one of the most important cities of the Netherlands, 22 miles southwest of Amsterdam, and 17 miles north of Rotterdam, on the Old Rhine, six miles from its mouth in the North Sea. The most memorable event in the history of Leyden is the siege it sustained from the Spaniards in 1573-4. By the resolution and heroic example of Pieter Adriaan-zoon Van der Werff, the burgomaster, the inhabitants were enabled to stand out nearly four months. For seven weeks there was no bread within the walls, and when hunger became no longer bearable, and the people, dying in hundreds, implored the burgomaster to surrender the town, he offered his body to appease their appetite, and thus the most clamorous were abashed. To relieve the town, the prince of Orange at last broke down the dikes, and, a favoring wind accompanying, the waters came over the lands so rapidly that above 1,000 of the besiegers were drowned. The same wind wafted a fleet of 200 boats from Rotterdam to the gates of Leyden, and relieved the place. A3 a manifestation of the gratitude entertained by the people of Holland and Zealand for the heroism of the citizens, it was resolved that a university should be established within their walls. The university of Leyden, afterward so illustrious, was thus founded in the very darkest period of the country's struggles.
Livius, Titus, (Livy,) ( B. C. 59-17,) the celebrated Roman historian, was born in the territory of Padua. He went early to Rome, and there chiefly resided, enjoying the patronage of the emperor Augustus and the friendship of many distinguished men. His reputation was widely spread during his lifetime, and one curious Spaniard was attracted to Rome merely to look at Livy and return. His reputation is built upon his History of Rome from the foundation of the city to the death of Drusus, in 142 books, of which only 35 have been preserved. The rest are partly known to us by means of some extant epitomes. While Livy charms us by his clear, flowing, and beautiful style, and while we feel that we possess in his annals one of the most valuable relics of ancient literature, modern critical inquiry has made it impossible that we should accept his account of things as true and trustworthy. His patriotic partisanship, his ignorance of practical life, his want of acquaintance with original authorities, and his uncritical habit of mind, are very serious drawbacks from his character as historian. An English translation of Livy is included in Bohn's Classical Library.
Locke, John, (1632-1704,) one of the most eminent philosophers of modern times. He was educated at Westminster School, and Christ-church College, Oxford, where he distinguished himself by his general proficiency; and finally applied himself to the study of medicine. When, in 1762, Lord Shaftesbury was appointed lord chancellor, he made Locke secretary of presentations, and, at a later period, secretary to the Board of Trade. On his patron retiring to Holland, Locke accompanied him, and remained there several years. So obnoxious was he to James II., that the English envoy demanded Mr. Locke of the States, on suspicion of his being concerned in Monmouth's rebellion, which necessitated his temporary concealment. As philosopher, Locke stands at the head of what is called the sensational school, in England. His great work is the "Essay on the Human Understanding," in which he endeavors to show that all our ideas are derived from experience, that is, through the senses, and reflection on what they reveal to us. He also investigates the general character of ideas, the association of ideas, the reality, limits, and uses of knowledge, the influence of language, and the abuses to which it is liable. This Essay wits first published in 1690, and became immediately popular. It passed through numerous editions in rapid succession, and was translated into French and Latin. Whatever may be thought of Locke's theories, his Essay has a solid and permanent worth, and will not cease to attract and charm inquirers and lovers of truth. His other works are the " Treatise on Civil Government," "Letters on Toleration," "On the Conduct of the Understanding," "Vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity." His Life, by Lord King, was published in 1829.
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, (1807-.) At the age of 14 he entered Bowdoin College, where he took his degree with high honors in 1825, and
was for a few months a law student in the office of his father. Having been offered a professorship of modern languages in Bowdoin College, with the view of qualifying himself for the post he spent three years and a half in travelling. Returning to the United States in 1829, he entered upon the duties of his office. On the resignation of the late Mr. G. Ticknor, in 1835, of his professorship of modern languages and of the belleslettres in Harvard College, Longfellow was appointed to the vacancy. He gave up his chair at Bowdoin College, and again went abroad in order to become more thoroughly acquainted with the languages and literature of Northern Europe, and having travelled more than 12 months in Scandinavia, Germany, and Switzerland, returned in the autumn of 1836, to enter upon his duties at Cambridge. In 1854 he resigned, and has lived since in retirement at Cambridge. While an undergraduate, he wrote many tasteful and carefully finished poems for the United States Literary Gazette, and while professor at Bowdoin College, contributed some valuable criticisms to the North American Review. His principal works are "Outre Mer," "Hyperion," "The Poets and Poetry of Europe," "Evangeline," "Kavanagh," "The Song of Hiawatha," "Miles Standish," and his translation of Dante in 1867. No American poet is so popular and well known in Europe.
Longinus, a celebrated Greek critic and philosopher of the 3d century. In his youth he travelled for improvement to Rome, Athens, and Alexandria, and attended all the eminent masters in eloquence and philosophy. At length he settled at Athens, where he taught philosophy, and where he also published his "Treatiseon the Sublime." His knowledge was so extensive that he was called " the living library; " and his fame having reached the ears of Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, she invited him to her court, intrusted to him the education of her two sons, and took his advice on political affairs. But this distinction proved fatal to him; for, after the surrender of Palmyra, Aurelian put him to death for having advised Zenobia to resist the Romans, and as author of the spirited letter which the queen addressed to the emperor. His death took place in 273 A. D. He met his fate with calmness and fortitude, saying to his friends, " The world is but a primn; happy therefore is he who yets soonest out of it, and gains his liberty."
Lopez de Vega. See Vega.
Lorraine becomes French, (1738 A. D.) Stanislaus Leczinski was elected king of Poland, on the designation of Charles XII. of Sweden, in July 1704; his predecessor, Frederick Augustus, having been deposed. After the defeat of Charles VII. by the Russians at Pultowa, in 1709, Stanislaus lost his throne, and Augustus was restored. He was again elected king of Poland, in 1733, through the influence of Louis XV. of France, who had married his daughter Maria; but he was compelled to retire, and after most romantic adventures reached France in June, 1736. In 1738 he was made duke of Lorraine for life. He was able to be a real benefactor to his country, owing to the wholly new position toward France that had been given to it. From a continually suspected and continually oppressed neighbor, Lorraine became the protege of France, while waiting till it should become wholly French. As early as 1738, a royal declaration admitted the people of Lorraine to all the advantages of native-born Frenchmen; the union was already morally consummated. The final union happened in 1766.
Louis I., (778-840,) King of France and Emperor, was the son of Charlemagne. Named king of Aquitaine at his birth, associated in the empire in 813, he succeeded his father in 814, and was crowned with his queen Hermengerda, by Pope Stephen IV., at Rheims, in 816. He soon after associated his son Lothaire with him in the empire, and at the same time made partition of his dominions between his sons Lothaire, Pepin, and Louis; naming the first king of Italy, the second king of Aquitaine, and the third king of Bavaria. Bernard, king of Italy, revolted on this occasion, but was defeated and captured, and by order of Louis had his eyes put out. He died a few days later, and Louis was compelled to do public penance for his crime. About the same time he married, for his second wife, Judith, daughter of Welf, count of Bavaria; and having assigned a part of his dominions to Charles, his son by Judith, his other sons rebelled. He was twice deposed and reinstated on the throne; Judith was confined in a monastery at Poitiers; in 838, France was invaded by the Northmen and the Saracens; a fresh revolt of Louis of Bavaria broke out in 839; and the king, worn out with vexation, died on an island of the Rhine, below Mentz, June 20th, 840.
Louis VII., (1120-1180,) King of France. He succeeded his father in 1137, having the same year married Eleanor, heiress of Aquitaine. A quarrel
with Pope Innocent II., in 1142, brought an interdict on his kingdom, and led to a war with Thibaut, count of Champagne. Louis took and pillaged Vitrl, and burnt a church in which 1,300 persons had taken refuge; for which sacrilege he resolved, by the advice of St. Bernard, but against the counsel of his able minister, the abbot Suger, to go to the Holy Land. He received the cross at the hands of St. Bernard in 1146, and the next year set out at the head of a large host, his queen accompanying him. Well received by Manuel, emperor of the East, he lost a large part of his forces before he reached Antioch, in March, 1148. He joined the emperor Conrad at Jerusalem, and with him began the siege of Damascus; but failing in this, he returned to France at the end of 1149. He divorced his queen Eleanor in 1153, for her licentious conduct in the East, and the next year married Constance of Castile. Eleanor married, immediately after her divorce, Henry Plantagenet, afterward Henry II. of England, who thus became possessed of Guienne, the Limousin, and Poitou, the three fairest provinces of France.
Louis IX., or St. Louis, (1214-1270,) King of France, succeeded his father Louis VIII., in 1226. Being then only in his 12th year, he was placed under the guardianship of his mother, Blanche of Castile, who was made regent of the kingdom. A severe struggle was going on between the crown and some of the great feudal nobles, in which the latter were assisted by Henry III. of England. In 1243, Louis defeated the English in several engagements, and a truce for five years was concluded. Having made a vow in 1244, in the event of recovering from a dangerous disease, to march against the infidels in the Holy Land, he made preparations for doing so, and, in 1248, embarked at Aigues-Mortes, with an army of 50,000 men, accompanied by his queen, his brothers, and almost all the chivalry of France. He passed the winter in Cyprus, took Damietta in June, 1249, appeared before Mansourah in December, and won a victory over the Saracens there, February 8,1250; but in April his army, worn out with fighting and sickness, was routed, and Louis was taken prisoner by the sultan of Egypt. A greater union of fortitude, punctilious honor, humanity, and personal bravery has seldom been witnessed in the conduct of a prince than was displayed by Louis throughout this expedition. Exorbitant terms were demanded as the price of the monarch's freedom, and a vast ransom was also claimed for his followers. But the sultan, admiring the magnanimity of Louis, struck off a fifth of the sum for his personal ransom. Turan was soon after murdered. The terms being fulfilled, Louis embarked with about 6,000 men, the sole remains of his fine army, for Acre, and spent four years more in Palestine, but did not see Jerusalem. On his return to France, he applied himself to the government of his kingdom with exemplary diligence, good sense, impartiality, and moderation. Notwithstanding the disasters of his crusade, impelled by the strong religious enthusiasm which characterized him through life, he undertook a new one in 1270, the object of which was the conquest of both Egypt and Palestine. Tunis, however, was the first point of attack; but, while engaged at the siege of that place, a pestilence broke out among the French troops; and, after seeing one of his sons and a great part of his army perish, Louis was himself one of its victims, August 24th, 1270. Louis IX. was canonized by Boniface VIII., in 1297, and his Life was written by his friend, the Sire de Joinville.
Louis Sforza. See Sforza.
Loyola, Ignatius, (1491-1556,) founder of the Society of Jesus. It was chiefly to the exertions of the Jesuits that the principles of the Reformers did not universally obtain footing. The founder of this order, Ignatius Loyola, a Spaniard, was a man of warm imagination and strong passions; and his whole soul, endued with these qualities, had abandoned itself in his early years to a vehement zeal for the religion which he professed. After having distinguished himself in war, especially against the infidels, he became the founder of a religious order. In the monastery of Montscrrat, which is scarcely accessible, situated in a wilderness, and elevated above all the mountains of Catalonia, he copied the rules of a spiritual life which had been prescribed by a holy abbot. The original plan of the Order of Jesuits was simple, devout, and innocent; after the death of the author, it was improved first by Lainez, and afterward by Aquaviva, men who were endued with the deepest knowledge of human nature, and immutably steadfast in pursuit of one main object. They deserve, indeed, to be considered as the founders of a society which will bear a comparison with the great institutions of the lawgivers of antiquity: like them, it inspired its members with extraordinary activity, and infused a spirit of obedience so
implicit, that the whole order resembled a healthy body actuated by a vigorous soul.
Lucianus, (Luolan.) a celebrated Greek author, was born at Samosata, during the reign of Trajan. He was of humble origin, and was placed while young with an uncle, to study sculpture, but being unsuccessful in his first attempts, he went to Antioch, and devoted himself to literature and forensic rhetoric. In the reign of Marcus Aurelius he was made procurator of the province of Egypt, and died when 90 years old. The works of Lucian, of which many have come down to us, are mostly in the form of dialogues; but none are so popular as those in which he ridicules the pagan mythology and philosophical sects. Many of them, however, though written in an elegant style, and abounding in wit, are tainted with profanity and indecency.
Luitprand, Bishop of Cremona in the 10th century, is distinguished as a diplomatist and historian. He was sent on two embassies to Constantinople; first, in 946, by Berengarius, then regent of Italy, and again in 965, by the emperor Otto I., to the usurper Phocas. He was also cmployed by Otto, in 9C2, on a mission to Pope John XII., and assisted at the council of Rome at which John was deposed. Luitprand was one of the most learned men of his time, and has left a very amusing narrative of his embassy to the East, besides a history of the emperor Otto the Great, and a history of Italy between 862-964. The works of Luitprand are our chief authority for the period they treat of. Died at Cremona, probably about 970.
Lundy's Lane, Battle of, (1814 A. ri.) The United States of America, feeling themselves aggrieved at the interruption of their commerce occasioned by the famous "orders in council," and still further exasperated at the right of search claimed by England for English seamen on board American vessels, declared war against England, June 18th, 1812; and although the obnoxious orders had been revoked before the proclamation reached England, the States were too much excited to recall their declaration. The consequence was, the American forces advanced for the conquest of Canada. During the war, Scott's brigade was sent to the Falls of Niagara, (July 25th, 1814,) to watch the movements of a division of the enemy. On approaching the Falls, the Americans suddenly found themselves in the